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date: 21 February 2020

(p. 535) Subject Index

(p. 535) Subject Index

Note: Page references followed by “f  ” and “t” denote figures and tables, respectively.

A
Aachen Test for Basic German Sign Language Competence (ATG), 313
Aborigines, 166
Academic achievement, 27–28
additional disability, impact of, 26
definition of, 23
in reading, 25
mathematics performance, 25
and placement, 57–58
racial and ethnic group membership, 24–25
and student characteristics, 23–27
Academic performance, 22
gender and, 24
racial and ethnic group membership, 24–25
Acoustic feedback, 432–33
Activity school, 13
Adolescents
with cochlear implants, 463, 464
competencies needed by, 192
reading abilities, 494
and writing abilities, 134–35
Adult learning, 72
Affect attunement, 208
Affective characteristics, 57–58
African languages, 345
Age–grade correlation, 25, 26
Age of acquisition (AOA) effect, 406
Age of Reason, 9–11
Agricola, Rudolphus, 8
Alexander Graham Bell Association, 72
for the Deaf, 13
Alphabetics and word recognition, 119
Alport syndrome, 419
Alternative curriculum objectives, 36
Alternative school placements, 42, 47–59
academic experiences, differences in, 52–53
achievement and placement, differences in, 51–54
a priori differences in, 51–52
co-enrollment classes, 48, 49–50, 56
educational consequences of, 47–59
effectiveness of, 53–54
ethnicity, 52
gender comparison, 51
general education classes, 48–49
history of, 47–48
inclusion and placement, 50
mainstreaming, 50
post World War II, 48
resource rooms, 48, 54, 57
separate classes, 48, 54, 57
separate schools, 48, 54, 56–57
social characteristics, 56
social experiences, 54
types of, 48–50
American Annals of the Deaf and Dumb, 13
American Association on Mental Retardation, 84
American College of Medical Genetics, 420
American Council on the Teaching of Foreign Languages (ACTFL), 375
American Philosophical Society, 11
American School for the Deaf, 12
American Sign Language (ASL), 20, 41, 67, 69, 149, 169, 207, 215, 229, 324, 343, 351, 490, 502
and academic achievement, 20
aphasic production in, 386
and children, 118, 229–35, 237
classifiers, 233–34, 237, 352
communication, 68
and deaf mentor program, 76
early sentences in, 232
embedding in, 357 [link]
facial expressions in, 207, 234–35, 358 [link]
fluency in, 26
first signs, 231
following World War II, 14
future marker, 329–30
iconicity, 332
lexical development, 231–32
and literacy, 137, 148, 149–50, 151
morphological development, 232–35
as natural language, 351, 362–63
and neutral substrate for sign language, 381–85
phonological development, 230–31
Proficiency Assessment, 309–10
and right hemisphere of brain, 480
and spoken language, 352
structure of, 336, 338, 343
social use of, 150–51
American Sign Language Assessment Instrument (ASLAI), 311–12
spatial mapping and syntax development in, 235
Test Battery for Morphology and Syntax, 309–10
Test of ASL (TASL), 310–11
American Sign Language Communicative Developmental Inventory (ASL-CDI), 311
American Sign Language Proficiency Interview (ASLPI), 312
American Sign Language Sentence Reproduction Test (ASL-SRT), 310–11
American Sign Language Teachers Association (ASLTA), 375
American Sign Language Vocabulary Test (ASLVT), 312
American Society for Deaf Children, 65
American Speech-Hearing and Language Association (ASHA), 65
Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA), 27n1, 215, 376, 436
Amman, Johan Conrad, 9
Amplification, 432
Analytic signs, 332
Annual Report to Congress on the Implementation of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act, 19
Annual Survey of Deaf and Hard-of-Hearing Children and Youth, 20
Antecedents, 344
A1555G mitochondrial mutation, 415
Apes, 326
Aphasia, 381, 385–86
Aristotle, 7, 8, 163
Artificial sign systems (ASS), 39, 338
Artists, 8, 12
Asian Americans, 24
Assessment
criterion-referenced, 309
of curriculum, 42–43
early childhood, 70
interpreting results, 308–9
language, 290–302, 307–9
of multiply disabled, 87–88
practicality, 315–16
(p. 536)
pragmatic, 297–99
process-oriented, 292
reliability, 316
semantic, 299–301
signed language proficiency, 309–17
strategies and instruments, 22
syntactic, 301–2
of target languages, 38
validity, 313–15
of writing, 138–39
Assessor reliability, 316
Assimilating community, 160, 161, 166
Assistive listening devices and systems (ALDS), 435
Attention, 462–63
switching of, 37
Attention deficit disorders, 82, 83
Attention-getting strategies, 205, 269–70
Attitudes, 7, 8, 15, 35
of parents, 76
social, 55
Attitudinal deafness, 162
Audiology, 64
Audiovisual speech stimuli, 407
Auditory brainstem responses (ABR), 440, 441, 442
limitations of, 443–44
Auditory cortex, 285, 388–89
Auditory evoked potentials (AEPs), 440, 442, 443
Auditory speech perception, 250, 253
Auditory steady-state responses (ASSR), 443–44
Auditory technologies, 68–69
Augustine, Saint, 8
Australian Sign Language, 309, 313
Authenticity, 314
Autism, 82
cognitive functioning, 86
and deafness, 85–86
sensory input modulation, 87
speech perception, 88
Automatic gain control (AGC), 432
Automaticity, 104, 107
Automatic speech recognition (ASR), 278, 431
Automatic volume control (AVC), 432
Autosomal dominant inheritance, 414
Autosomal recessive inheritance, 414–15
Avatars, 41. See also Online virtual bodies
B
Babbling, 259–60
Background knowledge, 104
Backward verbs, 355, 355 [link]
Baddeley’s model, 280
Bali, 162, 167, 331
Bantu languages, 339
Barnard, Frederick, 12
Basic interpersonal communication skills (BICS), 145
Beck Depression Inventory, 219
Bede (Venerable Bede), 8
Bedouins, 167
Behavioral observation audiometry (BOA), 441
Behavioral training programs, 193
Behind-the-ear (BTE) speech processor, 433, 434
Bell, Alexander Graham, 13
Bench-Kowal-Bamford Sentence Test (BKB/A), 245 [link]
Bilateral hearing differences, 64
Bilateral hearing loss, 447
Bilingual bicultural programs, 39
Bilingualism, 67
in deaf context, 150–51
goal of, 68
and literacy, 144–51
Bimodal speech perception, 407–8
Bioethics, 420
Bipedalism, 325
Birth-to-three programming
Boys Town National Medical Research Hospital, 75–76
Center for Early Intervention on Deafness, 74–75
characteristics of, 64
for children and families, 69–71
context for, 64–65
family programming, 72
Kendall Demonstration Elementary School Parent Infant Program, 75
paradigm shift in, 66–69
SKI-HI Institute, 76–77
technologies, 67, 68–69
Blacks, 24
Body position, 350, 360
Boehm Test of Basic Concepts-Revised, 293 [link]
Bonet, Juan Pablo, 9
Bonobos, 325
Bottom-up activation, 404
Boys Town National Medical Research Hospital, 75–76
Braidwood Academy, 10, 11, 12
Brain
hemispheric specialization, 283–86
left hemisphere, 381–89
neural systems underlying sign language, 380–93
British Broadcast System, 430
British Deaf Association, 165
British Sign Language (BSL), 168, 312–13, 343
Broca’s area, 381, 382, 384, 386–87
Bulwer, John, 9
C
Canonical babble, 259
Captioning, 429–31
Cardano, Girolamo, 8
Carew, Richard, 164
Carolina Picture Vocabulary Test (CPVT), 300
Center for Early Intervention on Deafness (CEID), 74–75
Cerf, Vinton, 426
Charge syndrome, 90
Cheremes, 339
Child Count, 20
Children. See also Infants; Peer interaction; Toddlers
acculturation of deaf, 191
and American Sign Language, 118, 229–35, 237
assessing hearing in, 441–44
birth-to-three programming for, 64–65
challenges specific to deaf, 189–90
cochlear implants for, 454–60
cognitive skills, 486–97
communication, 261–63
cued speech and language development, 276–87
early intervention, 63–77
language assessment in, 290–302
tests used in, 293–95 [link]
language directed at, 269–70
linguistically and culturally diverse, 296–97
and manually coded English, 235–38
with multiple disabilities, 82–93
phonology of, 246–47
proficiency in natural signed languages, 306–17
reading abilities, 115–18, 123, 125
social-emotional competence, 188–97
specific characteristics as learners, 37
vocabulary, 263–71
word-learning process, 263–64
Chimpanzees, 325–26
Chinese Sign Language (CSL), 344
Christianity, 8, 163
Chromosomal inheritance, 413
Clefts, 346
Clerc, Laurent, 12, 75, 77, 163, 332
Clinical Evaluation of Language Fundamentals (CELF), 242, 244 [link] , 248, 250
Closed captioning, 429, 430
Cloud computing, 427
Cochlea, 419, 442, 444, 453
Cochlear implants (CIs), 69, 88, 452, 433–35, 452–65
age at implantation, 456–57, 458, 461
communication modalities, 458, 459–60
and critical level of hearing for speech perception, 244–45
and education, 460–61
differences in speech and language outcomes, 454–60
duration of profound deafness before implantation, 460
duration of use, 460, 463
(p. 537)
early indicators of progress, 463–65
efficacy studies, 453–54
fitting of, 251
psychological outcomes, 463–65
and speech perception, production, and language, 454, 459
in speech understanding, 505
social outcomes, 463–65
and vocabulary acquisition, 249
Code of Fair Testing Practices in Education, 475
Coding reliability, 316
Co-enrollment classes, 48, 49–50, 184–85
acceptance and affective characteristics, 58–59
interaction experience in, 56
social environments for, 54, 58–59
team teaching, 49–50
Cognitive academic language proficiency (CALP), 145–46, 152
Cognitive interactive model, 101
Cognitive linguistic processing, 243
Cognitive skills. See also Intelligence tests
approaches to studying in deaf, 487–88
and cochlear implants, 461–62
in deaf adults and children, 486–97
development, in young children, 63
information processing, 493–94
intellectual assessment of deaf, 473–82
modes, codes and nodes, 489
visual, 489–90
Cokely’s model, 369
Collaborative approach, 42
Collagen genes, 419
Colonomos model, 368–69
Colorado Home Intervention Program, 291
Columbia Institution for the Deaf and Blind, 12
Commission on Collegiate Interpreter Education (CCIE), 374
Communication. See also Sign language(s); Speech; Spoken language(s)
of children, 261–63
in deaf children, language and, 37
early childhood intervention, 67
and gesture, 326
of hard-of-hearing students, 20–21
of infants, 204–5, 206, 258–61
mobile, 427
mode, instructional settings, 22
for multiply disabled, 88–89
during peer interaction, 178–79
technologies for, 425–37
themes, 179
of toddlers, 261–63
video, 427–28
Communication Access Real-time Translation (CART), 69, 431
Community-based approach, 70
Competence, 188
Compounding, 336, 339
Compound nerve action potential (CAP), 441, 442
Comprehension, 101
cognitive strategies, 123–25
monitoring, 104
prior knowledge, 122
syntax, knowledge of, 122
text structure, knowledge of, 123
topic, knowledge of, 122–23
vocabulary, 123
and word recognition, 121
Comprehensive program models
Center for Early Intervention on Deafness (CEID), 74–75
Kendall Demonstration Elementary School Parent Infant Program, 75
Boys Town National Medical Research Hospital, 75–76
SKI-HI Institute, 76–77
Comprehensive Test of Basic Skills (CTBS), 23
Comprehensive Test of Nonverbal Intelligence (CTONI), 474
Computer-Assisted Notetaking (CAN), 431
Computers, 41, 131, 137, 139
Conceptual solidarity, 163
Concurrent validity, 315, 477
Condillac, Abbé de, 10, 323, 325
Conductive hearing loss, 447, 447 [link]
Conference microphones, 435
Conference of Interpreter Trainers (CIT), 367, 368, 374, 375, 376, 377
Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), 478
Connected discourse, 103, 106
Connecticut Asylum for the Deaf and Dumb, 12
Connexin 26 (GJB2), 418, 421
Consonants, 247, 248 [link] , 277, 400, 401, 402
Constructivist approach, 40
Construct validity, 477
Consultation and collaboration, resource rooms, 48
Contact signing, 39
Content areas, traditional, 40–41
constructivist approaches, 40
Content validity evidence, 477
Contingency, 270–71
Continuous Performance Task (CPT), 462
Conversational method, 90
Conversational partner, 296
Coordinated joint attention, 260
Cornett, Orin, 277
Co-teaching programs, 184–85
Criterion-referenced assessment, 309
Criterion-related validity, 477
Cued Speech (CS), 39, 103, 276–87
autonomic generation of, 278–79
and cochlear implants, 458, 459
classroom-based intervention research studies, 104
hemispheric specialization, 283–86
integration of lipreading and manual information, 279
and phonological abilities, 120
reading and spelling, 282–83
remembering, 279–81
rhyming, 281–82
and speech perception, 278
understanding, 504–5
Culture, 70, 191
school, 50
Curriculum, 14, 32–46
action-writing in, 13
alternative, 36–37, 43
assessment of outcomes, 42–43
avatars, use of, 41–42
for congenitally deafblind children, 90–92
context, 34–35
deaf education, 14, 15, 16
in Deaf studies, 39–40
deafness, perspectives on, 34–35
defining, 32–33
design and implementation of, 35
for early intervention program models, 71
ecologically validity of, 34–35
government mandated standards, 37
hidden, 33, 35–36
individualized programming, 37–38
as intention and reality, 35
language development in, 38–39
mathematics, 40
multimedia applications, 41–42
objectives of, 36
official and real curricula, 36, 40
organization of, 42
PATHS, 193–94
phonics-based, 104
program location, 42
purpose of, 36–38
signed language, 39
in SKI-HI programs, 76
social studies, 41
specialized arrangements, 36–38
traditional content areas, 40–41
van Dijk’s approach, 90–91
virtual reality programs in, 41–42
for writing, 135–36
D
Dalgarno, George, 9, 10
Danish Sign Language (DSL), 313
Dark Ages, 8
Deafblindness, children with, 83
educational programming and, 90–92
sensory deprivation, 91
speech perception, 88
teaching strategies for, 90
Deaf children. See Children
Deaf children of deaf parents (DCDP), 150, 151, 229, 258, 480
Deaf children of hearing parents (DCHP), 150, 151, 229, 258, 480
Deaf children with hearing parents and deaf siblings (DCDS), 480
Deaf community, 159–70
case studies of non-Western, 167–68
concept, 160–62
history of, 163–67
and curriculum, 39
diversity within, 169–70
and education, 164–65
and genetic testing, 421
interpreters, 375–76
in Middle Ages, 163–64
modern, 168–70
resurgence, 165–66
and social-emotional competence, 196–97
social welfare colonization, 165
Deaf consciousness, 168
Deaf culture, 39, 421
Deaf identity. See Identity
Deaf Identity Development Scale, 464
Deaf Mentor Experimental Project, 76
Deaf mentors project, 76
Deafness
attention deficit disorders, 83
and autism, 85–86
vs blindness, 84
categories of, 84
curriculum context, 34–36
as disability, 67
figurative language, 109–10
intellectual disability, and learning disabilities, 84–85
and reading achievement, 99–100
reading and writing ability
and reading difficulties, 100–101
in social context, 34, 35
Deaf President Now movement, 196
Deaf students. See also Academic achievement; Curriculum; Education
and hearing peers
interaction among, 54–56
writng, 133–34
literacy education, bilingual models of, 148–50
in mainstream schools, 42
multimedia applications for, 41–42
official and real curriculum initiatives, 36, 40
and placement efficacy, 53–54
prior knowledge and, 104–5
syntactic structures, 109
teaching mathematics for, 40
vernacular language, instruction medium in, 41
Deaf studies, 39–40
global-interactive approach to, 40
integrated approach of, 39
Demographics, deaf students
additional academic achievements, 27
enrollment percentage, 19
gender, 24–25
integration pattern, 21–22
language and age, special education, 25–27
race and class, 23–24
socioeconomic status (SES), 23–24
student and family characteristics, 20–21
Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), 413
Depression, 217
Derivation, word, 338–39
Desa Kolok, 167
Described and Captioned Media Program (DCMP), 430
Desloges, Pierre, 331–32
Developmentally appropriate practices, 70
Developmental reading instruction, 119
Device compatibility, 436
Diagnostic Early Intervention Program (DEIP), 75
Dialectical Behavioral Therapy (DBT) methods, 221
Dialogic Reading program, 271
Dialogue skills, 205–7
Didascopbolus: or, the Deaf and Dumb Man’s Tutor, 66
Diderot, Denis, 10
Differential item functioning (DIF), 478
Digby, Kenelm, 9
Digital hearing aids, 432
Digital television, 429
Digital wireless telephones, 427
Directional hearing aids, 432
Directionality, 232–33
Directional microphones, 432
Disabilities, 215. See also Multiple disabilities
Distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs), 444, 448
Division for Early Childhood (DEC), 70
Domain markers, 360–61
Down syndrome, 87
Dual-iceberg model, 145
Dystopia canthorum, 417
E
Early Childhood Outcomes (ECO) Center, 66
Early child interventions, 63–81
approaches, 71–73
Boys Town National Medical Research Hospital, 75–76
Colorado Home Intervention Program, 291
historical perspective of, 65–66
interdisciplinary team in, 64
Laurent Clerc National Deaf Education Center, 75
newborn hearing screening, 64
Part C programs, 66
program models in, 71–72
research in, 77
SKI-HI Institute, 76–77
website related, 66
Early hearing detection and intervention (EHDI) process, 65
Early intervention programs, 35
Ecological models of development, 196
Edge markers, 360, 361
Education
academic integration, 21
accommodations, multiple disabilities
assessment, 87–88
communication, access to, 88–89
language, 89–90
alternative school placements, 47–59
and cochlear implants, 460–61, 515
for deaf children with multiple disabilities, 82–96
Deaf community, 164–65
demographics, 22–27
early intervention, 63–77
history for deaf, 7–16
instructional settings, 22–27
of interpreters, 374–77
programming
for congenitally deafblind children, 90–92
other subgroups, 92
and sign language, 343–44
and social-emotional competence, 196
student characteristics, 23–27
and spoken language, 343–44
Educational Interpreter Performance Assessment (EIPA), 374
Education for All Handicapped Children Act (EAHCA), 15, 19, 66
EeeE, 284
Electroacoustic methods, 444
Electrocochleography (ECOG), 441, 442
limitations of, 442–43
Electronic mail, 426
Embedding, 356, 357 [link]
Emergency Alert System (EAS), 429
Emergency television news and alerts, 429
Emergent literacy, 115
Emergent reading, 117
Emergent writing, 116–17
Emotional availability, 208
Emotional bonds, 90
Emotion regulation, 209
Endolymph, 415
ENFI (Electronic Networks for Interaction), 137
English language fluency, 25
Epée, Charles Michel Abbé de l’ 10, 11, 12, 323, 331
Equivalent language age, 243, 244, 245 [link] , 248
Ethical, Legal and Social Implications (ELSI), 420
Ethics, 420
Ethnic composition, instructional settings, 22
academic achievement levels and, 24–25
Ethnicity. See Minority groups
Event-related brain potentials (ERPs), 284, 446
Evoked otoacoustic emissions (EOAEs), 444, 446, 448
Evolution, 325, 326–27, 328, 330
Exploratory factor analysis (EFA), 478
Expressive language, 242
Expressive One-Word Picture Vocabulary Test (EOWPVT), 243, 293 [link] , 300
External ear, 415
Eyeblinks, 361–62
Eyebrow position, 358, 361
Eyegaze, 361, 362
F
Face position, 360–61
Facial expression, 205, 207, 234, 345–46, 356, 358 [link]
Factor analysis, 478
Family
early childhood intervention, 63–77
history, 420
parent-infant interactions, 200–210
and social-emotional competence, 194–95
stress within, 202–3
Family Assessment of Multidisciplinary Interactional Learning, 291, 298
Family-centered service delivery, 69
Fast-mapping, 268
Fax (facsimile), 426
Feedback, 432–33
“Feeling-of-knowing” task, 495
Ferrière, Adolphe, 12
Figurative language, 109–10
Fingerspelling, 120–21
Fluency, 121
reading, 107–8
word recognition and comprehension, 121
Fox and the Stork, The, 352, 353, 356, 358
French Sign Language (LSF), 313, 329, 343
Frequency, 269
Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), 285, 382, 389, 408
G
Gallaudet, Edward Miner, 12
Gallaudet, Thomas Hopkins, 12, 332
Gallaudet University, 12, 15, 51, 75, 137, 166, 196, 215, 222, 271, 294 [link] , 310, 312, 324
Gap, curriculum, 36
Gap junctions, 418
Gay Sign Variation (GSV), 169
Gender, 51, 52
and hearing loss, 53
General education classes, 48–49
affective characteristics, 57–58
classroom communication proficiency, 57
Individual Education Program, 49
loneliness, feeling of, 58
social environments for, 54–56
teacher in, 49
Genetic mapping, 417
Genetics
chromosomal inheritance, 413
clinical implications of testing, 419
of deafness, 412–22
evaluation and counseling in, 419–20
genes with regulatory functions, 418–19
hereditary deafness, 417–18
heredity, basic principles of, 412–13
Mendelian inheritance, 414–15
mitochondrial inheritance, 415
nonsyndromic forms of deafness, 418–19
psychological and ethical issues related to testing, 420–22
screening, 439
German oralist movement, 12, 13
German Sign Language (DGS), 313, 361
Gestures, 262–63
of children and toddlers, 259, 260–61
of infants, 232
interface with sign language, 329–30
and origin of grammar, 327–31
scientific evidence for origins of, 325–27
speech as, 328–29
speech production, 400
GJB2 (gap junction beta 2) gene, 418
Global-Interactive Approach to Deaf Studies, 40
Goodness-of fit, 200, 202, 203, 209
Goodricke, John, 10
Grammar
assessment of, 138
changing categories of, 338–39
correctness, 138
errors in, 136
gesture and origin of, 327–31
in manually coded English, 236–37
sign language, 89
universal, 350
in writing process, 131
Grammatical Analysis of Elicited Language Simple Sentence Level (GAEL), 293 [link]
Grammaticization, 330
Graser, John Baptist, 12
Graybill, Patrick, 352
Green, Francis, 11, 12
Group-administered tests, 23
Group psychotherapy, 220, 221
H
Handicapped Children’s Early Education Program (HCEEP), 66
Handshapes, 230, 233–34, 277, 340, 341, 342, 343–44, 387
Hard-of-hearing students, 19–20. See also Deafness
achievement characteristics of, 22–24
age–grade correlation, 26
alternative curriculum objectives for, 36
and communication, 20–21
communication mode for, 22
curriculum for, 32–46
vs deaf students, 37
demographics of, 20–27
educational placement, 22
family attributes, 21
figurative language, 109–10
household income levels for, 21, 24
instructional settings for, 21
integrated approach for, 39–40
integration pattern, 21–22
in K-12 educational settings, 18
limited English proficiency (LEP) of, 25
in mainstream schools, 36–37
mild hearing loss, 20
out-of-level testing, 26–27
prior knowledge and, 104–5
reading comprehension achievement of, 25–26
reading difficulties in, 100–101
scholastic accomplishments of, 23
severe-to-profound hearing loss, 21
special education services for, 19, 20
syntactic structures, 109
testing methods, 23
Hausa tribe, 167
Head position, 360–61, 362
Headshake, 356–59
Hearing, 242
mechanisms of, 415–16
technologies, 431–36
Hearing aids, 243, 244, 245, 253, 254, 408, 431–33, 435
Hearing impairment, 19
Hearing loss
attenuation and distortion components, 245
auditorily identifying words, 405–6
conductive, 447, 447 [link]
and developmental delay, 84
and educational placement, 58
and gender, 53
in infants, 439–49
across instructional settings, 21–22
major cause for, 87
measure of, 20–21
screening, 448–49
and speech perception, 400
and spoken language, 264, 265–66, 267
in young children, 71, 72
Hemiparesis, 386
Herodotus, 7, 163
Hidden curriculum, 33, 35–36
High-speed typing, 431
Hill, Frederick Moritz, 12
Hiskey-Nebraska Test of Learning Aptitude (H-NTLA), 477
Hispanics, 20, 22, 169
Holder, William, 9
Holistic programs, 71–72
Home signs, 331
Homo erectus, 325–26
Homo sapiens, 325
House, William, 453
Howe, Samuel Gridley, 12
Human Genome Project, 413
Human lineage, 325
Hutton, J, Scott, 13
I
Iconicity, 332, 333, 339, 340
Identity, 191, 192, 216
Ideophones, 339
Illiteracy, 8
Implantable hearing aids, 433
Incidental learning, 190
Inclusion programs, 14, 49, 49–50
Indians. See Native Americans
Individualized Education Programs (IEPs), 38, 290
Individualized Family Service Plan (IFSP), 70
Individualized programming, 37–38
Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA), 15, 19, 38, 65
Part C system of, 65
goals of, 73
Infants
assessing hearing in, 441–44
attention-getting strategies, 205
babbling, 259–60
communication, 204–5, 206
development of hearing in, 439–41
emergence of dialogue skills, 205–7
evaluation of speech perception, 444–46
forming attachments, 207–8
gestures and pointing, 232
joint hearing, 260
lexical development, 231–32
newborn hearing screening, 446–49
parent- interactions, 200–210
self-recognition, 208
self-regulation and emotional expressiveness, 208–9
social-emotional needs, 207–8
temperament, 203–4
Infant-Toddler Meaningful Auditory Integration Scale (ITMAIS), 456
Inference, 111, 124
Inflection, 337–39
Informed choice, 71
Inheritance. See Genetics
Inner ear, 415, 416 [link]
Inner speech, 146
Input, forms and structure of, 270
Instructional settings, deaf students, 19, 21–22
racial and ethnic composition in, 22
Instrumental classifier, 339
Integrated community, 161
Intellectual disability, 82
etiology of, 86
and deafness, training needs, 89
vs learning disabilities, 84–85
Intelligence tests
adaptations, 475–76
differential item functioning, 478
diversity issues, 480–81
legal mandates and professional recommendations, 475
nonverbal, 474–75
norm-referenced scores, 476
potential misuse of, 481
reliability, 476–77
validity, 477–80
verbal, 475
Intelligent computer-aided instruction (ICAI), 41
Intelligibility, 245–46, 403, 404
Interactive storybook reading, 117–18
Interactive video communications, 427–28
Interagency Coordinating Council (ICC), 65
Interdisciplinary programming, 70
Internal speech ratio (ISR), 280
Internet, 69, 426, 428, 429, 430, 436
Internet video, 429, 430
Interpreters, 367–78
community-based, 376
defining role of, 370–72
defining task of, 367–70
diagnostic tool for, 369–70
evaluating skills of, 373–74
evaluating teaching of, 374–77
integrated model, 368–69
process model, 369
quality control, 373–77
sign language, 42
Intuitive parenting, 205
Israeli Bedouin, 167
Israeli Sign Language (ISL), 355
Italian Sign Language (LIS), 313
Itard, Marc, 332
Item validity, 314–15
Itinerant teachers, 49
J
Japanese Sign Language (JSL), 207
Jerome, Saint, 8
Jervell and Lange-Nielsen (JLN) syndrome, 417–18
Jewish Deaf community, 169
John Tracy Clinic, 66
Joint attention, 260
symbol-infused, 261
Joint Committee on Infant Hearing (JCIH), 64
Jordan, King, 487
K
K-12 educational settings, 18, 19
awarding credentials, 23
Kallman, Franz, 215
KCNE1 gene, 417
Keller, Helen, 90
Kendall, Amos, 12, 324, 325
Kendall Conversational Proficiency Scale (KCPS), 293 [link] , 299
Kendall Demonstration Elementary School Parent Infant Program, 75
Kendall Toy Test, 446
Knowledge
strategic utilization of, 493–94
-transforming model, 131
KVLQT1 gene, 417
L
Ladd’s model, 168
Language, 242, 457–58
acquisition
first language, mastery in, 146 [link]
and literacy learning, 116
multiple disabilities, educational programming for, 89–90
second language, 147–48
assessment, 290–302, 307–9
bilingualism, 144–51
child-directed, 269–70
comprehension, 307, 308
content, form, and use, 299
as curriculum area, 38–39
development in children and cued speech, 276–87
differences and difficulties, assessment, 43
expressing meaning, 258–72
as instinct hypothesis, 332
learning environment, 269
left hemisphere organization of, 385–89
modality and structure of, 350–64
neural systems for, 384
origins of, 324–27
proficiency, 23–24, 25, 297–302, 313–14
right hemisphere role in processes, 389–93
samples, 296
simultaneity in, 351–52
and writing, 132–33
Language development, objectives of, 38–39
factors influencing, 38
signed language, 38
Language Learning through Avatar Signing Application (LALASA), 41
Language proficiency interviews (LPIs), 308, 312, 314
Language Proficiency Profile (LPP), 293 [link] , 299
Language quotient (LQ), 243
Langue de Signes Française (LSF), 343
Laurent Clerc National Deaf Education Center, 75
Layering, 352–60
design features, 361–62
lower face options, 360
manual, 352–56
mechanisms for, 356–60
nonmanual, 356
scope versus edge marking, 360–61
upper face and head options, 360–61
Learning disabilities, 83, 84–85, 87
Leclerc, Georges Louis, 10
Left hand, 386
Left hemisphere, 381–89
Left visual hemifield (LVF), 284
Leiter International Performance Scale-Revised (LIPS-R), 474
Lexical development, 231–32, 236, 267–68
Lexical knowledge, 406–7
Lexical modeling, 405
Lexical processing, 389–90
Lexicon, content of, 267–68
Limited English proficiency (LEP), 25
Limited hearing, 64
Linguistic abilities, 38
Linguistically and culturally diverse (LCD) children, 296
Linguistic communication, 179
Linguistic interaction, 25
Linguistic interdependence model, 146
Linguistic overprotection, 190–91
Lipreading, 276–77, 279, 402–3, 404, 405, 407–8, 409n1
Listening in Progress (LIP), 456
Literacy
bilingualism and, 144–51
development, 132–33, 137
emergent, 115
and language acquisition, 116
second language, 147–48
in signed or a spoken language, 146
Literacy expectations, 131
Location, representation of, 234
Locke, John, 10, 283
Loudness control, 432
M
MacArthur Communicative Development Inventories (CDI), 243, 263, 264, 292, 294 [link] , 297, 300, 311
Magnetic induction, 435
Mainstream educational placement, 37, 42
Mainstreaming, 50
Mainstream schools, 21, 36–37
deaf students in, 39
teachers of, 42
Mann, Horace, 12
Manual babbling, 230
Manually coded English (MCE), 229
ASL-like innovations by children, 237
development of, 235–37
grammatical development, 236–37
lexical development, 236
morphology and functional elements in, 237
Manually coded systems. See Sign language(s)
Marginal babbling, 259
Martha’s Vineyard, 11, 166–67
Massachusetts, 11
Masters in Interpreting Pedagogy (MIP), 375
Mathematics, 40
Meadow/Kendall Social-Emotional Assessment Inventory (MKSEAI), 56, 189, 193
Meaningful Auditory Integration Scale (MAIS), 446
Medical history, 220, 420
Mendelian inheritance, 414
Mental health, 214–23
litigation for services, 223
medications, 220
program development and administration, 221–22
psychological evaluations, 218–20
psychopathology, 216–18
psychotherapy, 220–21
training in, 222
treatment approaches, 220–21
Mental lexicon, 493
Mental retardation, 84, 473
Metacognition, 494–95
reading, 105–6
comprehension monitoring, 105
prior knowledge and, 106
Metropolitan Achievement Test (MAT), 23
Microphone, 435–36
Middle Ages, 163–64
Middle ear, 415, 416 [link] , 433
Milan Conference, 165
Minnesota Chemical Dependency Program for Deaf and Hard of Hearing Individuals, 221
Minority groups, 24, 52, 67, 191
Miscues, 369
Mishnah, 8, 163
Mitochondrial inheritance, 415
Mobile communications, 427
Mobile text communications, 427
Mobile voice telephones, 427
Morphology, 232–33, 235, 237, 247–49, 309, 315, 336–38
“Motherese,” 206, 270
Mouth patterns, 361
Movement-based approach, 90
Movie theaters, 430
Multichannel devices, 453
Multimedia applications, 41
Multiple disabilities
categories of, 83
communication tools, 88–89
deafblindness, 83–84
deafness and autism, 85–86
deafness, intellectual and learning disabilities, 84–85
definition and etiology of, 82–83
diagnosis of, 85–86
educational accommodations, 82–96
language acquisition, 89–90
prevalence of, 86–87
Mutations, 413, 414, 418, 418, 419
Mutual regulation model (MRM), 204
MYO7A gene, 419
Myosins, 419
N
National Association for the Education of Young Children (NAEYC), 65
National Association of State Mental Health Program Directors (NASMHPD), 222
National Association of the Deaf (NAD), 13, 65, 329, 373, 430, 452, 453
National Coalition on Mental Health and Deaf Individuals (NCMHDI), 222
National Consortium of Interpreter Education Centers (NCIEC), 374, 378n7
National Consortium of Interpreter Education Centers, 375
National Deaf Studies Working Group, 39
National Interpreter Certificate (NIC), 373
National Interpreter Education Standards, 374
National Longitudinal Transition Study of Special Education Students (NLTS), 18, 19
National Technical Institute for the Deaf (NTID), 15, 138, 162
Native Americans, 24, 164, 166, 169, 170
Natural language processing (NLP), 41
Natural sign systems (NSS), 39, 148, 149, 306–17, 331, 332, 515
Navarette, Juan Fernándes de, 8–9
Negative headshake, 356–59
Neighborhood activation model (NAM), 405
Neural systems, 380–93
Neuroscience, 501–2, 505
Newborn hearing screening, 64, 65, 202, 291, 420, 439, 446–49
Nicaraguan Sign Language (NSL), 332–33
Nigeria, 167–68
NihonSyuwa (NS), 338, 343, 344, 345, 346
Noise reduction, 432
Nonlinguistic communication, 179
Nonmanual behavior (NMB), 234, 338, 345–46
Nonnative English learners, writing process in, 133–34
Nonverbal intelligence tests, 474–75
Norm-referenced scores, 476
Noun, 338, 339
Novel mapping, 268
Novel word learning, 268
NU-Chips test, 446
O
Observations of a Deaf-Mute (Desloges), 331
Observer-based psychophysical procedure (OPP), 441
Office of Special Education Programs (OSEP), 66
167delT mutation, 418
Online virtual bodies, 41
Opportunities, 67–68
community-based programming, 70
family-centered programming, 69
family-centered service delivery, 69
federal legislation and guidelines, 69–70
Oppositional community, 161
Oralism, 13, 165–66
Ordinary signs, 346
Organ of Corti, 418
Origin of Species (Darwin), 324
Orthography, 110, 117, 282, 283
Osteogenesis imperfecta, 419
Ottoman Empire, 160
Outer hair cells (OHCs), 444
Out-of-level testing, 26
P
Pan, 325
Parental education, 24
Parental role, 12, 15, 190
Parent-infant interactions, 200–210
contextual factors, 201–2
interactional reciprocity, 204–5
role of temperament, 203–4
self-regulation and emotional expressiveness, 208–9
stress within family system, 202–3
Parent-Infant Program (PIP), 75
Parent-initiated educational program, 66
Passage-specific prior knowledge, 104
Paternity, 162
Patrimony, 163
Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT), 23, 243, 249, 250 [link] , 265, 299, 300, 407
Pediatric audiologist, 64
Peer interactions, 173–86
communication during, 178–79
of deaf and hard-of-hearing children, 173–86
frequency and duration of, 174–77
in integrated educational settings, 182–84
intervention programs to increase, 180–86
quality of, 177–78
in segregated educational settings, 181–82
Pendred syndrome, 417
Pereire, Jacobo, 9
Performance IQs (PIQs), 474, 477, 478, 480, 481, 482
Perinatal onset, 83
Perisylvian areas, 380, 381 [link] , 386
Phonemes, 102, 103–4, 247, 277, 282, 283, 339–42, 405, 409n4
Phonics, 107
Phonological coding, 103–4, 119–20, 492
Phonological development, 230–31
Phonological loop, 279
Phonological phrase, 342
Phonological skills, teaching, 199
Phonological units, 343
Phonology, 102, 339
Phonotactic constraints, 342–43
Pidgin Sign English, 39
Pintner, Rudolf, 215, 473, 474
Placement patterns, deaf students, 21
Planum temporale (PT), 388, 502
Plasticity, 204
Plato, 9, 163, 323
Pliny the Elder, 7–8
Plurals, 338
Pointing, 232
Point of view (POV), 362
Ponce de Leon, Pedro, 9
Positron emission tomography (PET), 381
Posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS), 286
Postnatal onset multiple disabilities, 83
Postsecondary programs, 17
Practicality, 315–16
Pragmatic assessment, 297–99
Predictive validity, 315, 477
Prenatal onset multiple disabilities, 83
Preschool children, vocabulary development of, 264–65
Preschool Language Assessment Instrument, 294 [link]
Preschool Language Scale, 248, 292, 294 [link]
Preschool programs, curriculum in, 35
Primary education, 18–24
Primitive signs, 332
Prior knowledge
in comprehension, 122
in reading process, 104–5
Problem solving, 493–94
Procedural reliability, 315
Professionals, 70
assessment-based programming, 70–71
Center for Early Intervention on Deafness (CEID), 74–75
curriculum, 71
developmentally appropriate practices, 70
holistic and comprehensive programs, 71–72
interdisciplinary programming, 70
Kendall Demonstration Elementary
language and communication, 71
qualification and training needs of, 72
service delivery models, 72–73
transition planning, 73
Pronouns, 232
Psychological evaluations, 218–20
Psychometric properties, testing, 23
Psychopathology, 216–18
Psychotherapy, 220–21
Pygmy chimpanzees, 325
Q
Qualitative similarity hypothesis (QSH), 99, 100
reading rate and comprehension, 108
text-based and reader-based factors, 110
Quality assurance screenings, 373
Quality of life, 463
R
Race, 22, 24–25, 169
Radio, 430
Reading
achievement and age, 26
achievement and deafness, 99–100
of children, 115–19, 120, 121, 123
cognitive strategies, 123–25
comprehension, 122, 123, 460, 461
and cued speech, 282–83
DCDP vs DCHP, 150
deaf students’ skill, 14
difficulties in, 100
emergent literacy, 115
emergent reading, 117
emergent writing, 116–17
figurative language, 109–10
fluency, 107–8
instructional models, 125
interactive storybook reading, 117–18
language acquisition
metacognition, 105–6
in minimal sensorineural hearing loss, 26
overview of, 100–101
phonics, 107
phonological skills, teaching, 199
and prior knowledge, 104–5
reader-based factors, 101–6
syntax, 109
text factors, 106–10
text structure, knowledge of, 123
topic, knowledge of, 122–23
vocabulary, type of, 108–9
word identification, text factors, 106
working memory and phonological coding, 101–4
Reading Milestones, 122
Real-time captioning (RTC), 431
Rear Window Captioning, 430
Receptive language, 242
Receptive One-Word Picture Vocabulary Test, 294 [link]
Recruitment, 432
Reduction of Letters and the Art of Teaching the Mute to Speak, The, 9
Reflected signs, 332
Registry of Interpreters for the Deaf (RID), 373
Regular education settings, 21
Relational information, 494
Reliability, 315, 476–77
Renaissance era, 8–9
Residential schools, 48
bilingual models in, 51
Resource rooms, 21, 22, 27, 48, 54, 57
Responsiveness, 270–71
Results, interpretation of, 315
Reynell Developmental Language Scales, 248
Rhetorical questions, 346
Rhode Island Test of Language Structure, 292, 295 [link] , 302, 312
Rhyming, 281–82
Right hand, 382
Right hemisphere, 382–83, 389–93, 502
Right visual hemifield (RVF), 284, 285
Risk factor screening, 446
Ritualization, 330
Roman Catholic Deaf community, 169
Rousseau, Jean-Jacques, 10
Royal National Institute for the Deaf, 41
Royal Society, 10
S
Schemata, 104
School Parent Infant Program, 75
Boys Town National Medical Research Hospital, 75–76
SKI-HI Institute, 76–77
Schools. See Education
Science, 40
Science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) interactive program, 41
Science and Math in an Immersive Learning Environment (SMILE), 41
Scientific societies, 8–9
Scituate, 11
Screening, 447–48
Secondary education, 18–24
Segmental intelligibility, 403
Self-contained classrooms, 21–22
racial composition in, 22
Self-esteem, 58, 68
Self-recognition, 208
Semantic assessment, 299–301
Semantic memory, 493
Semantic phonology, 327–28
Sensitivity, 270–71
Sensorineural hearing loss, 417, 449
Sensory deprivation, 91
Sensory input, 87, 91
Sentential complements, 346–47
Separate classes, 54, 57
vs. resource rooms, 48
Separate schools, 54, 56
interaction experience in, 56–57
sign communication, 48
social environments for, 54, 56–57
Sequencing, 341–42
Sequentiality, 351–52
Short message service (SMS), 427
Sicard, Abbé Roch Ambroise, 10
Sight word recognition, 119
Sign bilingual program, 39
Sign Communication Proficiency Interview (SCPI), 312
Signed English (SE), 351, 362–63
Signed Language Development Checklist (SLDC), 310
Signed Paired Associates Test (SPAT), 219
Sign features, 340–43
Signing communities, 166–68
Signing space, 390–91
Sign language(s), 26
in Deaf community, 159–70, 343, 344
and deafness awareness instruction, 184
development of manually coded English, 229
early childhood intervention, 67–68, 72, 73, 74
in education, 49, 53
functional neuroanatomy of
comprehension, 388–89
production, 386–88
interface with gesture, 329–31
layering in, 352–60
literacy in, 146
for multiply disabled, 88–89
natural, 39, 67, 148, 306–17
neural systems underlying, 380–93
origins of, 323–33
emergent, 332–33
modern, 331–32
and peer interaction, 184
proficiency assessments, 306–17
vs. signed systems, 350–64
simultaneity in, 352–60
structures, 336–47
use of, 39
Sign Language of the Netherlands (SLN), 361
Signs, analyzing forms of, 339–40
Sign systems. See Artificial sign systems
Simultaneous communication programs, 39
Single community, 161
Single-gesture utterances, 262
SKI-HI Institute, 76–77
SKI-HI Language Development Scale, 295 [link]
Social acceptance, 56
Social attachment, 207
Social context, 33
Social Darwinism, 165
Social-emotional competence, 188–97
culture and identity, 191
and Deaf community, 196–97
developmental framework, 191–92
family and ecological influences on, 194–95
family services, 195
new influences on, 197
programs to address, 192
promoting integrated, 193–94
and school personnel and settings, 195–96
Social interaction, 41
Social play, 175, 183
Social skills, 17, 56, 57, 73
Social studies, 41
Social support, 55
Social welfare, 165
Socioeconomic status (SES), 23–24, 161
Socrates, 7, 163, 323
Sound, 280, 324, 415, 432, 440
Spatial cognitive ability, 384–85
Spatial mapping, 235
Spatial relationships, 234, 390–91
Spatial separation, 361
Special classes, 13, 14, 36, 42, 56, 58
Special Education Elementary Longitudinal Study (SEELS), 18, 20, 22, 23
Specialist’s role, early childhood intervention, 67
Special needs, children with, 82
educational programming for, 82–96
Special schools, 14, 21–22, 27, 36, 39, 42
Speech, 243, 324, 326. See also Spoken language(s)
Broca’s area, 381, 382
and cochlear implants, 454–57
cued speech, 276–87
as gesture, 328–29
identifying words with reduced information, 404–5
in multiply disabled, 82, 83, 92
phonological coding, 103, 106, 119–20, 492
processor, 433–34
production, 242–43, 246, 386, 400, 455, 456–57
sequentiality in, 351–52
and working memory, 491–93
Speech perception, 242, 400–402, 455–56
auditory-only, 400–402
behavioral test of, 445–46
bimodal, 407–8
cerebral function for, 283
with cochlear implants, 454, 459
critical level of hearing for, 244–45
definition of, 244
electrophysiologic test for, 446
evaluation of, 444–46
lipreading, 276–77, 279, 402–3, 404, 405, 407–8
Speech production, 36, 242, 243, 456–57
Speechreading, 242, 269, 281, 409n1, 505
Spelling, 282–83. See also Fingerspelling
Spoken communication, 40
Spoken language(s), 241–54
accelerating development of, 250–51
and cochlear implants, 453–55
comprehension of, 278
critical and sensitive periods of, 251–53
descriptions and definitions of, 242–43
discourse processes, 391–92
and education, 343–44
and gesture, 328–29
hearing, age and device use, 250
intelligibility, 245–46
measures of, 243
morphology and syntax, 247–49
phonology, 246–47
rate of development, 243–44
sequentiality in, 352
and sign language, 343–44
vocabulary, 249–50
Spoken word recognition, 403–6
Standardized testing, 16, 19, 23–24, 25, 27, 292
Standards for Educational and Psychological Testing, 475
Stanford, John, 11
Stanford Achievement Test (SAT), 23, 27, 151
Stanford Achievement Test-Hearing Impaired Edition (SAT-HI), 477–78
Stickler syndrome, 419
Stokoe, William, 14
Stored video media, 429–30
Storybook reading, 271
Stress, 202–3
Subject-verb-object word order (SVO), 232, 344
Subtitles for the deaf and hearing impaired (SDH), 429
Sunshine Preschool, 74
Suppressing community, 160, 161
Supra-marginal gyrus (SMG), 381, 387
Swedish Sign Language, 354, 358, 361, 364
Swiss German Sign Language, 361, 362
Syllable structure, 341–42
Symbolic structures, 327
Synchronized Multimedia Integration Language (SMIL), 430
Syntactic assessment, 301–2
Syntax, 109, 343–44
of American Sign Language, 232, 234, 235
assessment, 301–2
of classifiers, 234
formal tests of development, 301–2
knowledge of, 122
and origins of grammar, 327
and reading, 109
in sign language, 343–44
of spoken language, 247–49
T
Talmud, 8
Tapping, 205, 206
Teachers
in general education classes, 49–50
itinerant, 49
mathematics, 52
in public school classroom, 53
regular classroom, 55
resource room, 48
Teaching
behaviors, 53
logical thinking, 9
mathematics, 40
phonological skills, 119
speech and language, 11
Team teaching, 50
Technology. See also individual entries
advances in, 68–69
communication, 425–37
for screening, 448–49
writing process, 136
TECTA gene, 419
Telecommunications relay service (TRS), 376, 428–29
Telehealth, 222
Telephone, 425–26, 427
Teletypewriter (TTY), 132, 136, 425–26
Television, 429
Television Decoder Circuitry Act, 429
Temperament, 203–4
Tense, 338
Test for Auditory Comprehension of Language, 295 [link]
Test of Adolescent and Adult Language, 3rd Edition (TOAL3), 310
Test of American Sign Language (TASL), 310–11, 311
Test of English as a Foreign Language, or TOEFL), 138
Test of Language Development, 295 [link]
Test of Syntactic Abilities, 302
Test scores, 23
superior speech intelligibility, students with, 25
out-of-level testing, 26–27
Texting, 427
Text structure, 123
Text telephones, 425–26
Theory of mind (ToM), 495–96
35delG mutation, 418
Toddlers
communication, 258–61
evaluation of speech perception, 445–46
joint attention, 260, 261
vocabulary, 263
Tolerance for ambiguity, 189
Topicalization, 345
Topic-specific prior knowledge, 104
Touch, 90, 91
Transactional writing, 132
Transcription factors, 418
Transient-evoked otoacoustic emissions (TEOAEs), 444, 445 [link] , 448
Translation. See Interpreters
Transmission Control Protocol and Internet Protocol (TCP/IP), 426
TRIPOD program, 49
Two-gesture utterances, 262
Tyler, curriculum development, 33, 36, 42
U
Universal newborn hearing screening (UNHS). See Newborn hearing screening
Universal Nonverbal Intelligence Test (UNIT), 474
U.S. Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA), 426
U.S. Federal Communications Commission (FCC), 427
Usher syndrome, 83, 417
V
Validity, 313–15, 477–80
concurrent, 315, 477
construct, 477
content evidence of, 477
criterion-related, 477
within-test evidence of, 478–79
Van Helmont, Francis Mercurius, 9
Variable expression, 414
Verbal IQ (VIQ), 475
Vibrotactile cues, 408
Video communications, 426
Videoconference, 222
Video relay service (VRS), 376
Virtual Reality Education for Assisted Learning (VREAL), 41
Virtual Reality Modelling Language (VRML), 41
Virtual reality programs, 41
Visemes, 402
Visual accessibility, 269
Visual attention, 269, 462, 463, 489
Visual communication technologies, 425–31
Visual imagery, 489–90
Visual impairment, 82
children with congenital, 83
Visual information, 37
and acoustic conditions, 38
Visually reinforced infant speech discrimination (VRISD), 445
Visual phonics, 103, 104
and deaf readers, 120
Visual reinforcement audiometry (VRA), 441
Visual speech understanding, 504
Visual-tactile speech understanding, 504
Visual technologies, 68–69
Vocabulary
and age of intervention, 236
Carolina Picture Test, 293 [link]
of children, 266–67
development, 263–71
formal tests of, 300
knowledge and reading, 108, 123
limitation, 37
Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT), 23, 243, 249, 250 [link] , 265, 299, 300, 407
reading comprehension, 123
and sign language, 343
type of, 108–9
Vocalization, 178, 208, 259–60, 324, 326
Vocational Rehabilitation Act of 1973, 28n1
Voice carry-over (VCO), 428
Volta, Alessandro, 452
Vowels, 400, 401, 402, 403
W
Waardenburg syndrome (WS), 417
Wallis, John, 9
Web 2.0, 426
Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Third Edition (WISC-III), 474
Wechsler Memory Scale (WMS), 219
Weitbrecht, Robert, 425
Wernicke’s area, 381
Western Maryland College, 375
Whole language model, 149
Wide Range Achievement Test-Revised (WRAT-R), 478
Wireless telephone, 427
Wireless video, 430
Within-group differences, 202
Woodcock-Johnson III (WJ3) test, 23, 27
Word formation. See Morphology
Word identification, 106
Word-learning process, 263–64, 268
Word order, 232, 236, 343, 344
Word recognition, 119, 120, 121, 403–6
Working memory, 102, 491–93, 500–507
abstract processes, 506–7
and cognitive functioning, 500–506
cross-language aspects of, 501–3
cross-modal speech understanding, 503–6
and cued speech, 277–78
and reading, 101–4
World knowledge, 104
World Wide Web426
Writing process
adolescent and adult writers, 134–35
assessment of, 138–39
beginning writer, 134
characteristics of deaf students, 133–35
expectations of literate citizen, 131
functions for deaf students, 132
instructions for, 135
languages and modalities and, 137
models of, 131–32
and sign language, 343–44
and socialization, 132
strategies for, 135–37
X
X-linked recessive inheritance, 415
Y
Yucatan Maya, 167
Z
Zellweger syndrome, 83