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date: 07 March 2021

Abstract and Keywords

Research and legislative and policy initiatives have greatly facilitated the provision of services for infants and toddlers who are deaf or hard of hearing and their families. The expansion of newborn hearing screening programs has resulted in more children enrolled in birth-to-three programs at earlier ages. Results from an increasing number of studies that focus on young children who are deaf or hard of hearing and their families have contributed to an expanding knowledge base regarding the significance of specific family-involvement variables, the acquisition of language and communication skills, collaboration and partnerships, and program characteristics that impact child and family outcomes. Advances in early identification of hearing loss and improved auditory and visual technologies are challenging the field to provide high quality professionals able to implement comprehensive and effective programs. Expectations for young deaf or hard-of-hearing children and their families have never been higher. Yet challenges remain to ensure that all children achieve linguistic and developmental milestones equal to those of their hearing peers.

Keywords: deaf, hard-of-hearing, hearing loss, birth to three, early intervention, young deaf and hard-of-hearing children, families with deaf children, early intervention programs, early intervention professionals

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