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date: 12 December 2019

(p. 373) Index

(p. 373) Index

A
Abecassis, A., 116
Aboriginal redress movement (Australia), 316, 318, 318–319, 322
action asymmetries (in intergroup dialogue), 213, 221–222
action identification theory, 23
Adams, G., 186, 187
Adorno, T. W., 33, 112
Adwan, S., 44
affect, and the interpretation of emotion, 162–164
affective asymmetries (in intergroup dialogue), 211–212
student experiences, 219–220
affirmation interventions (for reducing intergroup conflict and prejudice), 181, 186
Afghanistan wars, 40, 53, 64, 113, 198
Afrikaners (in South Africa), propagation of black inferiority, 34
Agenda for Peace (of Boutros-Ghali), 236, 262
agenda setting, for interactive problem solving, 235
Ajdukovic, D., 201
Alexander, James F., 332
Alford, J. R., 67
alliance building (in intergroup dialogue), 214–215
Allport, G. W., 37, 170, 194, 195, 258, 297, 367. See also contact hypothesis (Allport)
Alternative Dispute Resolution (ADR), 291
American Psychologist (1951), 363
American Thanksgiving/ingroup glorification and historical memories, 128
Amery, Jean, 304
analytical asymmetries (in intergroup dialogue), 212–213
student experiences, 220–221
Andrighetto, L., 130
anger, group-based, 6, 90–92
“fight” aspect of “fight or flight,” 92
hate/hatred compared with, 94
ideological background of, 61
moderation through group identification, 91–92
outgroup-directed anger, 89, 91
role in non-violent conflicts, 91
anti-Semitism, 46
anti-war activism, 261
apartheid. See under South Africa
Apfelbaun, E. P., 165
apology and reparation, 8, 309–325. See also intergroup reconciliation
apology-forgiveness cycle, 263, 296, 301, 303
components of, 309–310
content of apologies
intergroup only setting, 317
interpersonal/intergroup contexts, 316–317
debates in the aftermath of
forgiveness/reconciliation by victim groups, 321–322
perpetrator group responses, 322–323
renewing group identities, importance of, 323
victim group attitudes towards apology, reparations, 319–321
debates leading to offer of
feasibility of providing restitution, 315
illegitimate harm, acknowledgment of, 313–314
perpetrator group responsibility, acknowledgment of, 314–315
engineering of, 324
facilitation of the path to, 323–324
future research directions, 324–325
by governments, for injustices, 129–131, 312
examples of, 129
hesitance in making apologies, 129
limitations of public apologies, 301–302
limitations on research on effectiveness of, 130
reasons behind making apologies, 129
Schumann/Ross analysis of, 129–130
time course of, 129
types of beneficial apologies, 130
moving beyond, 324
reparations
Aboriginal redress movement, 316, 318–319, 322
Canada/U.S. examples, 318
forms of, 317–318
repatriation of cultural artifacts, 319
third parties, 312–313
victim and perpetrators groups
group interests, 310–311
intra-group processes, 311
societal influences, 311–312
values and beliefs, 311
appearances, deceptive nature of, 13
appreciating differences technique (in intergroup dialogue), 214
Arab Spring (2010-2011), 82
Arai, T., 246
Arendt, Hannah, 303
ARIA processes, 246
Armenian genocide/massacres, 80, 125, 126, 148, 273, 275
Aron, A., 196
Asbrock, F., 198
Assmar, E.M.L., 65
attitudes (defined), 54
attractors (in intractable conflict)
basin of attraction (defined), 16, 20
building latent attractors, 23–24
defined, 16, 20
disassembly of, 23
functions in conflicts, 18–19
identification of, for intractable conflict, 19
latent attractors, 13, 17, 20, 22
movement between, 17
properties of, 16–17
(p. 374) and social reality levels, 19
strong attractors, 16–18, 20, 25
Australia, Aboriginal redress movement, 129, 316, 318–319, 322
authoritarian personality, 33
autonomy (individual) vs. conformity (individual), 55
Azar, E. E., 230, 244
B
Babbitt, E., 240, 241–242, 246
Backhouse, C., 126
Banks, M., 235
Bar-On, D., 44
Bar-Tal, D., 5, 36, 37, 38, 44, 92, 148, 256, 259, 339
Bar-Tal, Y., 44
Barth, William, 365
Basabe, N., 64
basin of attraction (defined), 16, 20
Basque Country, politically-motivated violence, 76–77
comparison with Rwanda genocide, 77–78
Baumeister, R. F., 93
Becker, J. C., 62, 347
belonging theory, 353
Bengio, O., 35–36
Benz, Wolfgang, 80
Bhawuk/Landis model (for reducing prejudice and conflict), 185
bias/biases
delegitimization and ingroup bias, 35
group-based biases, 162
implicit bias, 164–165
intergroup bias
crossed categorization reduction, 111
implicit vs. consciously endorsed, 169
intergroup content for reducing, 161
reduction through common identity creation, 109
subordinate identity creation, 110
moral exclusion and, 77
against outgroups, 161
in recall/past event interpretation, consequences, 108
reduction of, at different stages of memory construction, 131
signal amplification bias, 166
social categorization creation of, 7, 73, 161
theoretical individualism and, 42
unintentional creation of, 39
university student study, 111
Western, about individual-society relationship, 42
Bilali, R., 6
Binder, J., 195
biological/zoological/medical labels (used in dehumanization), 30
Biro, M., 201
Biton, Y., 202
Black Codes (Southern U.S.), 78
Blatz, C. W., 8, 316, 320
blind patriotism, 59, 112–113
Bliuc, P: M., 56
Bloody Sunday Inquiry (Northern Ireland), 329
Bloomstein, Charles, 362
Blumer, H., 167
Boehnke, K., 253
Bohm, D., 212
Borer, T. A., 292, 296
Boulding, E., 351, 365
Boulding, Kenneth, 352, 364, 365
Boutros-Ghali, Boutros, 236, 262
Branscombe, N. R., 98, 125, 130
Brecke, P., 296, 297
Bretherton, D., 254
Brewer, M. B., 197
Brown, N., 40, 197
Brown, R., 130, 195, 203
brutality of perpetrators, possible reason for, 106
Buber, Martin, 212
Bui-Wrzosinska, L., 5
Bulletin of the Research Exchange on the Prevention of War, 363, 365
Burn, S. M., 40
Burundi 1972 genocide, study (Malkki), 124
Bush, George W., 116
Butler, J., 349
C
Cairns, E., 196, 200, 202
Cambodian genocide, 53, 80, 273, 278
Cameron, L., 203
Campbell, Donald, 188, 189
Canada
apology for Chinese Head Tax, 321
apology for internment of Japanese, 129
Nunavut Land Claims Agreement Act, 319
“We All Belong” newspaper and tv campaign, 183
White/Native Americans interactions, 166
Canadian Peace Research Institute, 365
Canetti-Nisim, D., 143
capital punishment, 59
Castano, E., 41, 127, 313
Cecil, R., 35
Cehajic, S., 40
Center for Advanced Studies in the Behavioral Sciences (Stanford University), 364
Center for Anti-Semitism Research (Germany), 80
Center for International Affairs (Harvard University), 366
Center for Research on Conflict Resolution (University of Michigan), 361, 365
Centre for the Analysis of Conflict (University College of London), 365
Chataway, C. J., 239, 245
Chattopadhyay, R., 189
Cheney, Richard, 116
“chosen glory”/belief of “chosen people,” 114–115
chosen traumas, preventing/addressing, 282
Christ, O., 62, 195, 196, 198
Christian religious fundamentalism, 59
Christie, D. J., 8
Civil Rights Movement (U.S., mid-1960s), 79, 82
Civil War, post-war construction (e.g. moral inclusion in post war change), 78–79
Clemens, J. L., 9
Clinton, Bill, 318
Cohen-Hendeles, E., 44
Cohrs, J. C., 6, 253, 367
Cold War, 53
Coleman, P. T., 5
collective actions of ideological groups, 61–62. See also group-based identities
mobilization of/justifying ingroup aggression, 125
retribution and revenge (group-based) as
identification and affiliation, 98–100
leaders/followers, dynamics of, 100–101
social influences/normative pressures, 99–100
collective blame, 90, 91, 92
justification issues, 96–97, 97
collective forgiveness and reconciliation, 262–263
collective guilt, 90, 113, 125, 143, 146, 299, 314
collective memory of conflict, 36, 282–283
collective self victimhood, 36–37, 37, 40
collective shame, 291, 299, 300, 314
collective states (social norms/values), 16
collective trauma and victimhood, 113–114
collective victimhood, 40, 113, 137
collective victimization, 7, 136–152. See also collective victimization, psychological consequences
categories/types of, 139
causes of, 137
collective violence and, 137
direct vs. indirect experiences of, 139
distinction from collective victimhood, 137
Elcheroth/analysis of civilians in war-torn countries, 138
(p. 375) family member narrative transmission, 138, 141
future research directions, 151–152
importance for understanding, 136–137
indirect exposure to (studies), 139
individual perceptions of, 141–142
macro level findings, 138
reactions to historical victimization (studies), 139
responses in people's lives (studies), 143
social psychological perspectives on (summary), 139–140
societal, group, individual perspectives, 138
transmission of
(intra-)group level, 141
types of, 140
types of, 148
collective victimization, psychological consequences
affective responses
fear response, 143
grief/survivor guilt, 143–144
intergroup relations consequences, 142–143
in the present and past, 143–144
victim beliefs
challenges in studying, 145
conflict-specific vs. global, 145
consequences of, for intergroup relations, 146–147
described, 144
functions of, 147–148
inclusive vs. exclusive, 145–146
intervention strategies, 150
research background, 144–145
victim beliefs, contexts of, 148–150
acknowledgment, 149–150
effects on relations with perpetrators vs. other groups, 150
group status and power, 149
ingroup's involvement/role in ongoing conflict, 149
one-time, repeated, continuous collective victimization, 148–149
outcome factors, 147
types of collective victimization, 148
collective violence
collective victimization and, 137
group vs. group, 137
hatred leading to, 75
social categorization and, 142
Collins, M., 194
Colombia armed conflict, 53
Columbine High School shootings, 96
Common Ingroup Identity Model, 109–110, 170
communities. See compassionate communities
compassionate communities, 344–356. See also Levinas, Emmanuel; the Other
belonging theory and, 353
community-building ideas (Levinas), 348–349, 349
engaging the Face of the Other (Levinas), 347–349
individual/community, return to state systems, 351–352
non-violence, philosophical rationale for, 345–346
relational ethics/feminist ethics of care approach, 9, 345–349
peaceable community building, 349–350, 350–351
acknowledging commonality of violence, 355
equality at basis of, 350
integrating local actors, 353–355, 355
positive vs. negative peace, 344, 350
power issues, 352–353
role of external interveners, 355–356
role of people “connectors,” 351
state vs. individual actors, 349–350, 355
rational choice theorist viewpoint, 347
spontaneous emergence of, 345
stable peace feature, 344
terror management theorist viewpoint, 347
triple vulnerabilities of humans (Levinas), 346–347
competing victimization phenomenon, 138
complexity science research, 13
“conceptual stretching” (Meierhenrich), 293
confidence building measures (CBMs), in nonviolent conflict management, 255
conflict. See also conflict resolution; intractable conflicts
absence of, and power asymmetry, 21
armed conflict examples, 53
collective memory of, 36
competitive victimhood, 40
constructive conflict, 18, 82
defined, 229
delegitimization, ideology and, 36–38
delegitimization, strategies for reducing, 42–44
deinstitutionalization of delegitimization, 43
pragmatic conflict resolution, 42–43
recognition/political protections, 43
rescripting master narratives, 43–44
structural symmetry, 43
destructive conflict, 16, 17, 25, 72
escalation of/road to intractability, 229–230
existential insecurity characteristic, 37
generation of, and power asymmetry, 21–22
justifications for, 89
necessity/constructive features in political life, 53
resource vs. identity-based sources, 213
shifts in the scope of justice and, 82–83
threat and identification (conflict enhancing feedback loop), 115–116
traditional diplomacy inadequacies, 230
21st forms of, 252
ubiquitousness in human relationships, 106
conflict resolution. See also interactive problem-solving (for intractable conflict); nonviolent conflict management
Burton/“controlled communication” method, 231–232, 234
dynamical perspective
action identification theory, 23
attractor disassembly, 23
bifurcation scenario, 24–25
building latent attractors, 23–24
interactive conflict resolution, 260
“interest-based” approaches, 258
methodologies, 230–231
Montville/“Track Two” diplomacy, 232, 234
Rouhana/conflict settlement vs., 243
conformity
evocation of, 99
pressure towards, 41, 99
social conformity vs. individual autonomy, 55, 59
Congress of Racial Equality (CORE), 362
Conover, P. J., 58
conservatism ideology, 54, 58
constructive conflict, 18, 82
constructive patriots, 112
constructive peace studies (Galtung), 5
contact-based school programs, 202
contact hypothesis (Allport), 194, 195
contact theory research, 170
Contemporary Theory in International Relations (Hoffman), 363
contempt and hate/hatred, 94–95
content learning feature (of intergroup dialogue), 211
controlled communication method (of conflict resolution), 231–232, 234, 367–368
conventional patriots, 112
cooperative learning interventions (for reducing intergroup conflict and prejudice), 181, 185
Corkalo, D., 201
corporal/capital punishment, 59
Cortez, B. P., 33
Coser, L. A., 41
Crelinsten, R. D., 200
crimes of commission, 74
(p. 376) Crimes of Obedience: Toward a Social Psychology of Authority and Responsibility (Kelman & Hamilton), 367, 367
crimes of omission, 74
Crisp, R. J., 110, 196, 197, 203
critical-dialogic communication processes (in intergroup dialogue), 213–215, 219
research studies on, 225–226
critical reflection technique (in intergroup dialogue), 214
Cross, S., 241
cross-cultural/intercultural training (for reducing prejudice and conflict), 185
Crossed Categorization Model (of identification), 110–111
cultural artifact issues, in making reparations, 319
cultural ideology, 30, 33
cultural theory, 55
cultural values theory (Schwartz), 55
culture of honor, 114
culture of mutual moral exclusion, 77
culture of peace (as defined by DeRivera), 64
Cunningham, W. A., 110
Cyprus
causes of conflicts, 230
as example of intractable conflict, 14
Hadjipavlou/Kanol's research analysis, 242–243, 245
PSWs approach, 232
D
Davis, K. E., 33
Day, M., 320
De Dreu, C. W., 99–100
de-escalation of violence, 259–261
anti-war activism, 261
interactive conflict resolution, 260
ripeness and readiness, 260
role of emotions, 259–260
De la Calle, L., 76
De Waal, F.B.M., 292
death toll in Rwanda/Basque country situations, 77
dehumanization
moral exclusion comparison, 74
of victims and/or subordinate groups, 127–128
delegitimization. See also legitimization
challenges in changing, 32
defined, 29, 30–31
ethnocentrism and, 33–34
examples of, in conflicts, 35–36
images of Soviet citizens about the U.S., 35
Iran-Iraq war radio speeches, interviews, 35–36
Israel-Palestinian conflict, 36
Protestant-Catholics conflicts, 35, 40
Russian delegitimization of Chechens, 39
Sherif/field studies, 35
Sino-Indian relations during border disputes, 35
forms of, 30
ideology and, 33, 37, 38
institutionalization of, 38
location, as a narrative, in society, 30
nature of, in conflicts, 34–35
notions of legitimacy and, 31
psychological permit provided by, 31
related concepts, 31–33
denial of typical humanity, 32
infrahumanization, 32
moral exclusion, 31
ontologization, 32
research directions, 44–45
of rival groups, 37
role in violent conflict, 5, 29, 34
socio-psychological consequences
framing of conflict, 39
freedom of action, 41
pressure toward conformity, 41
rationalization, justification of ingroup immoral acts, 41–42
sense of being a victim, egocentrism, lack of empathy, 40
sensitivity/information processing, 39–40
strategies for reducing in conflict, 42–44
deinstitutionalization of delegitimization, 43
pragmatic conflict resolution, 42–43
recognition/political protections, 43
rescripting master narratives, 43–44
structural symmetry, 43
as a system of description, 37
as a system of explanation, 37
as a system of justification, 37–38
democracy movements, 72
Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) armed conflict, 14, 53, 277
demonizing terms (used in dehumanization), 30
demonstrators, participatory democracy desired by, 72
Demoulin, S., 33
Denson, T. F., 91, 95
d'Estree, T. P., 8, 237, 240, 241–242, 244
destructive conflict, 16, 17, 25, 72
Deutsch, Morton, 73, 74, 81, 82, 194, 254, 361
Devine, P. G., 205
dialogic processes (in intergroup dialogue), 213–215, 219, 225–226
dialogue programs (for reducing prejudice and conflict). See intergroup dialogue
difficult life conditions concept, 62–63
disaster diplomacy, 297–298
divergent intergroup perspectives, 158–171
anticipating/initiating intergroup interaction, 160–162
intergroup interaction and diverging perspectives
affect/interpretation of emotion, 162–164
implicit bias, 164–165
introspective illusions, 166–167
paradoxical effects, 165–166
social cognition, 162
reason for pervasiveness of, 159
social categorization, perceptions of others, 159–160
Whites/Blacks
divergent view of racial discrimination, 158, 161, 163
interest in/avoidance of intergroup interactions, 161
diversity training (for reducing prejudice and conflict), 184, 185
Dixon, J., 42, 205
Djipa, D., 201
Doob, L. W., 232, 236
Douglas, M., 55, 65
Dovidio, J. F., 7, 163, 168, 197, 205
Du Bois, W.E.B., 78
Duckitt, J., 60
Duflo, E., 189
Durante, F., 45, 130
Durrheim, K., 42
dynamical conflict theory (Vallacher), 287
E
elaboration outcomes, in group-based retribution and revenge
enhanced justifications for collective blame, 96–97
essentialized view of outgroup's (evil) character, 97–98
heightened perceptions of ingroup morality and victimization, 98
elaboration processes, in group-based retribution and revenge
motivated cognition, 95–96
rumination, 95
Elcheroth, G., 138
Elster, A., 6
emotions. See also anger, group-based; fear, group-based; hate/hatred; humiliation, group-based
affect and the interpretation of, 162–164
described, 90
emotionality in intractable conflict, 15
group-based emotion research, 100
Intergroup Emotions Theory, 90
role in de-escalation of violence, 259–260
empirical peace studies (Galtung), 5
engaging self technique (in intergroup dialogue), 214
epistemic uncertainty, 60
“Ethics as First Philosophy” (Levinas), 346
(p. 377) ethnic persecution, 59
ethnocentrism
defined, 33
and delegitimization, 33–34
social categorization and, 73
ethos (societal beliefs), 54
Euskadi ta Askatasuna (ETA) (European terrorist organization), 76–77, 77. See also Basque Country, politically-motivated violence
evaluative/factual beliefs, 54
existential insecurity (characteristic of conflict), 37, 60
existential issues, in intractable conflict, 14–15
Exline, J. J., 130
experimental ethnography, 188
F
Face of the Other (“positive othering”), 347–349. See also the Other
facilitative guidance feature (of intergroup dialogue), 211
Facing History and Ourselves classroom intervention (for reducing prejudice and conflict), 181–182
factual/evaluative beliefs, 54
family member narrative transmission, 138, 141
fear, group-based
defensive aggression response, 92–93
“flight” aspect of “fight or flight,” 92
retributive aggression response, 93
translation into anger, 93
Feldman, S., 58
feminist ideology, 54
Ferguson, N., 312
Ferreira, M. C., 65
Feshbach, S., 112
field experimental studies (of prejudice and conflict reduction interventions), 184, 188
Fifteenth Amendment (U.S. Constitution), 78
Fischer, R., 63–64, 65, 94
Fisher, R. J., 232, 236, 237, 238, 243
Fiske, S. T., 32, 45
Fitzgerald, F., 126
Fleischer, A., 203
Fletcher, L., 332
followers and leaders, dynamics of, 100–101
forgiveness (intergroup forgiveness), 201, 263, 336. See also collective forgiveness and reconciliation
Fourteenth Amendment (U.S. Constitution), 78
Franco, Francisco (Spanish dictator), 76, 77
Friedman, Thomas, 97
G
Gabbiadini, A., 130
Gaertner, S. L., 7, 197
Galtung, J., 5, 54, 236, 243, 365
Gayer, C. C., 256
genocide, mass killing, and violent conflict, 8. See also genocide, mass killing, and violent conflict, prevention strategies and reconciliation
definitions (of genocide), 274
delegitimizing beliefs leading to, 38
examples of (See also Israel-Palestine conflict; Rwanda genocidal war; Sri Lanka, violent conflicts)
Armenians, 80, 125, 148, 273, 275
Bosnia, 273, 285
Cambodia, 53, 80, 273, 278
Central/South America, 273
Darfur, 3
Hereros in Africa, 273
Holocaust (WW II), 273, 275, 278, 281
Indonesia, 273
Yugoslavia, 22
group violence origins
cultural/group characteristics, 276
destructive social processes, 275–276
psychological needs, 275–276
societal conditions, 275–276
moral exclusion and, 74
rationalization of, 32
reconciliation efforts with past events, 300
role of delegitimization, 5, 29, 32, 34
Staub on origins/prevention, 8
in vicious/violent conflicts, 34
genocide, mass killing, and violent conflict, prevention strategies and reconciliation, 273–287
building of constructive institutions, 285
common/multiple identities, and inclusive caring, 281
creation of communities, constructive ideologies, 278–279
forgiveness, role of, 284
healing psychological woundedness, 281–282
humanizing the other
through contact and dialogues, 279–280, 280–281
in words, symbolic acts, the media, 279
intervention sequences, psychological changes, research questions, 285–286
justice, role of, 283–284
political conditions/processes, prevention, and reconciliation, 286–287
reconciliation, role of, 277, 282–283
work in Rwanda, 277–278
truth, collective memory, shared history, 282–283
understanding the influences, 277–278
genuine patriotism, 112
George, A. L., 238
Gibson, J. L., 131, 292, 297, 335
Giner-Sorolla, R., 41, 127, 313
Gladstone, Arthur, 363
Glaser, J., 55
Global Peace Index, 63–64, 347
Gobodo-Madikizela, P., 299
Gonzales, R., 40
Good Friday Agreement, Northern Ireland (1998), 43
Graduated and Reciprocated Initiatives in Tension Reduction (GRIT), 171, 255
Green, Donald P., 182, 184, 186
“grid” vs. “group” (in cultural theory), 55
Grossman, D., 41
group-based guilt. See collective guilt
group-based identities (identification), 6, 106–117. See also collective actions of ideological groups
anger moderation through, 91–92
benefits of groups, 106–107
contact effects/salience of group memberships, 197
delegitimization of rival groups, 37
difficult life conditions concept, 62–63
empathy for victims and, 91
ethnic group identification, 142
glorification of vs. feeling attached to it, 128
group-based emotion research, 100
hierarchy-attenuating legitimizing myths, 62
hierarchy-enhancing legitimizing myths, 62
identification and conflict, 107–109
conflict-enhancing effects of identification, 109
depersonalization process, 107–108
extension of self to the group, temporal dimension, 107
group member perceived interchangeability, 107–108
high identifiers, 108
(p. 378) identified individuals/self and group mental overlap, 107
recall/interpretation of past events, 108
self-concept and group inclusion, 108
identities of conflict to identities of peace, transformation possibilities, 116–117
integration of multiple identities, multiple modes, multiple contents, 115
methods for positive enhancement of, 126
(p. 379) modification vs. suppression of the past, 127
multiple contents
“chosen glory”/belief of “chosen people,” 114–115
collective trauma and victimhood, 113–114
culture of honor, 114
multiple identities
challenges of high identifiers, 110
Common Ingroup Identity Model, 109–110
Crossed Categorization Model, 110–111
nationalism, identification distinctions, 111–113
Social Identity Complex, 111
subordinate identity creation, 110
pressure toward conformity, 41
self-esteem and, 91
social dominance vs. equality, 55
survival advantages, 159
threat and identification (conflict enhancing feedback loop), 115–116
uncritical/glorifying forms of, 59
group-based narcissism, 94
group-based retribution and revenge. See revenge, group-based
group comparison (used in dehumanization), 30
group narratives and histories, 6
group violence, origins
cultural/group characteristics, 276
destructive social processes, 275–276
instigating conditions, 275
psychological needs, 275–276
societal conditions, 275–276
“group” vs. “grid” (in cultural theory), 55, 65
Guerra, R., 110
guilt, group-based, 90
Gundlach, Ralph, 362
Gurin, P., 7
H
Hadjupavlou, M., 242–243, 245
Haitian slave rebellion (1791), 127
Halperin, E., 37, 44, 143, 256, 259
Hamber, B., 8, 292
Hamilton, Lee, 367
Hammack, P. L., 5, 36, 41, 44
Hanke, K., 63–64, 64
Harb, C., 65
Harris, R., 32
Haslam, N., 32, 37
hate/hatred
anger compared with, 94
defined/descriptions of, 75
Halperin's studies on, 94–95
moral exclusion combined with, 75–76
transition to collective violence, 75
Hayner, P. B., 334–335
Hefner, Robert, 365
Heider, F., 97
Hermann, T., 292
Hewstone, M., 7, 195, 196, 197, 198, 200, 202, 203
Hibbing, J. R., 67
Hibbing, M. V., 67
hierarchy-attenuating legitimizing myths, 62
hierarchy-enhancing legitimizing myths, 62
high identifiers, 108
challenges of, in subordinate identity creation, 110
Hindu religious fundamentalism, 59
Historians’ Debate (Historikerstreit) (Germany), 80, 81
historical memories, 124–128
access of, 124
alteration of the past, 127
Armenian massacres, early 20th century (example), 125, 126
cleansing/glorification, for maintaining group identity, 126
underlying psychological motives, 128
collective action mobilization/justifying ingroup aggression, 125
dehumanization of victims/subordinate groups, 127–128
disparate memories of conflict (perpetrators vs. victims), 125–126
examples of grievances, 124
future research directions, 132
government apologies for injustices, 129–131
Hutu refugees example, 124, 125, 126
influences on, 123–124
interests served by versions of, 124
moral obligations brought about from, 124
present/future expectations influenced by, 124
reconciliation/transitional justice measures, 131–132
silencing shameful episodes, 126–127
social identity theory and, 127
sources of, 123
historical victimization studies, 139
Hitler, Adolf, 79
Hoffman, Stanley, 363
Holocaust (World War II), 53, 79–81, 130, 140, 304
Horn of Africa, PSWs approach, 232
Hornsey, M. J., 130, 320
Hughes, J., 196, 200, 202
human needs hierarchy (Maslow), 275
human rights restrictions, 59
humiliation (defined), 93
humiliation, group-based, 15, 22, 93–94
intergroup revenge promoted by, 94
narcissism/egotism and, 93–94
shame/embarrassment comparison, 93
Hunter, J. A., 40
Huntsinger, J., 205
Husnu, S., 203
Hutus
Burundi 1972 genocide, 124, 125
delegitimization of Tutsis in Rwanda, 38
hysteresis (in nonlinear dynamical systems), 17
I
“I” and “We” blurred distinction, 107
I-Thou relations (Buber), 212
ICTY (International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia), 332
identification and conflict, 107–109. See also group-based identities (identification)
conflict-enhancing effects of identification, 109
depersonalization process, 107–108
extension of self to the group, temporal dimension, 107
group member perceived interchangeability, 107–108
high identifiers, 108
recall/interpretation of past events, 108
self-concept and group inclusion, 108
identity-based approaches to apologies, 312–313
identity vs. resource-based sources of conflict, 213, 238
ideological asymmetry, 59
ideological bases of violent conflict
ideological climate, 56
ideological groups, 56, 61
collective actions of, 61–62
role of, for violent conflict, 61–62
ideologies. See also violent conflict, ideological bases of
beliefs, categories of, 54
broader vs. more specific, 55
content of, 55–56
defined, 6, 33
and delegitimization, 33
ideological narratives, 54
justifications provided by, 53
multilevel character of, 56
Q methodology use in research, 58, 67
social sharing of, 56
totalistic vs. molecular, 55
universal vs. particularistic, 55
Implicit Association Test, 160
Implicit Attitude Test, 189
implicit bias, 164–165, 187
individuals (people). See also group-based identities; ingroups/ingroup members; outgroups/outgroup members
depersonalization through group identification, 107–108
high identifiers, 108
identified individuals/self and group mental overlap, 107
self-concept and group inclusion, 108
infrahumanization, 113
defined/relation to delegitimization, 32
ethnocentrism vs., 32
ingroups/ingroup members
beliefs about capabilities of, 160
challenges of understanding members of, 159
collective victimization of, 140
Common Ingroup Identity Model, 109–110, 170
defense of, through delegitimization of enemies, 115
divergent construal of actions by, 96
encoding of undesirable actions, 162
glorification dimension of, 128
justifying aggression of, 125
outgroup relationships with, 15, 33
perceptions of morality/victimization of, 98
perceptions of outgroup members, 108
preferences for members showing bias against outgroups, 161
preoccupation with ingroup victimization, 126
rationalization/justification of immoral acts, 41
social categorization and, 73
spontaneous evaluation of members of, 160
vicarious retribution and, 141–142
injunctive norms, 54
Institute for Social Research, 365
institutionalization of delegitimization, 38
institutionalized differentiation and discrimination, 32
instrumental reconciliation, 263, 296–297, 297–298
Interactive Conflict Resolution (ICR), 260
interactive problem-solving (for intractable conflict), 8, 229–247
and addressing structural violence, 243–244
evidence for structural change, 243–244
Burton's interactive problem-solving ventures, 231–232, 234, 243
conflict escalation (described), 229–230
controversies, challenges, responses, 244–245
development of approaches, 231–232
Fisher's viewpoint, 243
and improving international relationships, 238–243
Babbitt/d'Estrée's research analysis, 240, 241–242
building coalitions across conflict lines, 241
Chataway's research analysis, 239, 245
Cross/Rosenthal's research analysis, 241
Hadjipavlou/Kanol's research analysis, 242–243, 245
Kelman's research analysis, 239, 240, 242
Pruitt's research analysis, 240
role of optimism, 240
structural/psychological changes, 240
Montville/“Track Two” diplomacy, 232, 234
nature of, 232–233
official diplomacy role in concrete solution creation, 236–238
evidence for concrete solutions, 237–238
origins of, 236
problem-solving workshop design, 233–235
agenda design, 235
choosing participants, 234
continuing evolution, modification, 245–247
origins of workshops, 245
setting choice, 234
third party facilitation role, 235
time frame and timing, 234–235
topic and communication, 233–234, 236
traditional diplomacy inadequacies, 230
intergroup bias
crossed categorization reduction, 111
implicit vs. consciously endorsed, 169
intergroup content for reducing, 161
reduction through common identity creation, 109
subordinate identity creation, 110
Intergroup Collaboration Project (ICP), 218–219
intergroup conflict (defined/described), 252–253
intergroup contact, 193–206. See also intractable conflicts, contact effects in
contact effects in intractable, violent conflicts, 198–202
on post-violence intergroup interactions, 201–202
on pre-/no-violence intergroup relations, 199
on violent group interactions, 199–200
cross-group contact, palliative role, 297
defined/described, 194, 258–259
interventions for reducing intergroup conflict and prejudice, 181–182, 185
in peace interventions, 258–259
recent developments in research
forms of intergroup contact, 196
generalization of contact effects, 197–198
mediators of contact effects, 196–197
salience of group memberships, 197
as a social intervention for reconciliation
extended/imagined contact interventions, 203
outside of school interventions, 202–203
political context-focused interventions, 203–204
school interventions, 202
summary of research on, 194–195
intergroup dialogue, 7, 185, 210–226
assumptions about conflict, 211
building bridges across differences
action asymmetries, 213
affective asymmetries, 211–212
analytical asymmetries, 212–213
critical-dialogic communication processes, 213–215, 219, 225–226
four stages (in sequential order)
group beginnings/forming, building relationships, 215–216
exploring differences/commonalities of experience, 216–217
exploring/dialoguing about “hot” topics, 217–218
action planning and collaboration, 218–219
Intergroup Collaboration Project, 218–219
methods/purpose of, 210–211
pedagogical features, 211
content learning, 211
facilitative guidance, 211
structured interactions, 211
role in reconciliation, 279–280
student experiences, 219–225
action asymmetries, 221–222
affective asymmetries, 219–220
analytical asymmetries, 220–221
communication processes, 222–225
Intergroup Emotions Theory, 90
intergroup forgiveness, 201, 263, 336
intergroup interaction
and diverging perspectives
affect/interpretation of emotion, 162–164
implicit bias, 164–165
introspective illusions, 166–167
paradoxical effects, 165–166
social cognition, 162
fragility of vs. intragroup exchanges, 163
power and divergent perspectives, 167–169
implications for intergroup conflict, conflict resolution, 169–171
intergroup reconciliation, 273–287. See also apology and reparation
alternative dispute resolution method, 291
collective forgiveness and, 262–263
collective guilt and, 299
collective shame and, 291, 299, 300
common/unifying threads, 292
(p. 380) “conceptual stretching” concept, 293
definitions and emphases, 292
“disaster diplomacy” concept, 297–298
early projects, 263
false reconciliation
genuine vs., 303
resentment, “cheap forgiveness” and, 304–305
“forgiveness” and “signaling” models, 296
group-based, 101–102
historical background, 292–293
identity-related perspective, 294
instrumental and socio-emotional processes, 296–297
instrumental reconciliation, 263, 296–297, 297–298
interpersonal reconciliation and, 293
limitations in Israel-Palestine conflict, 280
National Unity Reconciliation, 296
Needs Based model, 296, 298–303, 311
overlap with prevention of violence, 277
perspectives
identity-related perspective, 294
inter-relatedness of, 294–296
relational perspective, 294
structural perspective, 293–294
possession of negative identity (by perpetrators), 304–305
radical evil, radical empathy, radical forgiveness, radical reconciliation, 303–304
relevance of post-violence contact, 263
role in preventing genocide, mass killing, and violent conflict, 282–283
role of justice, 283–284
socio-emotional reconciliation, 263, 298
South Africa, post-apartheid reconciliation, 297
truth telling/forgiveness, as social exchange, 298–303
effects on individual well-being, 302–303
evaluation of effectiveness, 301–303
societal confrontation with painful past and reconciliation, 301–302
work in Rwanda, 277–278, 280, 287, 303–304
International Behavior (SPSSI), 366
International Criminal Court (ICC), 331, 332
International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia (ICTY), 332
International Peace Research Association, 365
International Red Cross, 76
International Studies Association, 366
interventions, for reducing prejudice and conflict, 7, 179–190
affirmation interventions, 181, 186
basis of successful interventions, 182
combination approaches, 182
cooperative learning interventions, 181
Facing History and Ourselves classroom intervention, 181–182
future research directions, 187–189
general conclusions, 187
implicit biases, 187
increasing positive peace/reducing negative peace, 180
intergroup contact interventions, 181–182, 185
knowledge gained from real world interventions, 184–186
peace psychology intervention studies, 180, 181
processes/outcomes, theoretical development, 186–187
recommendations, 190
review of interventions, 180–184
causal impact analysis, 182
description of databases used, 182
field experimental studies, 184, 188
laboratory studies, 182–183
observational field studies, 183–184
social psychology-based interventions, 180
stereotype retraining, 180, 181
studying “conditions on the ground,” 189–190
intractable conflicts. See also attractors (in intractable conflict); genocide, mass killing, and violent conflict; interactive problem-solving (for intractable conflict); intractable conflicts, contact effects in
characteristics
emotionality, 15
existential issues, 14–15
hopelessness, 230
ingroup and outgroup relationships, 15
defined, 14, 230
dynamical perspective on
attractors, 16
movement between attractors, 17
properties of attractors, 16–17
future research directions, 25–26
historical memories and, 125
international examples, 14
nature of, 230–231
outcomes of, 14, 275
the problem of, 14
protracted social conflicts, 230
psychological/social consequences, 230
readiness theory (Pruitt), 230
role of delegitimization, 34
steps leading to
attractors/levels of social reality, 19
determination of attractor dynamics, 19
functions of attractors for conflict, 18–19
self-regulation breakdown, 18
intractable conflicts, contact effects in, 198–202
post-violence intergroup relations
post-violence contact, 201–202
pre-violence contact, 201
pre-/no-violence intergroup relations, 199
violent intergroup interactions
pre-violence period, 199–200
violence period, 200
introspective illusions, 166–167
intuitive investigations of intergroup provocation, 95–96
Isard, Walter, 365
Israel-Palestine conflict
Adwan/Bar-On textbook development, 44
anger-based considerations, 95
basis of ideological beliefs, 61
calling forth prior Holocaust memory, 125
causes of, 230
delegitimization examples
Bar-Tel and Teichman study, 36, 38, 44–45
Hammack's study, 36
Maoz and McCauley study, 36
divergent intergroup perspective (example), 158
empathic statements, by Palestinian leaders, 320, 321
as example of intractable conflict, 14, 15
fear-based considerations, 92
Interactive Problem Solving Workshops, 204
Kelman's research analysis, 237, 237–238, 242, 368
limitations of reconciliation work, 280, 304–305
negotiation stumbling blocks, 300
Oslo Accord interim agreement, 43, 237, 294
perceived humiliations, 143
PSWs approach, 232
rescripting master narratives, 43–44
research of Babbitt and d'Estrée, 240, 241–242
Roccas's research on people's exonerating cognitions, 98
youth narratives, 41
Israeli Jews/Al Aqsa Intifada study, 143
Italian colonialism study, 130
Iyer, A., 8, 130, 322
J
James, William, 361
Janoff-Bulman, R., 107
Jeffries, V., 201
Jews/Judaism. See also Israel-Palestine conflict
Battle of Masada (73 A.D.), 124
collective guilt/Palestinian conflict, 146
Holocaust awareness efforts, 140
religious fundamentalism, 59
(p. 381) Jigsaw Classroom (contact-based school program), 202
Jim Crow laws (post-Civil War, U.S.), 78, 81
Johnson, D. W., 202
Johnson, R. T., 202
Johnston, C., 58
Joint History Project, 131
Jones, E. E., 33
Jost, J. T., 55
Journal of Conflict Resolution: A Quarterly for Research Related to War and Peace, 361, 365, 365
Journal of Social Issues, 363
“just war” concept, 253
justification
basis for, in conflicts, 89
collective blame and, 96–97, 97
delegitimization as a system of, 37–38
enhanced, for collective blame, 96–97
of ingroup immoral acts, 41–42
provided by ideologies, 53
for violence/intergroup violence, 32
justness of own goals theme (in conflict), 36–37, 37
K
Kalev, A., 185
Kangura (anti-Tutsi propaganda newspaper), view on delegitimization, 31
Kanol, B., 242–243, 245
Kant, Emmanuel, 345
Kashmir conflicts, 14, 15, 230
Katz, Dan, 362, 367
Katz, Y. J., 196
Kenworthy, J., 195, 200
King, Rodney, beating by police, 59
Kossowska, M., 59
Kosterman, R., 112
Kruglanski, A. W., 55
Küpper, B., 198
L
LaBenevolencija (Dutch NGO), work in Rwanda, 277
laboratory studies (of prejudice and conflict reduction interventions), 182–183
Landman, S., 256
latent attractors, 13, 17, 20, 22
gradual/long-term enhancement of, 24
leaders and followers, dynamics of, 100–101
learning communities, 215
legitimization
as a counter to delegitimization, 44
defined, 42
Oslo Accord/mutual legitimization, 43
of violence, through delegitimization of enemies, 107, 115
Lemmer, G., 205
Lerner, M., 311
Levi, Primo, 303
Levinas, Emmanuel. See also compassionate communities; the Other
biographical background, 345
community-building ideas, 348–349
“Ethics as First Philosophy,” 346
Face of the Other (“positive othering”), 347–349
relational ethics work of, 9, 345–349
response (possible), to mortality salience research, 346
on responsibility to and for the Other, 345–346, 347, 351
on threat to/from the Other, 346
on triple vulnerabilities of humans, 346–347
Lewin, K., 187, 245
Leyens, J. P., 32, 33
liberalism ideology, 58
Lickel, B., 6, 91
Liviatan, I., 320
Liyange, S., 203
Long, W. J., 296, 297
Louis, W. R., 8
Lubensky, M., 205
M
Machel Report (1996), 230
Mackie, D. M., 90
Main, K., 161
Malaysia, intercommunal riots (1969), 261
Malhotra, D., 203
Malkki, L. H., 124
Mallet, R., 205
Mamdani, M., 136
Mandela, Nelson, 286
Manilla Peace Agreement (1966), 237
Mann, B., 93
Mansfield, Y., 203
Maoz, I., 36, 202
marginalization of groups/subgroups, 100
Mari, S., 130
Maslow, Abraham, 275
master narratives, 43–44
McCauley, C., 36
McGarty, C., 56
McGregor, L., 93
McLaughlin-Volpe, T., 196
mechanistic dehumanization phenomenon (Haslam), 32
media, role in transmitting collective victimization, 141
media and entertainment interventions (for reducing prejudice and conflict), 185, 185
medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC), role in dehumanization, 32
Meierhenrich, J., 293
Middle East conflict (power asymmetry example), 22
Migacheva, K., 348
Milgram, S., 200, 204
Milin, P., 201
military interventions, reasons for public support of, 253
Miller, D. T., 162
Miller, Frederick D., 367
Miller, N., 91, 197
Milosovic, Slobodan, 332
minority opinion blocks, hawkish (competitive) vs. dovish (cooperative), 99–100
miscommunications in intergroup relationships, 7
Mitchell, C. R., 234, 235
mitigation of intergroup violence, 8
Mitrany, David, 366
Montville, J. V., 232, 234
moral community, 72. See also scope of justice
moral disengagement reaction, 41
“The Moral Equivalent of War” article (James), 361
moral exclusion, 72. See also culture of mutual moral exclusion; moral exclusion, as hate and terrorism; scope of justice
active/passive manifestations of, 74–75
background information, 74
comparison to moral inclusion, 75
defined, 31, 73
dehumanization comparison, 74
extent (possible) of, 74
relation to delegitimization, 31
scope of justice relation to, 74
severity variance, 74
moral exclusion, as hate and terrorism
Basque Country, politically-motivated violence, 76–77
hate in Rwanda, 75–76
Rwanda/Basque Country comparisons, 77–78
moral inclusion, 72. See also moral inclusion in post war change (studies); scope of justice
comparison to moral exclusion, 75
defined, 73, 75
Reardon's description, 83
relation to delegitimization, 31
moral inclusion in post war change (studies)
Germany's review of World War II, 79–81
observations about both studies, 81–82
post-Civil War US reconstruction, 78–79
(p. 382) mortality salience research, 346
motivated cognition, 95–96
Mozambique, violence to peace transition, 17
Multi-university Intergroup Dialogue Research (MIGR) Study, 225–226
Multidimensional Inventory of Black Identity, 146
multigenerational trauma, 83, 141
multiple identities
challenges of high identifiers, 110
Common Ingroup Identity Model, 109–110
Crossed Categorization Model, 110–111
multiple modes, 111–113
Social Identity Complex, 111
subordinate identity creation, 110
multiple modes of identification, 111–113
Muntele, D., 56
Muslim religious fundamentalism, 59
myths, hierarchy-attenuating legitimizing, 62
myths, hierarchy-enhancing legitimizing, 62
N
Nadler, A., 8, 132, 205, 293, 320, 336
Naess, Arne, 365
Nagda, B. A., 7, 211, 215
Nan, S. A., 246
narcissism, group-based, 94
narratives (defined), 54
Nash, K., 93
National Covenant Document (Lebanon, 1988), 237
national ideology, 33
National Unity Reconciliation (Borer), 296
nationalism, 59
identification distinctions, 111–113
Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act (U.S.), 319
Native Americans
Canada/interactions with Whites, 166
dehumanization of, 127–128
Nazis (National Socialist German Workers’ Party)
“final solution” to Jewish population, 45
ideology of, 55
role in Holcaust (World War II), 53, 79–81, 273, 275, 278, 281
Needs Based model, of intergroup reconciliation, 296, 298–303, 311
never again ideologies, 261
Newcombe, Hannah and David, 365
Nietzche, Friedrich, 304
Nisbett, R. E., 114
nonlinear dynamical systems, 13
hysteresis concept, 17
nonviolent conflict management, 254–259
confidence building measures, 255
intergroup contact, 258–259
peacekeeping, 255
reframing, 255–257
unofficial diplomacy, 257–258
Noor, N. M., 261
norms (defined), 54
Northern Ireland conflict, 53
beliefs of ideological groups, 61
Bloody Sunday Inquiry, 329
causes of, 230
positive relational changes, 296
prisoner release program, 333
PSWs approach, 232
reconciliation research, 297
Norton, M. I., 165
notions of legitimacy (Zelditch), 31
Nowak, A., 5
Nunavut Land Claims Agreement Act (Canada, 1993), 319
O
Oakes, P. J., 37
observational field studies (of prejudice and conflict reduction interventions), 183–184
O'Donnell, G., 161
Okimoto, T. G., 315
Oliner, P., 199, 204
Oliner, S. B., 199, 204
one-dimensional ideological beliefs, 57
ontologization (used in dehumanization), 32
opinion-based groups, 56
Opotov, S., 6
Oppressed Minority Subscale (Multidimensional Inventory of Black Identity), 146
Orange walk (Northern Ireland)/Catholic-Protestant relationship “memories,” 19
Orentlicher, Diane, 331
Osgood, Charles, 362
Oskamp, S., 40, 182
Oslo Accord (1993), 43, 237, 294
the Other
engaging the Face of, 347–349
humanizing the other
through contact and dialogues, 279–280, 280–281
in words, symbolic acts, the media, 279
Levinas/responsibility to and for, 345–346, 347, 349
reindividualizing of, while building caring communities, 356
respect for, as effective intervener characteristic, 355
Ottoman Empire wars, 53
outcasting (defined), 30
outgroups/outgroup members, 32
beliefs about capabilities of, 160
challenges of understanding members of, 159
devaluation of, 113
dispositional judgments about, 97
divergent construal of actions by, 96
encoding of undesirable actions, 162
hostility perceived in faces of members, 163
outgroup-directed anger, 89
outsider expectations of attitudes of, 161
perceptions of, by ingroup members, 108
view of, as evil, 97–98
Ouwehand, E., 99–100
Oxley, D. R., 67
P
Paluck, E. L., 7, 182, 184, 186, 196
Paolini, S., 196
participatory democracy, 72
Patient Protection and Affordable Health Care Act (2010), 74
patriotism, pseudo-/genuine, 112
“patriotism divide” between liberals and conservatives, 99
patriots, conventional/constructive, 112
Patterson, A.-L., 322
peace (stable peace), negative and positive
as feature in cooperative communities, 344, 350
non-violence, philosophical rationale for, 345–346
Peace and Conflict (1995), 361
peace interventions, within cycles of intergroup violence, 252–266. See also compassionate communities; peace psychology (peace research movement)
cycles of violence, 252–254
intergroup conflict phase, 252–253
organized violence phase, 253
post-violence phase, 253–254
de-escalation of violence, 259–261
anti-war activism, 261
interactive conflict resolution, 260
ripeness and readiness, 260
role of emotions, 259–260
goals of, 254
limitations and future directions, 264–266
never again ideologies, 261
nonviolent conflict management, 254–259
confidence building measures, 255
intergroup contact, 258–259
peacekeeping, 255
reframing, 255–257
unofficial diplomacy, 257–258
promotion of reconciliation
early projects, 263
relevance of post-violence contact, 263
reconciliation
collective forgiveness, 262–263
early projects, 263
relevance of post-violence contact, 263
sustainable development
building security, 264
physical reconstruction, 264
(p. 383) political/economic reconstruction, 264
social reconstruction, 264
peace psychology (peace research movement)
intervention studies, 180, 181
Kelman's involvement
contextual social psychology, 364
interactive problem solving, 367–369
international crime research, 367
Israel-Palestine research analysis, 237, 237–238, 242, 368
nationalism/national identity studies, 367
peace research development, 364–366
personal background information, 362
Research Exchange on the Prevention of War, 361, 363, 364
social psychology-peace psychology interface, 363–364, 366–367
pioneering efforts in, 361–362
Peace Research Institute (Oslo), 365
Peace Research Society (International), 365
peaceable community building, 349–350, 350–351
acknowledging commonality of violence, 355
equality at basis of, 350
integrating local actors, 353–355, 355
positive vs. negative peace, 344, 350
power issues, 352–353
role of external interveners, 355–356
role of people “connectors,” 351
state vs. individual actors, 349–350, 355
peacebuilding, 9
Agenda for Peace and, 262
complementary problem-solving strategies, 236
efforts in the Middle East, 263
between Greek and Turkish Cypriots, 242–243
integrating local actors in efforts, 353–355
as a never ending process, 344
political process interference with, 286
proposals of Lederach, 232
pursuit of equality and justice, 350
reason for foundering interventions, 352
role of community in, 355
role of the state in, 351
in Rwanda and the Congo (Staub), 24
“Peacemaking, Peacebuilding, and Peacekeeping” (Galtung), 236
Pear, T. H., 365
Pearl Harbor attacks, 128
Pearlman, Laurie, 277
Pearson, A. R., 163
peer influence (for reducing prejudice and conflict), 185
perpetrator group apologies. See under apology and reparation
Petrovic, N., 91
Pettigrew, T. F., 194, 195, 196, 197, 198, 205, 258, 297
Phills, C., 93
Philpot, C. R., 130, 320
physical intergroup violence
causes of, 198
consequences of, 34
role of delegitimization, 29
Pilecki, A., 41
Pilisuk, M., 65
Pizam, A., 203
Polemological Institute (University of Groningen), 365
police behaviors
Rodney King beating, 59
shootings of terrorist suspects, 59
political ideology, 33
political labels (used in dehumanization), 30
Ponce, Ninez, 74
Porat, D. A., 140
positive (reinforcing) vs. negative (inhibiting) feedback, 18
positive collective self-image theme (in conflict), 36–37, 37
possession of negative identity (by perpetrators), 304–305
power and conflict
modern era issues, 22–23
power asymmetry
and absence of conflict, 21
and generation of conflict, 21–22
in social relations, 21
rising/declining satisfaction, J-Curve model, 22
power shifts, historical background, 72
Pratto, F., 66, 168, 205
Precarious Life (Butler), 349
Prentice, D. A., 162
problem-solving workshops (PSWs) design, 233–235. See also interactive problem-solving (for intractable conflict)
agenda design, 235
continuing evolution, modification, 245–247
origins of workshops, 245
participants, 234
setting, 234
third party role, 235
time frame and timing, 234–235
topic and communication, 233–234
protracted social conflicts (PSCs), 230
Pruitt, D. G., 230, 240, 260. See also readiness theory (Pruitt)
pseudo-patriotism, 112
Psychological Factors of Peace and War (Pear), 365
Psychology of War and Peace Committee (Society for the Psychological Study of Social Issues), 362
psychosocial theory of global violence (Pilisuk and Zazzi), 65
Q
Q methodology, use in research, 58, 67
R
racism, 46
radical evil, radical empathy, radical forgiveness, radical reconciliation, 303–304
Ramirez-Marin, J. Y., 99–100
Ransford, H. E., 201
Rapoport, Anatol, 364
Raviv, A., 45
Rawls, John, 345
readiness theory (Pruitt), 230, 260
Realistic Group Conflict Theory, 168
Reardon, Betty, 83
reconciliation. See intergroup reconciliation
Redford, P., 65
reframing strategies (in nonviolent conflict management), 255–257
relational ethics (Levinas), 9, 345–349
religious fundamentalism, 59
religious ideology, 33, 34
remembering intergroup conflict, remembrance of, 123–133
reparations. See apology and reparation
Research Exchange on the Prevention of War, 361, 363, 364, 365
Research Leadership in Action Program (University of Massachusetts, Amherst), 4
resentment
defined, 304
genuine reconciliation and, 304
intergroup reconciliation and, 303
intergroup threats as cause of, 253
of low-power groups, 211, 212
as the mechanism against “cheap forgiveness” and false reconciliation, 303, 304–305
by U.S. blacks, post-Civil War reconstruction era, 81
resource vs. identity-based sources of conflict, 213
responsibility by commission (defined), 96
responsibility by omission (defined), 96
revenge, group-based
background information, 89–90
as collective action
identification and affiliation, 98–99, 99–100
leaders/followers, dynamics of, 100–101
social influence/normative pressures, 99–100
elaboration outcomes
enhanced justifications for collective blame, 96–97
(p. 384) essentialized view of outgroup's (evil) character, 97–98
heightened perceptions of ingroup morality and victimization, 98
elaboration processes
motivated cognition, 95–96
rumination, 95, 97
emotional/cognitive facilitation of, 6
future research directions
group-based reconciliation, 101–102
revenge in different kinds of conflicts, 101
Reynolds, K., 56
Richardson, Lewis, 365
Richardson, Stephen, 365
Richeson, J. A., 161, 162, 163, 166
right-wing authoritarianism (RWA), 57, 59
variables associated with, 59
right-wing extremist political beliefs, parties, leaders, 59
right-wing ideological orientation, 33
ripeness and readiness (for de-escalation of violence), 260
ripeness theory (Zartman), 260
Roccas, S., 6, 98, 112, 367
Rodriguez, R. T., 33
Röling, Bert, 365
Ropp, S. A:, 196
Roseman, I., 94
Rosenthal, R., 241
Ross, L., 186, 320
Ross, M., 128, 129, 129–130
Ross, M. A., 6
Rothman, J., 246
Rouhana, N. N., 235, 237, 243, 293
Ruane, J., 61
Rubin, J. Z., 229
rumination process, as predictor of continued distress, 95, 97
Russell, J., 39
Rutland, A., 203
Rwanda genocidal war
background/reasons for war, 75–76
combined with moral exclusion, 75–76
comparison with Basque Country violence, 77–78
death toll data, 45
governmental role, 287
historical background, 282–283
Hutu people as active bystanders, 279
justice system failures, 284
peacebuilding efforts, 24
rapid transition from peace to violence, 17
reconciliation work, 277–278, 280, 287, 303–304
retributive justice considerations, 329
role of Radio Rwanda, 76
tradition-based justice mechanisms, 332–333
U.S. nonintervention decision, 312
S
Saab, R., 62
Saguy, T., 7, 168, 205
Sahdra, B., 128
Said, Edward, 125
Salomon, G., 202
Salpmon, Gavriel, 182
Salvatore, J., 162, 166
Sanchez-Cuenca, I., 76
Sani, F., 142
Sanson, A., 254
Santayana, George, 123, 132
satisfaction, J-Curve model measures of, 22
Saunders, H. H., 235, 246
Schmid, K., 198, 200, 202
Schryer, E., 320
Schumann, K., 129, 129–130
Schwartz, S. H., 32, 55, 57
Schwarz, S. H., 64
Schweitzer, Albert, 346
scope of justice, 72
conflict and shifts in, 82–83
defined/described, 72–74
Deutsch's naming and describing, 73, 74
elastic nature of, 73
future research directions
dissent, 83
intermediate moral inclusion, 83
intragroup conflict, 83
influence on individuals, groups, 73
moral exclusion relation to, 74
relevance for intergroup conflict and peace, 72
Scope of Justice Scale, 73–74, 81
self-esteem, group membership and, 91
self-regulatory breakdown, 18
self-worth affirmations, 186
September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks
Europe/post-attack social categorization study, 142
influence of personal vs. collective threats, 143
perceived similarity experiences study, 142
post-attack research on outcomes, 139
post-attack self-descriptions by Americans, 99
U.S. citizens reactions, 91, 96
U.S. debate about Muslims and, 97
Serbia and the Battle of Kosovo (1389), 124
shared history (reconciliation strategy), 282–283
Sharvit, K., 37
Shelton, J. N., 161, 162, 163, 166, 167
Sherif, M., 35, 42–43, 99
Sherman, L., 188
Shnabel, N., 132, 205, 322
Sidanius, J., 66
Siddiqui, R. N., 62
Sinclair, S., 205
Singh, P., 62
Sinha, A.K.P., 35
slavery
Jim Crow laws (post-Civil War, U.S.), 78, 81
as moral exclusion example, 63
post-Civil War US reconstruction, 78–79
U.S./acceptability vs. unacceptability, 56, 63
Smith, E. R., 90
Smith, K. B., 67
social categorization (group membership), 159–160. See also ingroups/ingroup members; outgroups/outgroup members
biases created by, 161
collective violence and, 142
consequences of, 160
described, 73
differentiation into “we's” and “they's,” 160
social differentiation research, 73
social dominance orientation (SDO), 57, 59–60
variables associated with, 59
Social Identity Complex, 111
social identity theory, 41
described, 91, 128
relevance to individual efforts at cleansing history, 127
social impact theory, 185
social interdependence theory, 185
social justice research, 73
social network analysis, 190
social psychology, 75, 180, 361–370. See also peace psychology (peace research movement)
ambiguous/conflicting information, 19
attention given to intergroup contact, 226
collective victimization research, 138
commonalities and differences, 4–5
contextual social psychology, 364
description of interventions used by, 180
dynamical perspective in social psychology, 14
group polarization phenomenon, 41
high-power groups, research on, 212
infrahumanization (concept), 32, 113
intergroup reconciliation research, 291–292
intergroup relations tradition in, 67
peace psychology interface with, 363–364
peace psychology intervention studies vs., 181
proposed modern interventions, 42
questioning of evil acts of humans, 45–46
scope of justice studies, 73
social reforms study (Campbell), 188
(p. 385) “social silence” code (in Basque Country), 76
societal beliefs (ethos) (defined), 54
societal conditions, leading to group violence, 275–276
societal processes: ideology and violent conflict
background information, 63
determinants of ideological climates, 65
role of ideological climates, 63–65
Basabe/Valencia, societal values/culture of peace research, 64
Fischer/Hanke, Global Peace Index research, 63–64
societal transmission of collective victimization, 140–141
Society for the Psychological Study of Social Issues (SPSSI), 362, 363
socio-economic ideology, 33
socio-emotional reconciliation, 263, 298
socio-psychological consequences of delegitimization
framing of conflict, 39
freedom of action, 41
pressure toward conformity, 41
rationalization, justification of ingroup immoral acts, 41–42
sense of being a victim, egocentrism, lack of empathy, 40
sensitivity/information processing, 39–40
socioemotional reconciliation, 263
Sommaruga, Cornelio, 76
Sommers, S. R., 165
Sorenson, N., 7
South Africa
collapse of apartheid, 22, 295, 297, 300
leadership of Mandela, 286
retributive justice sought by victims, 337
South Africa Truth and Reconciliation Commission (SATRC), 110, 44, 125–126, 131, 286, 292, 294, 295, 301, 329–330, 335
Soviet Union, purges by Stalin, 80
Spanovic, M., 91
Spears, R., 62
Sri Lanka, violent conflicts, 230, 232
stable peace (negative and positive), as feature in cooperative communities, 344
Stagner, Ross, 362
Stalin, Joseph, 80
Staub, E., 8, 24, 112
Steinel, W., 99–100
Steiner, N., 246
Stephan, C. W., 182
Stephan, W. G., 182
Stereotype Content Model (SCM), 45, 198
stereotype retraining intervention (for reducing intergroup conflict and prejudice), 180, 181
stereotypes
Burns and Oskamp study (1989), 40
of groups, 97
mechanism of development, 15
Strang, H., 188
Stringer, M., 40
strong attractors, 16–18, 20, 25
Struch, N., 32
structured interactions feature (of intergroup dialogue), 211
student experiences, in intergroup dialogue, 219–225
action asymmetries, 221–222
affective asymmetries, 219–220
analytical asymmetries, 220–221
communication processes, 222–225
subhuman epithets (used in dehumanization), 30
Sudan, as example of intractable conflict, 14
Sulloway, F., 55
sustainable development (in peacekeeping interventions)
building security, 264
physical reconstruction, 264
political/economic reconstruction, 264
social reconstruction, 264
Swim, J., 205
system justification/social dominance research, 21, 65
systematic exploitation, 32
T
Taif Accords (1989), 237
Tajfel, H., 32
Task Force for International Cooperation on Holocaust Education, Remembrance and Research, 80
Tausch, N., 62, 168, 195, 196, 198, 200, 202, 205
Teichman, Y., 36, 38, 44
Terror Management Theory research, 99
third party facilitation of conflict resolution, 235
threat and identification (conflict enhancing feedback loop), 115–116
Tileaga, C., 32, 45
Tillman, Pat, 127
Todd, J., 61
totalistic ideology vs. molecular ideology, 55
Touval, S., 240
“Track Two” diplomacy (Montville), 232, 234
tradition-based transitional justice mechanisms, 332–333
Trail, T. E., 167
trait characterization (defined), 30
transgenerational trauma, 83, 141
transitional justice, 8, 328–340. See also truth commissions
amnesty issues, 333–334
description (transitional justice), 329–331
economic relation to, 338–339
future research directions, 339–340
goals of, 329
and intergroup conflict, 328–329
mechanisms of
justice-based/trials and prosecutions, 331–332
mixed and hybrid approaches, 334
tradition-based, 332–333
need for supplemental initiatives, 339
restorative vs. retributive approaches, 333
social justice relation to, 338
strategy conditions, 329
UN Security Council observations, 328–329
unanswerable victim's questions, 337
trauma
collective memory and, 113
collective trauma and victimhood, 113–114
delegitimization and, 46
historical trauma, relief of, 124–125
intractable conflicts as cause of, 14
as motivation for group strengthening behaviors, 107
“transgenerational”/“multigenerational,” 83, 138, 141
Volkan/“chosen traumas,” 94
trauma carrier groups, 140
Trawalter, S., 162, 166
Tredoux, C., 42
trials and prosecutions (transitional justice mechanism), 331–332
Tropp, L. R., 161, 195, 196, 197, 198, 205, 297, 348
Trouillot, M., 127
truth commissions, 329–330. See also South Africa Truth and Reconciliation Commission
global establishment of, 131
investigations conducted by, 329
new collective memory created by, 335
psychological outcome of victim involvement, 330
role of, 7, 8, 329
socioemotional reconciliation promoted by, 336
testimony give to, 330
as transitional justice mechanism, 334–338
truth telling and forgiveness, as social exchange (needs based model), 298–303
Turner, J., 37, 196, 197
Turpie, C., 166
Tuskegee syphilis experiments, redress for, 318
Tutu, Desmond, 295, 303
two-dimensional ideological beliefs, 57, 57–58
“two-valued judgments” (Allport), 37
U
UCLA Health Policy Research Center study (Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act), 74
(p. 386) Ukrainian-Polish relations (post-World War II), 23
UMass Amherst Research Leadership in Action Program, 4
UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization), 116
United States. See also September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks
apologies by the government, 129
for internment of Japanese during WW II, 129
Civil Rights Movement, 79, 82
Civil War, post-war construction, 78–79
Whites/Blacks
divergent view of racial discrimination, 158, 161, 163
interest in/avoidance of intergroup interactions, 161
universal ideology vs. particularistic ideology, 55
unofficial diplomacy (in nonviolent conflict management), 257–258
Upadhaya, V. P., 35
V
Valencia, J., 64
Vallacher, R. R., 5
value consistency and self-worth interventions, 185
values (defined), 54
Van Bavel, J. J., 110
van der Merwe, H., 292
Van Hiel, A., 59
Vasquez, K. A., 205
vicarious retribution model (Lickel), 141–142
victim beliefs (of collective victimization)
challenges in studying, 145
conflict-specific vs. global, 145
consequences of, for intergroup relations, 146–147
contexts of, 148–150
acknowledgment, 149–150
effects on relations with perpetrators vs. other groups, 150
group status and power, 149
ingroup's involvement/role in ongoing conflict, 149
one-time, repeated, continuous collective victimization, 148–149
outcome factors, 147
types of collective victimization, 148
described, 144
functions of, 147–148
inclusive vs. exclusive, 145–146
research background, 144–145
victims/victimhood. See also collective victimhood; collective victimization
collective self victimhood, 36–37
collective trauma and, 113–114
competitive victimhood, 40
dehumanization and, 127–128
psychological functions fulfilled by, 40
reconciliation needs of, 132
violence/intergroup violence. See also collective violence; genocide, mass killing, and violent conflict; intractable conflicts; intractable conflicts, contact effects in; mitigation of intergroup violence; peace interventions, within cycles of intergroup violence; physical intergroup violence
collective victimization transmission and, 140
cycles of violence, 252–254
intergroup conflict phase, 252–253
organized violence phase, 253
post-violence phase, 253–254
de-escalation of violence, 259–261
anti-war activism, 261
interactive conflict resolution, 260
ripeness and readiness, 260
role of emotions, 259–260
ethnic group identification and, 128
group-based revenge and, 101
group violence, origins
cultural/group characteristics, 276
destructive social processes, 275–276
psychological needs, 275–276
societal conditions, 275–276
interactive problem solving and addressing structural violence, 243–244
justification for, in conflict, 32
lower class males, desegregation era, 22
mechanism for sudden eruptions, 19
mitigating cycles of, 8
negative intergroup behavior and, 194
overcoming cycles of, 147
personal (direct) vs. structural (indirect), 54
physical intergroup violence, 29, 34, 198
pre-violence contact effects on, 200
role of delegitimization, 5, 29, 30, 34
roots of, 45
violent conflict, ideological bases of, 36–38
conceptualization of beliefs of individuals, 56–58
one-dimensional beliefs, 57
two-dimensional beliefs, 57, 57–58
defined (violent conflict), 54
determinants of beliefs of individuals, 60
future research directions, 66–67
group processes
background information, 61
contributions of collective action, 61–62
determinants of socially shared ideological beliefs, 62–63
role of ideological groups, 61–62
integrative framework for understanding, 65–66
liberalism vs. conservatism and, 58
role of ideological beliefs of individuals
background information, 58–59
right-wing authoritarianism, 57, 59
social dominance orientation, 57, 59–60
societal processes
background information, 63
determinants of ideological climates, 65
role of ideological climates, 63–65
Voci, A., 196, 197, 200
Volkan, V., 94, 98
Volkan, Vamik, 282
Vollhardt, J. R., 7, 130, 263, 348
Volpato, C., 45, 130
von Weizsäcker, R., 79–80, 81
Vonofakou, C., 197
Vorauer, J., 161, 166
W
Wagner, U., 7, 195, 196, 198, 205
Walter, Eugene, 77
war/military interventions, 59
“war on terror,” 59
Watson, R. P., 40
“We All Belong” newspaper and tv campaign (Canada), 183
Weatherhead Center for International Affairs (Harvard University), 366
Weinstein, H., 332
Weinstein, H. M., 201
Wenzel, M., 315
Werther, A., 107
West, T. V., 7, 163, 167
When Victims Become Killers (Mandani), 136
White, R. K., 35, 362
Whites/Blacks
divergent view of racial discrimination, 158, 161, 163
interest in/avoidance of intergroup interactions, 161
Winkler, John D, 367
Wohl, M.J.A., 98, 125, 130
worldviews
defined, 54
individual development of, 60
woundedness (psychological), healing of, 281–282
Wright, S. C., 196, 197, 205
X
xenophobia, 113
Y
Yablon, Y. B., 196
Yeakley, A., 7, 216
Yzerbyt, V., 90, 91
Z
Zafran, A., 37, 92
Zagefka, H., 195
Zartman, I. W., 230, 240
Zazzi, J., 65
Zelditch, M., 31
Zick, A., 198