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date: 28 January 2020

(p. 709) Index

(p. 709) Index

Absolute deprivation theory, 353, 354–55, 356
Academy of Criminal Justice Sciences, 164, 346
Accounts (technique), 483
Acquiring resources. See ORCA
Action Plan (Finland), 480
Action stage of change, 219
Activity nodes, 538, 539–40, 541, 546, 547, 581
Activity spaces, 538–39, 540, 544, 581, 588
Actual social support, 161, 162
Additive genetic influences, 49
Adolescence-limited offenders, 189, 191, 205, 227, 261, 594, 595
Adolescent Girl in Conflict, The (Konopka), 297
Adolescents. See also Peer networks; Youth
birth complication effects in, 31
brain development in, 17
hormonal imbalances in, 30
IQ and antisocial behavior in, 26
prenatal influences and, 31
psychophysiology studies of, 27–28, 29
risk factors and crime, 89–109 (see also Risk factors)
romantic relationships and crime, 269–70
social support and, 170–71
Adoption studies, 23, 57
Afghanistan, 616
African Americans
code of the street and, 154–55, 362
economy and, 618
female, 303, 304, 307
in gangs, 281, 287–88
green crime and, 637
HIV in, 699
incarceration of, 691, 696–97, 698, 699
Lombroso on, 9
neighborhood ties and, 335, 339
social support and, 172
street culture and, 375, 376
structural inequality and, 358, 362
violence and, 143, 144, 152
Age. See also Developmental/life-course criminology; Life course
genetic influences and, 23
reconsidering impact on desistance, 213–14
risk factors for crime and, 97(table), 101–3(table)
“Age and the Explanation of Crime” (Hirschi and Gottfredson), 131
Age-graded social bond/control perspective
on desistance, 210, 212, 213
on incarceration, 676, 677
Agency, 206, 209, 212, 213, 214–15, 217, 220
Agentic strains, 319
Aggravated assault, 143, 515, 525
Aggregate-level guardianship, 517–18
Aggregate-level place theories, 555
Aggression
genetic factors in, 23–24
neurotransmitter dysfunction and, 30
psychophysiology of, 27–29
risk factors for, 96, 108
social learning theory on, 116, 118, 124–27
social support theory on, 175
testosterone and, 30
Agnew, Robert, 145, 152, 165, 318, 319–21, 496, 677–78
Aigner, Stephen M., 298
Aigner-Clark, Julie, 40
Ainslie, George, 667
Air, land, and water (ALW) pollution, 626, 632–35
Akers, Ronald L., 76, 115, 116, 118, 119, 121, 124, 128, 134, 140, 260
Alarid, Leanne Fiftal, 303
Alcohol use. See also Substance abuse
maternal, 175
peer networks and, 264, 268, 270
prenatal exposure to, 23, 30, 31, 33
the proletariat and, 428
as a risk factor for crime, 96
routine activity theory on, 521, 522–23, 525–26
social support vs., 169
street crime and, 466
Aldridge, Judith, 284–85
Allan, Emilie, 299, 303
Altheimer, Irshad, 178(table), 179
Ambiguity aversion, 664–65
American Society of Criminology, 18, 140–41, 594
Amsterdam, Netherlands, 287, 288
Amygdala, 24–25, 497, 498, 499, 502
Anchor location, 664
Anchor points, 538, 541, 546, 547
Ancrum, Craig, 436
Anderson, Elijah, 145, 150–51, 153, 154, 155, 156–57, 361–62, 371, 377–78, 379, 380, 391, 400
(p. 710) Andrews, Donald A., 72, 73, 78, 80, 81, 116, 118–24, 685
Anger
coercion and, 610, 612
gender, delinquency, and, 319–20
general strain theory on, 148, 149, 151, 152, 154–56, 319–20
negative valence of, 499
structural inequality and, 353, 354, 356
Animals, cruelty to, 229, 244
Anomie/normlessness index, 175, 179
Anomie theory, 160, 411, 429, 430. See also Institutional-anomie theory
Anthropocentric view of green crime, 630, 631
Anti-establishment attitudes, 99, 100, 104, 106
Antisocial behavior
biological factors in, 22
developmental/life-course criminology on, 230
developmental model of, 125–27
gender differences in, 30
genetic factors in, 23, 47
hormonal imbalances and, 29–30
intelligence and, 26–27
neurotransmitter dysfunction and, 30
parenting role in, 44
pathway to reactive, 243
prenatal influences and, 31
psychology of criminal conduct on, 78
psychophysiology of, 27–29
social learning theory on, 122, 123–24, 125–28
social support theory on, 170–71, 175
Antisocial potential (AP), 232–37, 243. See also Integrated Cognitive Antisocial Potential theory
Antonaccio, Olena, 434
Anxiety, 30, 148, 151
Apaches (gang), 275
Apel, Robert, 525
Apgar scores, 31
Armed robbery, 380, 470, 587, 588–89, 664
Arrogance, 486, 487–88
Arseneault, Louise, 32
Arson, 30
Asbury, Herbert, 275, 276(table)
Asdigian, Nancy L., 517, 521, 523
Asians, 175
Assault
aggravated, 143, 515, 525
gender differences in, 294
neighborhood ties and, 339
peer networks and, 264
rise in, 415
routine activity theory on, 520, 521, 525
social institutions and, 415
structural inequality and, 356
target search theory on, 543
Assertion training, 74
Assigned responsibility, place managers with, 564, 565
Assumed similarity, 263
Atavism theory, 5, 8, 9, 11, 12, 17
Athens, Lonnie H., 611
Atlanta, Georgia, 390, 448. See also Central West Atlanta
Attachment, family/parental, 50, 51, 52(figure), 53(figure), 54, 56, 135, 170, 316
Attachment bond, 316, 317–18
Attention span deficits, 29, 99, 100, 235
Atypical frontal asymmetry, 29
Augustyn, Megan B., 300
Aussiedler, 283–84
Austin, James, 674
Australia, 479
Authoritarian parents, 44
Authoritative parents, 44
Authority conflict pathway, 226, 240, 241, 243
Auto theft. See Motor vehicle theft
Avoidance, 390, 391, 392, 394, 395–97
Awareness spaces, 538–39, 540, 544, 588
Baby boomers, 618
Baby Einstein series, 40
“Backfire: When Incarceration Increases Crime” (Clear), 704n1
Ball, Richard A., 305
Baltimore, Maryland, 701
Bandura, Albert, 74, 118, 124, 125, 214–15, 220
Bank robbery, 544–45
Barkow, Jerome H., 46
Baron, Stephen W., 612
Bars, 527, 560, 568, 569
Bartusch, Dawn, 374
Baumer, Eric P., 379
Baumgartner, M. P., 395, 397, 400
Baumrind, Diana, 44
Bayesian techniques, 192–93, 194
Bean, Lydia, 365, 380
Beaver, Kevin, 17
Beccaria, Cesare, 653–54, 655, 656, 657, 660, 666, 667n1
Becker, Gary, 655
Behavioral economics theory, 666
Behavioral rehearsal, 74
Beirne, Piers, 628, 631
Belief bond, 316
Bell, Kerryn E., 303
Bellair, Paul E., 339, 347, 359
Benford, Robert D., 382
Benson, Michael L., 227
Bentham, Jeremy, 654–55, 656
Berg, Mark T., 379, 383–84
Berkowitz, Leonard, 156
Berlin Wall, fall of, 282
Berman, Mitchell E., 30
Bernard, Thomas J., 315
Bernasco, Wim, 527, 587
Bianchi, Suzanne M., 40–41
(p. 711) Big Four risk factors for recidivism, 123–24
Bing, Leon, 276(table)
Bin Laden, Osama, 571
Biocentric view of green crime, 631
Biosocial criminology, 5–65. See also Biology; Lombroso, Cesare; Parents
Biosocial Criminology Research Group, 17–18
Birth complications, 23, 30, 31, 33
Black Kings (gang), 281
Blackwater, 616
“Blank slate” assumption, 46, 47
Blau, Judith R., 356, 527
Blau, Peter M., 356
Block, Richard, 587
Blokland, Arjan A. J., 192, 193, 194, 196, 200, 201
Blom, Martine, 232
Boccardi, Marina, 24
Body mass index (BMI), 15
Bolland, John, 526
Bonger, Willem, 427–30, 434, 436, 437
Bonta, James, 72, 73, 79, 80, 116, 118–24
“Born criminals” (Lombroso’s theory), 5, 8, 11, 12
Boston, Massachusetts, 191, 275, 279, 288, 560
Bottoms, Anthony, 211–12, 215
Bourgeoisie, 428
Bourgois, Phillipe, 391
Bowling, Benjamin, 211–12
Boyd, Rebecca J., 174(table), 175
Braga, Anthony A., 557
Brain
evolution and structure of, 496–98
Lombroso on, 10–11
prenatal/infancy development of, 168–69
rational choice and, 495, 498–500
triune system of, 497
Brain imaging. See Neuroimaging
Braithwaite, John, 164, 167, 496
Braman, Donald, 697
Brennan, Patricia A., 32
Brezina, Timothy, 154, 464, 468
Brisbane, Australia, 340
British Columbia, 538
British Crime Survey, 338, 589
Britt, Chester, 592
Broidy, Lisa M., 318, 319–21
Broken windows theory, 597n2
Brotherton, David C., 286
Browning, Christopher R., 340, 342
Bucerius, Sandra, 284, 288
Buck v. Bell, 13
Buerger, Michael E., 560
Buffalo, New York, 699
Bulgaria, 418
Bullying, 258, 346
Burchfield, Keri B., 340–41
Burgess, Robert L., 76, 118, 121, 124
Burglary, 462
choosing to commit, 470
crime places/place management and, 562
developmental/life-course criminology on, 226, 229, 230, 231
in former Soviet Union, 408
general multilevel opportunity theory on, 586–87, 588, 589–92
neighborhood ties and, 338, 339
perceptual deterrence theory on, 661
rise in, 415
routine activity theory on, 515, 518, 520, 521, 527, 528, 529
social institutions and, 415
Burma, 635
Burn, Shawn Meghan, 342
Burrow, John D., 525
Bursik, Robert J., Jr., 381, 555, 691, 692, 693–94, 699
Bushway, Shawn D., 192, 193, 194, 201
Bystander intervention, 342
California, 144, 179
Callous-unemotional traits, 30
Cambodia, 635
Cambridge Study in Delinquent Development, 95, 226, 228, 231, 232, 235
Cameroon, 635
Campbell, Anne, 276(table), 280–81, 297, 305, 306
Canada, 479, 674
Canada, Geoffrey, 152
Canadian School theories, 71–72, 73, 81, 82, 118–24
Canadian Urban Victimization Survey, 591
Cancer, social support and, 162
Cao, Liqun, 178(table), 179
Cap and trade, 570
Capitalism, 426–30. See also Market economy
degree of and crime, 433–34
differential coercion theory on, 614–16, 617, 619–20
epochal shift from industrial to consumer, 436
Capital-labor balance of power, 608, 611, 619–20, 621
Capital punishment, 17
Carjacking, 463, 469
Carleton University, 118
Carr, Patrick, 341
Carroll, Leo, 527
Casey, Teresa, 269
Caspi, Avshalom, 16, 17, 49, 50, 213, 216, 301
Cauffman, Elizabeth, 304
Causal risk factors, 91
Causes of Delinquency (Hirschi), 131, 132, 133, 136–37, 138
Cavum septum pellucidum, 25
Celerity of punishment. See Punishment, celerity of
Centers for Disease Control, 241, 637–38
Central America, 286–87
Central Eight risk factors for recidivism, 123–24
Central Europe, 411, 418, 447
Central West Atlanta (CWA), 143–44, 150, 153
Cernkovich, Stephen A., 210–11, 215, 264
Certainty of punishment. See Punishment, certainty of
Cesarean section, 31
Challenger (space shuttle), 503–5
Chamlin, Mitchell B., 176, 177(table), 178(table), 179, 180
Chan, Siu-Ching, 25
Charlotte, North Carolina, 448
Chassin, Laurie, 174(table), 175
Chesney-Lind, Meda, 276(table), 319, 321
Chicago, Illinois, 278, 279, 281, 286, 288, 335, 339, 340, 341, 348, 360, 375, 448, 587, 693
Chicago Area Projects (CAP), 345
Chicago School theories, 94, 117, 278, 346, 372, 557
Child abuse, 229, 619
Children. See also Adolescents; Infancy; Parents; Youth
hormonal imbalances in, 30
incarceration of parents and, 697, 698, 699, 703
IQ and antisocial behavior in, 26
market economy impact on, 429
prenatal influences and, 31
psychophysiology studies of, 27–28, 29
risk factors and crime, 89–109 (see also Risk factors)
self-control development in, 169–70
social learning theory on aggression in, 116, 118, 124–27
social support and, 169–70
Chin, Ko-Lin, 276(table)
China, 432, 435, 481
Chiricos, Theodore G., 655, 656, 657, 658
Christie, Nils, 346–47
Chula Vista, California, 568–69
Circumstances, Motivation, and Readiness (CMR) scales, 217
City Gangs (Miller), 279
Civilizing process, 413
Civil Rights legislation, 618
Clark, Robert E., 14
Clarke, Ronald V., 517, 544, 560, 597n3
Classical conditioning, 119
Clean Air Act (CAA), 633
Clean Water Act (CWA), 633, 637
Clear, Todd R., 167, 612, 672, 691–92, 694, 695, 696, 699, 700, 703, 704n1
Client Assessment Inventory (CAI), 217
Client Evaluation of Self and Treatment (CEST), 217
Clinard, Marshall B., 484
Cloward, Richard A., 154
Clubb, Audrey C., 555
Cocaine, 391
Coccaro, Emil F., 30
Cochran, John K., 176, 177(table)
Code of the street, 377–78, 379, 380, 616
code of the suburb compared with, 390, 395, 400–401
defined, 389
general strain theory on, 145, 149, 153, 154–56
structural inequality and, 354, 361–62
Code of the suburb, 389–401
averting serious retaliation, 399
avoidance and, 390, 391, 392, 394, 395–97
conflict management and, 392–99
defined, 391
described, 391–92
negotiation and, 390, 391, 392–95
principles of, 391
study data, 390–91
toleration and, 390, 391, 392, 394, 397–99, 400
Coercion, 607–21
capital-labor balance of power and, 608, 619–20
cultural messages and, 608, 616–17
defined, 608
degree and consistency of, 609
economic conditions and, 608, 617–18
evolution of concept, 608–11
impersonal, 608, 610, 614, 615, 618–19, 620
interpersonal, 610–11, 614, 615, 620
social reproduction of class structure and, 607, 608, 610, 613–16, 620
social support and, 608, 612, 613, 619–20
Coercion theory, 118, 125–27, 128. See also Differential coercion theory
Coercive behavior modeling, 610, 612
Coercive exchanges, 44
Coercive Family Process (Patterson), 125
Coercive ideation, 610, 612
Coercive mobility thesis, 612, 691–704
on concentration of incarceration, 696–98
description of, 694–96
on prison cycling and crime, 698–703
social disorganization theory and, 691–92, 693–94, 699
Coercive power, 608
Coercive strain, 612
Cognitive-behavioral therapy, 74–75, 77, 78, 79
(p. 713) Cognitive theories, 73, 382–84
Cognitive transformation, 211, 212, 214
Cohen, Albert K., 153, 154, 280, 373–74
Cohen, Lawrence E., 356, 357, 513, 514–18, 520, 524, 527, 563
Coleman, James S., 348
Collective efficacy, 405, 587, 694
defined, 360
neighborhood ties and, 339, 340, 342
structural inequality and, 360
Colletti, Patrick, 24
Collins, Randall, 494, 608
Colors (film), 616
Columbia University, 164
Columbus, Ohio, 281
Colvin, Mark, 607–14, 677, 678
Comfort spaces, 571
Command economies, 418
Commensalism, 514–15
Commercial robbery, 557
Commitment bond, 316
Communal strains, 319
Communities, 333–402. See also Code of the suburb; Neighborhood social ties; Street culture; Structural inequality
incarceration impact on, 694–704
market economy and, 430–32, 436–37
qualitative studies of crime in declining, 436–37
risk factors for crime in, 92, 94, 108–9
social support theory on, 164–65, 168
Communities That Care, 109
Community-oriented policing, 167, 344
Concentration effects, 356
Condemnation scripts, 211
Condition of the Working Class in England in 1844, The (Engels), 426–27
Conduct disorder, 92, 126
genetic factors in, 47
hormonal imbalances and, 30
prenatal influences and, 31
psychophysiology of, 28, 29
“Conflict” timber, 635
Conformity
control theories on, 132, 133, 137
gender and, 315
general strain theory on, 152
life-course change and, 210
social support theory on, 165, 166, 170
web of, 165
Consumer sentiment, 416–17
Containment theory, 76
Contemplation stage of change, 219
Contexts (journal), 449
Contingency principle, 120
Control, parental, 44, 48–49, 50–51, 54, 170, 172, 315–16, 318, 323
Control deficits, 610, 611, 612
Controlling access. See ORCA
Control theories, 131–41, 405, 429. See also Power-control theory; Self-control theory; Social control theory
on gender and delinquency, 313, 314–18
general strain theory and, 156
ICAP theory and, 232
Convergent settings, 570–71
Cornish, Derek B., 545
Corporations
coercion and, 614, 615–16, 619–20
environmental issues and, 633
Correctional component (intervention principles) of PCC, 72, 76–80, 82
Correctional Program Assessment Inventory (CPAI), 72, 81–82
Correctional system. See also Criminal justice system
desistance research and, 216–18
social support theory on, 167
Corrupt spots, 571
Cortisol, 29–30, 33
Cosmides, Leda, 46
Covert pathway, 226, 239–41, 243
Coyle, Marcia, 637
Crack cocaine, 445
CRAVED (Concealable, Removable, Available, Valuable, Enjoyable, Disposable), 517
Credit default options, 479
Cressey, Donald, 76
Crime: Its Causes and Remedies (Lombroso), 8
Crime and Human Nature (Wilson and Herrnstein), 16
Crime attractors, 539, 540, 544, 545, 566, 567
Crime concentrations, 559–60
Crime enablers, 566
Crime events, 580
Crime-facilitative culture, 482–83
Crime generators, 539–40, 544, 545, 565–66, 568
Crime-neutral areas, 539, 540, 545
Crime pattern theory, 536, 537–43, 546, 547, 548
on crime places, 562
factors structuring opportunities and events, 537–43
fundamental assumptions of, 537
Crime rates
excessive decline in, 406, 408–9
gender differences in, 294
impersonal coercion and, 608, 618–19
incarceration and, 673, 697–704
limits to decline in, 406, 408
neighborhood ties and, 338–40
social institutions and, 406, 408–9, 411, 414–18, 419
social support theory on, 164
(p. 714) Crime scripting, 545
Crime sites, 570, 571(table)
Crimes of passion, 10
Crime templates, 542–43, 545
Crime triangle, 563, 564(table)
Criminal Career and Life-Course Study (CCLS), 192
Criminal events, 535–36, 579, 580, 584. See also Information-led target searches; Opportunistic discoveries; Proximity events; Purposive target searches
factors that structure, 537–43
need for additional research on, 595
Criminality, 535, 536, 579
Criminality and Economic Conditions (Bonger), 427–30
Criminal justice system. See also Correctional system
coercion in, 615
green criminology and, 638–40
informal social control and, 344–47
perceptual deterrence theory on, 650
social support theory on, 166–67, 168
street culture and, 378, 380
Criminal Man (Lombroso), 7, 8–12, 18
First Edition, 6, 7, 8, 9
Second Edition, 9–10
Third Edition, 10–11
Fourth Edition, 11
Fifth Edition, 5, 12
Criminal opportunities, 478, 480–81, 488, 542, 579. See also Opportunity theories
Criminal self-efficacy, 468
Criminogenic needs, 78–79, 123, 685
Criminogenic scripts, 213, 215–16
Criminogenic strain, 166
Criminological component (theoretical foundations) of PCC, 72, 73–76, 82
Criminological theories, 75–76, 495–500
Criminology (journal), 126
Crips (gang), 286
Crosnoe, Robert, 299
Crowther, Simon, 342
Crutchfield, Robert D., 699
Cullen, Francis T., 76, 123, 161, 163, 164–68, 170, 172, 173(table), 180, 227, 315, 346, 594, 595, 610, 611, 612, 680, 681, 685–86
Cultural attenuation, 354, 363, 375
Cultural conflict, 278, 279, 282, 283–84
Cultural deficits, 374
Cultural deviance theory, 133, 134, 135–36
Cultural frames, 382, 383
Cultural repertoire, 381–82
Cultural retaliatory homicides, 379
Cultural social isolation. See Social isolation
Cultural strength, 341, 363
Cultural transmission, 278, 282, 286–87, 288
Culture
coercion and messages from, 608, 616–17
crime-facilitative, 482–83
defined, 407
fragmented, 382
hybrid, 284, 288
oppositional, 362, 377, 378–80
street (see Street culture)
structural inequality and, 352, 360–63
Culture as values paradigm, 354, 365
Culture in action paradigm, 354, 365
Culture of poverty thesis, 376
Curbstone counselors, 345
Current Population Survey, 451
Currie, Elliott, 164, 430
Curry, Glen D., 305
Cyber crime, 470, 518, 519, 570
Cyberlifestyle-routine activity theory, 518
Czechoslovakia, 418
Daigle, Leah E., 168–69
Damasio, Antonio R., 28
Darley, John, 342
Davidson, Elizabeth L., 527
Davidson, William S., III, 77
Davies, Mark, 265
Dayton, Ohio, 568
Death (of life-course-persistent offenders), 190, 195, 196–97
Decision frames, 216
Decker, Scott H., 276(table), 286, 305–6, 461, 463, 464, 466, 467, 470, 471, 472, 587, 588
Decommodification, 412, 433–34
De Coster, Stacy, 299, 320, 323–24
Deeley, Quinton, 25
Defensible space, 518, 522, 562, 567, 592, 597n2
Defiance theory, 496
DeFina, Robert, 699, 701, 703
DeFronzo, James, 176, 177(table)
Deindustrialization, 164–65, 376
Delayed deterrence, 217
DeLeon-Granados, William, 347
Delinquency
coercion and, 609, 611, 612
control theories on, 135–36, 138–39, 313, 314–18
early and late starters, 127
gender differences in, 313–25
control theories on, 313, 314–18
learning theories on, 313, 314, 321–24
strain theories on, 313, 314, 318–21
girls, peers, and, 267, 294–307, 322–23
differential exposure and, 297–300
opposite sex peers and, 296, 301–4
incarceration and, 699, 702
peer networks and (see Peer networks)
prenatal influences and, 31
risk factors/predictors, 95–107
routine activity theory on, 526
social learning theory on, 124–27
social support theory on, 170, 172, 175–76
(p. 715) DeLisi, Matt, 17
Demography (journal), 195
Demonstration projects, 70, 77, 78, 82
Demoralization, 427, 428, 429, 434
Denver, Colorado, 229, 305, 339
Denver Youth Study, 662
Depression, 496
gender and, 319, 320
general strain theory on, 148, 151, 319, 320
social support theory on, 175
Deprivation theories, 353, 354–57, 364
absolute, 353, 354–55, 356
relative, 353, 355–56
Derivatives trading, 479
Derzon, James, 49, 57
Desistance, 205–6, 213–14, 216–18
structural perspective on, 206, 210, 211–12, 215, 218, 219
subjective perspective on, 206, 209, 210–12, 214, 215, 218, 219
Deterrence
delayed, 217
general, 650
rediscovering, 655–57
specific, 650, 674–76, 679
Deterrence theory. See also Perceptual deterrence theory
on immigration and crime, 445
psychology of criminal conduct and, 75–76
social disorganization theory distinguished from, 334, 344–47, 348
Developmental/life-course criminology (DLC), 226–46. See also Developmental pathways; Developmental perspective; Integrated Cognitive Antisocial Potential; Life course
policy implications, 244
three main topics of concern, 227
what is known, 229–31
what needs to be known, 231–32
Developmental pathways, 227–28, 233, 237–43, 245–46
authority conflict, 226, 240, 241, 243
covert, 226, 239–41, 243
defined, 227
overt, 226, 239–41, 242, 243
to reactive antisocial behavior, 243
specific aspects of, 241–43
studying, 237–39
Developmental perspective
on antisocial behavior, 125–27
on risk factors and crime, 89, 90–92
Developmental sequences, 227
Developmental trajectories, 227
Developmental types, 227
Devine, Joel A., 178(table)
Dhondt, Geert, 700
DiClemente, Carlo C., 206
Dietz, Robert D., 340, 342
Differential association-reinforcement theory, 118
Differential association theory, 14, 15, 429
control theories and, 134
on delinquency in girls, 298
on gender and delinquency, 321, 322–23
on incarceration, 676–77
on peer networks, 259, 260, 265, 267, 269
psychology of criminal conduct and, 70, 74, 75, 76, 82
social learning theory and, 115, 116, 117–18, 119, 120–21, 123
social support theory compared with, 160
Differential coercion theory, 607–21. See also Coercion
empirical status of, 611–13
on incarceration, 612–13, 617, 676, 677–78
propositions for, 607–8, 613–20
Differential reinforcement theory, 260
Diffuse responsibility, place managers with, 564–65
Diffusion hypothesis, 502
Diffusion of benefits, 561
Dijkstra distance, 547, 548n1
Direct informal social control, 343–44
Directional bias, 538
Disapproval, parental, 50, 53(figure), 54, 55(figure), 56
Discount rate, 660–62, 666–67
Dishion, Thomas J., 126
Disobedience, 239, 241, 242, 243
Displacement of criminal activities, 561
Distance and criminal events, 538
District of Columbia, 697
Divorce, 415–16, 446
Domestic violence, 25, 229, 451, 452, 619
Dopamine, 25
Dornbusch, Sanford M., 299
Double marginalization, 280, 284
Drakulich, Kevin, 699
Drass, Kenneth A., 418
Dread, 660, 666
Drennon-Gala, Don, 164, 173(table)
Drug dealing, 143, 382, 468, 617
choosing to commit, 470
code of the suburb and, 389–401 (see also Code of the suburb)
gang ethnographies on, 281, 284, 285, 288
immigrants and, 443, 444–45
place management and, 563, 568, 569
Drug robbery, 463, 468
Drug use. See also Substance abuse
coercive response to, 616–17
peer networks and, 264
psychophysiology of offenders, 29
as a risk factor for crime, 96, 99, 100, 103, 104
routine activity theory on, 521, 522–23, 525, 526
street crime and, 466
Dugdale, Richard Louis, 10, 43
(p. 716) Dunedin study, 229
Dunphy, Dexter, 264
Durkheim, Emile, 10, 133, 408, 413
Earls, Felton, 339, 340, 348, 360, 555, 694
Early health risks, 22, 23, 30–32, 33
Early starters, 127
Earnhart, Dietrich, 633–34
Eastern Europe, 411, 418, 432, 447
Eck, John E., 560, 563
Ecocentric view of green crime, 631
Ecological contextualism theories, 92
Ecstasy (drug), 391
Eddy, J. Mark, 125
Edges, 539, 540–41, 546, 581
Education. See School and education
Edward I, King, 627
Effect sizes
of parenting, problem of small, 49–50, 59
in psychology of criminal conduct studies, 77, 78, 79, 81
Eggleston, Elaine P., 195, 196
Egoism, 428, 429, 434, 437
18th Street (gang), 286
80-20 rule, 560
Eisner, Manuel, 413, 414
Electroencephalography (EEG), 27, 28–29, 33
Elias, Norbert, 413, 414
Elliott, Delbert S., 339
Ellis, Lee, 16
El Salvador, 287
Emirbayer, Mustafa, 214, 220
Emotional contagion, 502–3
Emotions, 494–507. See also specific emotions
crime, criminological theory, and, 495–500
evolution and biology of, 496–98
gender, delinquency, and, 319–21
general strain theory on, 148, 149, 151, 319–21, 495–96
social behavior influenced by, 501–5
social construction of, 500
Empirical studies
of differential coercion theory, 611–13
of general multilevel opportunity theory, 586–93
of general strain theory, 149–53
of Hirschi’s theories, 131, 135–38
of incarceration effects, 679–81
of life-course-persistent offenders, 192–97
of market economy effects, 432–37
of neighborhood ties and crime, 338–44
of social support theory, 172–80
of street culture, 378–80
Employment, 231, 466–67. See also Unemployment
life-course offending and, 208, 209, 210, 216, 218, 221
as a risk factor for crime, 91
social support theory on, 166, 171
Enclosure system, 424, 426
Endocrine disruptors (EDs), 637–38
Engels, Friedrich, 426–27, 428, 437
Entitlement, 486, 487, 488
Environment
genetics interactions with, 23, 24
shared and nonshared influences, 49–50
Environmental backcloth, 541, 543
Environmental crime. See Green criminology
Environmental design theory, 567, 579, 592, 593, 597n2
on crime patterns by levels of analysis, 582–83(table)
summary of, 581
Environmental justice, 636–38
Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), U.S., 632–33, 637
Environmental toxins, 626, 637–38
Epilepsy, 8, 11, 12, 24
Erickson, Kristan Glasgow, 299
Esbensen, Finn-Aage, 302, 526
Escalation models, 238
Esping-Andersen, Gøsta, 412, 433
Essay on Crimes and Punishments, An (Beccaria), 653, 655, 656
Ethical flexibility, 486
Ethnicity. See Race/ethnicity
Ethnographic studies. See also Gang ethnographies
on neighborhood ties, 341, 343
on street culture, 381
Etiological theories, 405
Etzioni, Amitai, 608
Eugenics, 13
Eurogang Paradox, 285
Eurogang Research Group, 289
Europe. See also Central Europe; Eastern Europe
gang ethnographies from, 274, 275, 281–87, 288
social institutions of, 411, 413–14, 418
social welfare policies of, 435
European Social Survey, 478
European Union, 447
Event-related potentials (ERPs), 27, 29, 33
Evolution
of emotions, 496–98
parenting and, 59–60
Ewing, Robert G., 447
Executive function (EF), 26, 27, 33, 47
Expected Utility Theory, 668n7
Experimenters, 242
Exposure (to motivated offenders), 516–17, 520
Expressive crimes, 520, 521, 525
Expressive social support, 161, 163, 172
(p. 717) Externalizing behaviors
developmental pathways to, 238, 239–41, 242–43, 246
hormonal imbalances and, 30
psychophysiology of, 29
as a risk factor for crime, 96, 100, 104, 106, 108
social support theory on, 172, 175
Extreme Event Theory, 53
Facilitating hardware, 470
Facilities, crime concentration within groups of, 560–61
Fagan, Jeffrey, 276(table), 662, 663, 691, 699, 701
Falcone, David, 636
Families. See also Parents
coercion in, 609, 614, 619
declining legitimacy of, 415–16
ICAP theory on, 235
immigrant, 445, 446, 449
incarceration impact on, 695, 697
risk factors for crime in, 90, 92, 93, 99–100, 101(table), 102(table), 103(table), 104, 105(table), 106, 107, 108, 230, 235
single-parent, 358, 590–91, 695
social learning theory on, 124–27
social support theory on, 165
structural inequality and, 358
Farrall, Stephen, 211–12
Farrington, David P., 16, 43, 199, 226, 228, 231, 232, 243
Farruggia, Susan P., 304
Fathers
control of daughters and, 315, 316
criminal, 28, 44
social support from, 175, 176
Fear, 499
Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) crime statistics, 26, 655
Feinberg, Seth L., 340, 342
Feixa, Carles, 286
Felmlee, Diane, 301–2
Felson, Marcus, 513, 514–16, 518, 527, 544, 563, 564, 570–71
Felson, Richard B., 374, 379
Females. See also Gender; Girls
African American, 303, 304, 307
antisocial behavior in, 30
executive function deficits in, 27
in gangs, 280–81, 296, 304–6, 307n3
Hispanic, 307
Lombroso on, 6, 9, 10
market economy and, 428–29
street crime and, 468
Feminist theory, 314, 321, 322, 323, 325
Ferracuti, Franco, 361, 374, 375, 379
Finkelhor, David, 517, 521, 523
Finland, 480
Firearms, 431, 432
Fisher, Bonnie S., 518, 525, 593
Fisheries, decline of, 628, 636
Five Points area of New York, 275, 278
Fleisher, Mark, 276(table)
Focal child, 46–47
Focal concerns, 374
Forde, David R., 528, 591
Formal sanctions, 651, 655, 658, 666
Formal social control, 333, 346
age and, 213
coercive mobility thesis on, 694, 695
immigrants and, 445
social support and, 168
Formal social support, 161, 163
Former Soviet Union, 408, 432, 435, 479, 481
Fornango, Robert, 395
Fox, Robert J., 305
Fragmented culture, 382
Frankfurt, Germany, 284, 287
Fraud, 231, 519
Frazee, Sharon G., 527
Freilich, Joshua D., 526
Fremont Hustlers (gang), 281
Freng, Adrienne, 526
Freud, Sigmund, 116
Frick, Paul J., 240
Frictional unemployment, 617, 618, 619
Friends. See Peers
Friendship networks. See Peer networks
Fromm, Erich, 430
Frontal cortex, 24
Fronting drugs, 393, 395
Functional imaging studies, 25, 32–33
Furfey, Paul H., 275
Gaia Theory, 631
Gang ethnographies, 274–89
classic era, 274, 275–79, 287
contemporary period, 274, 275, 281–87, 288–89
interstitial period, 274, 275, 279–81, 287–88
three elements required for, 274
Gang Resistance Education and Training (G.R.E.A.T.), 294
Gangs, 348, 375, 615, 616
females in, 280–81, 296, 304–6, 307n3
general strain theory on, 153–54
immigrants and, 275, 278, 282–83, 445, 451
routine activity theory on, 525, 526
sociograms of, 268
Gangsta-rap genre, 150
Gang transmission. See Cultural transmission
Garland, David, 672
Garofalo, James, 516
Garrett, Carol J., 77
Gartin, Patrick R., 560
Gartner, Rosemary, 178(table)
(p. 718) Gaussian normal curves, 50, 54–56
Geerken, Michael R., 656–57
Gender. See also Females; Girls; Males
crime rates and, 294
delinquency and, 313–25 (see also under Delinquency)
risk factors for crime and, 96, 97(table)
Gender entrapment, 303
Gender typescripts, 296, 299, 300, 303, 304
Gendreau, Paul, 71, 72, 79, 81, 680, 681
General deterrence, 650. See also Perceptual deterrence theory
Generalized extreme value (GEV) distribution, 52–56
General multilevel opportunity theory, 579–97
empirical evidence on, 586–93
implications and future directions, 593–96
theoretical propositions of, 584–86
General personality and cognitive social learning (GPCSL), 119–20, 122
General Population Survey, 41
General responsibility, place managers with, 564, 565
General responsivity principle, 76, 79, 123. See also Risk, need, and responsivity framework
General Social Survey, 440
General strain theory (GST), 495–96
on coercion, 609
on gender and delinquency, 318, 319–21
on incarceration, 676, 677–78
social support theory compared with, 165
on violence, 143–57, 319
cycle of, 151–53
empirical research on, 149–53
factors conditioning effect of strains, 148–49
overview of, 146–49
reasons for strains’ increase of, 148
strains conducive to, 146–47
subcultures of, 153–56
General theory of crime, 200, 259, 261
General Theory of Crime, A (Gottfredson and Hirschi), 16, 131, 132, 135, 136
Genetics, 17, 22, 23–24, 32
additive influences, 49
environment interactions with, 23, 24
parenting and, 47, 49, 58–59
Genoa, Italy, 287
Genocide, 635
Geographic information systems (GIS), 554, 559
Germany, 283–84, 288
“Get tough” movement, 71, 75, 180, 615, 672, 675–76, 682, 683, 684
Ghazarian, Sharon R., 174(table)
“Ghetto-related” cultural models, 376
Gibbs, Jack P., 655
Gibbs, Lori, 307
Gibson, Chris L., 563
Gibson, Mary, 18
Gilligan, Carol, 298, 303
Gini Index of Inequality, 434
Giordano, Peggy C., 210–11, 214, 215, 264, 269, 296
Girls. See also Females; Gender
developmental pathways in externalizing behaviors, 242
incarceration of, 699
Native American, 301
parental control and, 48
peers, delinquency, and, 267, 294–307, 322–23 (see also under Delinquency)
pubertal development and crime in, 267, 301
Glasgow Gang Observed, A (Patrick), 282
Global positioning systems (GPS), 559
Global warming, 628
Glueck, Eleanor, 115, 116, 191–92, 195, 199, 213, 229, 677
Glueck, Sheldon, 115, 116, 191–92, 195, 199, 213, 229, 677
Goddard, Henry H., 43
Godsey, Timothy W., 178(table), 179
Goffman, Erving, 397
Goggin, Claire, 680, 681
Goldstein, Herman, 569
Goldweber, Asha, 304
Goring, Charles, 116
Gorman-Smith, Deborah, 242
Goto, Sharon G., 172, 173(table), 175–76
Gottfredson, Michael R., 16, 17, 131, 132–33, 136–37, 138, 139, 140, 169–70, 259, 265, 266, 314, 315, 516
Gould, Kenneth, 634
Gove, Walter R., 656–57
Graig, Michael C., 24
Granovetter, Mark, 270
Grant, Don S., II, 177(table)
Grasmick, Harold G., 555, 691, 692, 693–94, 699
Great Britain. See United Kingdom/Great Britain
Great Depression, 674
Great Recession, 479, 618–19
Great Society legislation, 618
Greece, 431
Green criminology, 625–40
criminal justice policy and practice and, 638–40
definition of, 629–30
direct harm and, 625, 626, 629
ecological victims, 630–31
environmental justice and, 636–38
human victims, 630, 631
importance of, 626–27
indirect harm and, 625, 626, 629
invention of, 626–30
(p. 719) nonhuman victims, 630, 631
rationale and background, 627–29
types of crimes, 632–36
victims and varieties of, 630–31
Groff, Elizabeth R., 555
Gross domestic product (GDP), 179, 417
Group offending, 501–5
Group trajectory method (GTM), 191–95, 202n1, 207
Groves, W. Byron, 338–39, 359
Growth curve model (GCM), 193–95, 200
Guardians, 563, 564(table), 595
Guardianship, 515, 516, 521–22, 528, 529, 587, 589, 590, 591, 593
aggregate-level, 517–18
individual-level, 517–18
intensity of, 522
natural, 522, 592
personal, 592
physical, 517, 521, 592
social, 517, 521, 524, 527, 592
Guerette, Rob T., 560
Gumbel, Emil Julius, 53
Guns, 431, 432
Guthrie, Edwin R., 74
Gypsies, 10
Habitus, 215
Hackler, James C., 343
Haden, Sara C., 173(table), 175
Hagan, John, 302–2, 314, 318, 611
Hagedorn, John M., 276(table), 280
Hague, The, 287
Hall, Steve, 436
Hallsworth, Simon, 285
Hallucinogenic mushrooms, 391
Halsey, Mark, 631
Hammer, Matthew, 571
Han, Chen-Bo, 24
Handlers, 563, 564(table), 595
Handley, Elizabeth A., 174(table), 175
Handwriting, 8, 11
Hannerz, Ulf, 381–82
Hannon, Lance, 176, 177(table), 699, 701, 703
Harding, David J., 383
Hardy, George, 504
Harris, Judith R., 46, 48, 57, 170
Harvard Business Review, 484
Hawley, Amos, 514–15
Haynie, Dana L., 265, 269, 270, 301, 303, 304
Hayslett-McCall, Karen L., 315
Head size, 15, 16. See also Phrenology
Healy, Deidre, 209
Heart rate, 27, 28
Heimer, Karen, 294, 299, 323–24, 374
Henggeler, Scott, 128
Henson, Billy, 518
Heritability. See Genetics
Herrnstein, Richard, 16, 17
Heuristics, 215, 216, 217
Hewitt, John D., 611
Higgins, George E., 174(table), 175
Hindelang, Michael J., 376, 516
Hipp, John R., 700–701
Hippocampus, 24, 25
Hirono, Nobutsugu, 25
Hirschi, Travis, 16, 17, 131–41, 169–70, 259–60, 261, 265, 266, 269, 314, 315, 316, 676
citations of work, 131
criticism of work, 132, 140–41
empirical testing of theories, 131, 135–38
parsimony of theories, 131, 138–39, 140–41
underlying assumptions in theories of, 131, 132–34, 140
Hispanics/Latinos, 152, 287–88, 307, 637
HIV, 699
Ho, Kwai-Yiu, 343
Hoefnagels, Cees, 173(table), 176
Holland, Jan, 701
Hollis-Peel, Meghan, 521
Homeless street youth, 611, 612
Homicide, 143, 374
cultural retaliatory, 379
decline in, 413–14
developmental pathways in, 241, 242
domestic, 543
immigration and, 449
institutional-anomie theory and, 411–13
Lombroso on, 10
market economy and, 411–13, 431, 432, 433–35
neighborhood ties and, 340
neurological features of offenders, 17
neurotransmitter dysfunction and, 30
rise in, 415
routine activity theory on, 515, 527
social institutions and, 406, 411–14, 415, 416, 417, 418
social support theory on, 179
street culture and, 379
structural inequality and, 356, 357, 360
target search theory on, 543
Honaker, David, 466
Hooks for change, 211, 222
Hopelessness, 153
Horiuchi, Shiro, 195
Hormonal imbalances, 23, 29–30, 33
Horowitz, Carl F., 451
Horowitz, Ruth, 276(table), 375
Hot spot models, 559
Household activity ratio, 515, 530n1
Huesmann, L. Rowell, 44
Hughes, Loraine A., 348
Hughes, Michael, 527
Huizinga, David, 662–63
Hull, Clark L., 74
(p. 720) Human development index, 179
Human ecology, 514–15
Human Genome Project, 17
Hungary, 418
Hunt, Geoffrey, 276(table), 304
Hunt, Scott A., 562
Hureau, David M., 557
Hybrid culture, 284, 288
5-Hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA), 30
Hyperactivity, 29, 92–93, 99, 100, 105, 235
Hyperbolic discount function, 667
Hypothalamus, 498
Iceland, 478
Identity transformations, 216
Ikäheimo, Pauliina, 15
Imitation, 118, 124
Immigration, 440–53
arguments for crime increase and, 443–45
data challenges and study limitations, 450–52
evidence for crime decrease and, 440–41, 445–46
gangs and, 275, 278, 282–83, 445, 451
illegal, 442, 447, 450, 451, 452
legal, 442, 450, 451, 452
longitudinal research needed on, 442, 446–50
social disorganization theory on, 335, 444, 445
theory testing on crime relationship, 442–46
Immigration-crime nexus, 441, 442, 443, 446, 451, 452, 453
Immigration revitalization thesis, 445, 446
Impersonal coercion, 608, 610, 614, 615, 618–19, 620
Implicit memory, 495, 499–500
Imprisonment. See Incarceration
Impulsivity, 92–93, 96–99, 100, 104, 105, 108, 235, 236
In a Different Voice (Gilligan), 303
Incarceration, 672–86
coercive mobility thesis on, 691–704 (see also Coercive mobility thesis)
competing views of, 674–79
concentration of, 696–98
as a criminogenic experience, 674, 675, 676–79, 682
curvilinear relationship between crime and, 692, 700, 703
differential coercion theory on, 612–13, 617, 676, 677–78
eco-friendly design principles and, 640
empirical effects of, 679–81
harshness of conditions and, 673, 679, 681, 682, 683
immigration and, 447–48
length of sentence and, 673, 679, 681, 682, 683
of life-course-persistent offenders, 190, 196–97
market economy and, 431, 432, 438
noncustodial sanctions vs., 673, 679, 680, 683–84
policy implications of research, 683–86
prison cycling and, 698–703
public safety and costs, 683–84
rate of in U.S., 673, 674
reentry programs, 684–85
as specific deterrence, 674–76, 679
theoretical implications of research, 682
Index of Consumer Sentiment (ICS), 417
Indirect informal social control, 343–44
Individual-level guardianship, 517–18
Individual risk factors
for crime, 92–93, 98–99(table), 101–3(table), 104, 105(table), 106
for early onset of offending, 230
Industrial revolution, 627–28
Inequality, economic, 434–35. See also Structural inequality
Inertia, 517
Infancy
brain development during, 168–69
irritable behavior during, 243
Informal sanctions, 651, 655, 658, 660, 665–66
Informal social control, 164, 166, 693, 696
age and, 213
coercive mobility thesis on, 694, 703
direct, 343–44
general multilevel opportunity theory on, 591
immigrants and, 444
indirect, 343–44
neighborhood ties and, 333–48 (see also Neighborhood social ties)
place management and, 562
structural inequality and, 352, 357–60, 364
Informal social support, 161, 163
Information-led target searches, 536–37, 544–45, 547, 548
Insanity, 11. See also Moral insanity
Insiders, 542
Institutional-anomie theory (IAT), 411–13, 420, 431–32, 433
Institutionalized social action, 409
Institutional performance, 406, 409–10, 411, 416–18, 419
Institutional regulation/legitimacy, 406, 409, 410, 411, 414–16, 419
Institutional structure, 406, 409, 410, 411–14, 419
homicide and IAT, 411–13
violence decline and, 413–14
Instrumental crimes, 520, 525
Instrumental social support, 161, 163, 168, 172
Integrated Cognitive Antisocial Potential (ICAP) theory, 226, 228, 232–37, 243
Intelligence/IQ, 79, 235
antisocial behavior and, 26–27
head size and, 16
(p. 721) Lombroso on, 9
Intelligence-led target searches. See Information-led target searches
Interactional theory, 259, 262
Intergenerational closure, 348
Internalizing behaviors, 100, 104, 106, 172
Internet
as a place, 557
white-collar crime and, 479
Interpersonal coercion, 610–11, 614, 615, 620
Inter-Quartile Range, 195, 202n3
Introduction to the Principles of Morals and Legislation, An (Bentham), 654
Iowa, 298
Iraq, 616
Irish immigrants, 275
Iron law of troublesome places, 560
Irvin, John, 674
Italian corner boys, 279
Italian immigrants, 275
Jackson, Pamela, 527
Jacobs, Bruce, 380, 463, 466, 467, 468, 544
Jaffee, Sara R., 44
Jahoda, Gustav, 667n1
Janowitz, Morris, 336
Jansyn, Leon R., Jr., 276(table)
Japan, 478
Jargon, 9, 13
Jarjoura, Roger G., 590–91
Jerrett, Michael, 632
Jiang, Shanhe, 173(table)
Joe, Karen, 276(table)
Jones, Stephen, 303
Jonson, Cheryl Lero, 680, 681
Journey to crime, 541–42
Judgment and Decision-Making (JDM) research, 668n7
Juffer, Femmie, 57
Juke family, 10
Juvenile delinquency. See Delinquency
Kandel, Denise, 265
Kandel, Elizabeth S., 32
Kansas, 633
Kansas City, 281
Karstedt, Susanne, 405, 418
Kasarda, John D., 336
Katz, Jack, 461, 462, 465, 467
Keenan, Kate, 242–43
Kelling, George L., 597n2
Kennedy, Leslie W., 528, 591
Kerr, Margaret, 48
Kibbutz, 57
Killias, Martin, 680
Kim, Haeryun, 174(table), 175
Kim, Haesung, 174(table), 175
Kim, Sang-Weon, 178(table), 179
Kim, Tia E., 172, 173(table), 175–76
Kingston, Jamaica, 285
Kleemans, Edward R., 232
Klein, Malcolm W., 276(table), 279, 285
Kluegel, James R., 516–17, 520, 524
Knecht, Andrea, 269
“Knifing off” of behavior patterns, 216
Kobrin, Solomon, 373
Konopka, Gisela, 297
Kornhauser, Ruth Rosner, 134, 335, 363, 375–76
Koverola, Catherine, 173(table)
Kreager, Derek A., 267–68, 270, 662–63
Krohn, Marvin D., 165
Kubrin, Charis E., 150, 338, 379, 449
Kuhn, Thomas, 69
Labeling theory, 232, 676, 678–79
Labor market
capital-labor balance of power in, 608, 611, 619–20, 621
differential coercion theory on, 608, 614, 617–18, 619–20, 621
immigration and, 443, 444
primary, 614
secondary, 614
Labor unions, 614, 616, 617
LaFree, Gary, 411, 414–16, 418
Laidler, Karen A. J., 304
Land, Kenneth C., 190, 356, 357, 516–17, 520, 524, 528–29, 562, 591
Land pollution. See Air, land, and water pollution
Land use and crime opportunity, 587–88, 597n6
Larceny, personal, 520, 524, 528, 590
Lasley, James R., 525
Las Vegas, Nevada, 448
Latane, Bibb, 342
Latessa, Edward J., 82
Late starters, 127
Latin America, 418, 432, 435
Latin Kings (gang), 286
Latinos. See Hispanics/Latinos
Laub, John H., 166, 171, 189, 190, 191–92, 193, 194, 195, 196, 197, 198, 199–200, 201, 205, 208, 210, 213, 215, 218, 229, 676, 677
Lauderback, David, 277(table)
Lauritsen, Janet L., 294
Lavelle, Marianne, 637
Lavenberg, Julia, 49, 57
Law of contiguity, 74
Lead exposure, 637
Learning theories, 405, 638. See also Differential association theory; Social learning theory
on emotions, 496
on gender and delinquency, 313, 314, 321–24
ICAP theory and, 232
psychology of criminal conduct and, 73, 74
(p. 722) LeBel, Thomas P., 209, 211
LeBlanc, Adrian Nicole, 697
Lee, Matthew T., 440, 446, 447, 449
Lee, Tatia M., 25
Lemert, Edwin, 465
Level of Service Inventory (LSI), 72
Level of Service Inventory-Revised (LSI-R), 80, 82
Levin, Yale, 14
Levine, Mark, 342
Lewis, Alfred Henry, 275
Liberia, 635
Liedka, Raymond V., 702
Lien, Inger-Lise, 286, 288
Life course, 189–252, 595. See also Developmental/life-course criminology; Life-course-persistent offenders
change in offending across, 205–22
correlates of, 208–9
development of theory and research, 212–18
evidence of, 206–8
model of, 218–21
theories of, 209–12
social support across, 161, 166, 168–72
“Life-Course Desisters?” (Sampson and Laub), 190
Life-course-persistent offenders, 189–202, 205, 227, 261
age at first offense as proxy, 191, 199
conceptual clarification, 197–98
cut-off age used for, 190, 191, 192, 195, 199–200
definition challenges, 190, 191, 198
empirical challenges to identifying, 192–97
etiologically distinct groups and predictability, 190, 197–99
evidence on, 191–92
Life expectancy, 195
Lifestyle-routine activities theory, 516, 518, 522, 523, 524, 525, 529, 530, 579, 592, 593
on crime patterns by levels of analysis, 582–83(table)
summary of, 581
Limbic system, 497–98, 499, 500, 501
Limited access orders, 414
Lin, Nan, 162, 163, 346
Lindesmith, Alfred, 14
Link, Bruce, 164
Lipsey, Mark W., 77, 78, 685–86
Listwan, Shelley Johnson, 612
Lochner, Lance, 662, 663
Loeber, Rolf, 16, 226, 228, 233, 237–43, 379
Lofland, John, 467
Logan, Charles H., 655
Logging, illegal. See Timber crimes
Lombroso, Cesare, 5–19, 116, 429
bad scholarship, 6, 13, 18
biosocial criminology and, 15–18
death of, 13
good scholarship, 6, 13, 18
motivations and interests of, 7–8
reconsidering theory of, 12–13
response of fellow criminologists to, 13–15
ugly scholarship, 5, 12, 13, 18
Lonardo, Robert, 269
Long, J. Scott, 524, 525
Longitudinal studies
on developmental/life-course criminology, 228–29
on immigration and crime, need for, 442, 446–50
on risk factors and crime, 89, 90, 92, 94–95
Looking glass self, 211, 213
Los Angeles, California, 279, 280, 286, 448, 632
Lösel, Friedrich, 78
Loughran, Thomas, 662, 663–64, 665
Low birth weight, 31
Lowenkamp, Christopher T., 81–82, 177(table)
LSD, 391
Lure, 478–79, 480, 481
Luykx, Floor, 527
Lynch, James P., 294, 523, 691, 695, 699, 701–2
Lynch, Michael J., 637
McBroom, James, 340
McCall, Patricia L., 356, 357
McCarthy, Bill, 269, 301–2, 611
McCord, Joan, 16
McDowall, David, 527, 528, 591
McGloin, Jean Marie, 300
McGuire, Connie M., 287
McGuire, James, 76
MacKenzie, Doris, 80–81
MacLean, Paul D., 497
Macro-level social communities, 352, 353, 359, 360, 373
Macro-level social processes, coercive, 607, 609, 610, 620
Macro-level studies
on differential association theory, 117
on immigration and crime, 441, 442, 450, 452–53
on psychology of criminal conduct, 69
on routine activity theory, 514, 522, 527–28
on social support theory, 161–62, 163, 168, 172, 176–80
on violence, 152
Madensen, Tamara D., 517–18, 529, 592
Maier, Pamela A., 527
Maintenance stage of change, 219–20
Makarios, Matthew D., 227
Males. See also Gender
(p. 723) antisocial behavior in, 30
executive function deficits in, 27
immigrant, 444, 445
Malnutrition, 30
Manasse, Michelle, 304
Manchester, Britain, 287
Mara Salvatrucha (gang), 286
Marginalization, 280, 282, 283, 284–85
Marijuana, 96, 264, 298, 391, 524
Market economy, 410, 418, 424–38
classic perspectives on, 426–30
crime, community, and, 430–32
empirical support for effects of, 432–37
homicide rates and, 411–13, 431, 432, 433–35
white-collar crime and, 479–80
Marketization, 433, 435
Market society, 430–31, 432, 434, 437
Markowitz, Fred, 374
Mark-to-market accounting procedures, 479
Marriage, 231, 236
incarceration impact on, 697, 698, 703
life-course offending and, 208, 209, 210, 216, 218, 221
social support provided by, 166
Martinez, Ramiro, Jr., 177(table), 440, 446, 447, 449
Martinson, Robert, 70, 72, 77, 683
Maruna, Shadd, 211, 213, 214, 215, 216
Marxism, 614
Massey, Douglas S., 498, 506–7
Materialist fallacy, 357
Matsueda, Ross L., 347–48, 378, 662–63
Maturation, 213–14
Matza, David, 76, 371
Mazerolle, Lorraine, 339–40
Meadows, Sarah O., 174(table), 175
Meares, Tracey, 691, 699
Mears, Daniel P., 298–99, 441, 443
Measuring Delinquency (Hindelang, Hirschi, and Weis), 131, 135
Media, 616
Medina, Juanjo, 284–85
Mednick, Sarnoff A., 32
Meesters, Cor, 173(table), 176
Meier, Robert F., 519, 522, 524, 525, 529, 591
Meisenhelder, Thomas, 215
Meithe, Terance D., 519
Memory
implicit, 495, 499–500
working, 28, 93
Memoryless processes, 201
Menjivar, Cecilia, 452
Mental illness, social support and, 162, 164
Merton, Robert K., 14, 411, 430
Messner, Steven F., 405, 412, 416, 431–32, 433–34, 527
Meta-analysis
of executive function deficits, 27
of externalizing behaviors, 239
of 5-HIAA and antisocial behavior, 30
of incarceration effects, 680, 681, 685–86
of parenting-crime link, 49, 57
of psychology of criminal conduct, 70, 77–79, 80, 81, 82
of risk factors and crime studies, 89, 90, 92, 95–107, 108
of social learning theory, 128
of Verbal-Performance IQ discrepancy, 26
Mexico, 451–52
Miami, Florida, 448
Micro-environments, 48
Micro-level social processes
coercive, 607, 609, 610, 620
street crime and, 373
Micro-level studies
on differential association theory, 117
on psychology of criminal conduct, 69
on social support theory, 161–62, 163, 168, 172–76, 179–80
on violence, 152
Miethe, Terance D., 522, 524, 525, 527, 528–29, 591, 592
Military service, 208, 231
Milkie, Melissa A., 40–41
Miller, Eleanor M., 303
Miller, J. Mitchell, 14–15, 593
Miller, Jody, 276(table), 280, 281, 302, 305–6, 307, 325
Miller, Lisa L., 340
Miller, Martin G., 298
Miller, Walter B., 276(table), 279, 288, 374, 375
Milwaukee, Wisconsin, 281
Mimicry, 502–3
Mining crimes, 626, 635
Minneapolis, Minnesota, 448, 560
Minor physical anomalies (MPAs), 23, 30, 32, 33
Mische, Ann, 214, 220
Mitchell, Nick, 211
Modeling therapy, 74
Mode of production, 427
Moffitt, Terrie E., 16, 17, 47, 49, 50, 189–92, 195, 196, 197, 198, 199–200, 201, 216, 259, 261, 297
Molecular genetics, 23
Monitoring the Future, 294
Monti, Daniel J., 277(table)
Montreal Longitudinal-Experimental study, 229
Moody, James, 267–68
Moore, Joan, 277(table), 280, 306
Moore, Todd M., 30
Moral choices, 419
Moral insanity, 11, 15
Morash, Merry, 298
More, Sir Thomas, 424–25, 426, 438
Morenoff, Jeffrey D., 340, 348
Moroccan immigrants, 283, 287, 288
Morton Thiokol (company), 504–5
(p. 724) Mothers
control of daughters and, 315, 316
focal child and, 46–47
social support from, 175–76
Motivated offenders, 515
exposure to, 516–17, 520
proximity to, 516–17, 518, 519
Motivated opportunism, 469
Motor vehicle theft
carjacking, 463, 469
choosing to commit, 470
crime pattern theory on, 540
developmental/life-course criminology on, 226
neighborhood ties and, 338
perceptual deterrence theory on, 661, 663, 664
routine activity theory on, 527
structural inequality and, 359
Mountaintop removal (MTR) mining, 637
MS-13 (gang), 286
Müller, Jürgen L., 24, 25
Mullins, Christopher W., 325
Mulloy, Lawrence, 504
Multidimensional Treatment Foster Care (MTFC), 126–27, 128
Multilevel criminal opportunity. See General multilevel opportunity theory
Multisystemic Therapy (MST), 128, 201
Muslims, 284, 286
Mustaine, Elizabeth E., 520, 524
Nagin, Daniel S., 190, 192, 194, 196, 200, 201, 659–62, 666, 680, 681
Naples, Mitchell, 211
Narrative literature reviews, 77
National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), 504–5
National Crime Victimization Survey, 627
National Forest System, 635
National Institute of Mental Health, 125
National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health), 661
on delinquency in girls, 294, 300, 301
on peer networks, 263, 265–67, 270
National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY), 50, 172, 663
National Survey of Families and Households, 172
National Youth Survey (NYS), 50–55, 242, 663
Native American girls, 301
Natural guardianship, 522, 592
Natural states, 414
Need/drive reduction theory, 74
Need principle, 76, 79, 80, 123. See also Risk, need, and responsivity framework
Negative discount rate, 660
Negative valence, 499
Neglected Approach to Deterrence Research, A” (Waldo and Chiricos), 656
Negotiated coexistence framework, 342
Negotiation, 390, 391, 392–95
Neighborhoods
coercion in, 612
crime places and, 562
disadvantage in, 505–6
Neighborhoods and Crime: The Dimensions of Effective Community Control (Bursik and Grasmick), 693
Neighborhood social ties, 333–48
empirical findings on, 338–44
immigration and, 444, 445
structural inequality and, 359
theory, justice models, and relevance of, 344–47
Neighborhood watch programs, 167
Neo-behaviorist theories, 74
Neocortex, 497–98
Neoliberal economic policies, 425, 435, 436
Neomammalian complex of the brain, 497
Nesovic, Aleksandra, 81
Netherlands, 192, 194, 196, 197, 200, 232, 269, 283, 286, 288, 447, 524, 587
Network closure, 348
Neural pathways, 169
Neuroimaging, 16–17, 22, 24–25. See also Functional imaging studies
Neuropsychology, 22, 26–27, 33
Neurotransmitter dysfunction, 22, 23, 29, 30, 33
Neutralization, 483
New Deal, 618
New institutionalism, 405
Newman, Katherine, 381, 382
Newman, Oscar, 597n2
New York, 275, 279, 280, 305, 341–42, 448, 697, 701, 703
New York Times, 448
New Zealand, 229
Nieuwbeerta, Paul, 192, 194, 196, 200, 201
Nodes. See Activity nodes
Non-criminogenic needs, 123
Noncustodial sanctions, 673, 679, 680, 683–84
Nonoffenders, 189
Nonshared environmental influences, 49–50
Norcross, John C., 206
Normalized deviance, 503–4
Normative outcomes problem, 56–58
Normative power, 608
North, Douglas C., 407, 413, 414
North Carolina, 699
Norway, 286
“Nothing works” doctrine, 70–71, 683
Nucleus accumbens, 25
Observational learning, 74
Offender search theory, 579. See also Target search theory
(p. 725) on crime patterns by levels of analysis, 582–83(table)
research on, 586–89
summary of, 581
Office of Justice Programs (OJP), U.S., 127
Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, U.S., 229, 241
Ohlin, Lloyd E., 154
Olds, David, 16
Ontario Ministry of Correctional Services, 118
Operant conditioning, 74, 76, 119
Opportunistic discoveries, 536, 543–44, 547, 548
Oppositional culture, 362, 377, 378–80
Optimal foraging theory, 545
Orbitofrontal cortex, 24, 25
ORCA (organize, regulate, control, acquire), 566–67, 572
Oregon Social Learning Center, 116, 118, 124, 126, 128
Oregon Youth Study (OYS), 125–26
Organizing space. See ORCA
Orientations of character, 430
Orphanages, 45, 57, 169
Osgood, D. Wayne, 208, 209, 259, 260, 269, 302, 526
Oslo, Sweden, 287, 288
Ousey, Graham C., 379, 449
Outlaw, Maureen, 592
Outsiders, 542
Overt pathway, 226, 239–41, 242, 243
Owen, Ashley E., 174(table), 175
Owners (of proprietary places), 558, 572
Ozer, Emily J., 144
Padilla, Felix, 277(table)
Pakistani gang members, 286, 288
Paleomammalian complex of the brain, 497
Pandillas (gang), 287
Papachristos, Andrew V., 268, 557
Paradigms
defined, 72
psychology of criminal conduct as, 69, 70, 72–73, 77, 82
risk research, 89, 90–95
Parents, 40–60. See also Attachment, family/parental; Control, parental; Families; Fathers; Mothers
authoritarian, 44
authoritative, 44
coercion by, 612
disapproval from, 50, 53(figure), 54, 55(figure), 56
evidence linking crime to practices of, 43–44
evidence on the limits of influence, 45–58
“good” vs. “bad,” 41, 42, 59
normative outcomes problem, 56–58
permissive, 44
small effect sizes problem, 49–50, 59
Standard Social Science Model problem, 46–49
uninvolved, 44
variability problem, 50–56
warmth of, 44, 50, 58
Park, Sookyung, 174(table), 175
Parochial social control, 337, 338, 693–94
Parsimony
of Hirschi’s theories, 131, 138–39, 140–41
of routine activity theory, 518
Parsons, Talcott, 407
Paternoster, Raymond, 201, 295, 298, 659, 662, 665
Paths, 538, 539, 540, 541, 546, 547, 581, 588
Pathways to Desistance, 304, 663, 665
Pathway to reactive antisocial behavior, 243
Patriarchy, 317–18, 321, 323–24
Patrick, James, 277(table)
Patterson, Gerald, 16, 44, 116, 118, 124–27, 128, 609
Pattillo, Mary E., 341, 342
Pauly, John, 607, 608–9, 613
Pavlovian conditioning, 650, 667n1
PCBs (polychlorinated biphenyls), 638
Peer networks, 257–71
centrality in, 258, 262, 263, 266, 267–68
cohesiveness of, 258, 263, 266–68
density of, 262, 266
future directions for research, 268–70
methodological considerations for research, 263–64
research on crime and, 264–68
role of, 258–59
theoretical explanations for importance of, 259–62
Peers
as alternative “moral universe,” 300, 302
coercive relationships with, 615
control theories on effects of, 135–36
delinquency in girls and, 267, 294–307, 322–23 (see also under Delinquency)
opposite sex, 296, 301–4
as risk factors for crime, 92, 93, 99(table), 100, 101(table), 102(table), 103(table), 104, 105(table), 230
social learning theory on, 126
social support theory on, 170–71
Pellow, David, 634
Penal harm movement, 167, 672
Penitentiary of New Mexico, 608
Pennsylvania State University, 269
Perceived social support, 161, 162
Perceptual deterrence theory, 649–68
future research and theoretical development, 665–67
important points on, 650–51
(p. 726) intellectual history of, 653–57
research on, 657–65
Performance IQ, 26–27
Performance pressure, 483, 484, 486–87
Permissive parents, 44
Persisters, 242
Personal, Interpersonal, and Community-Reinforcement (PIC-R) perspective, 122–24
Personal guardianship, 592
Personal larceny, 520, 524, 528, 590
Personal mastery experiences, 468–69
Personal responsibility, place managers with, 564, 565(table), 567
Perusse, Daniel, 58
Peterson, Dana, 286, 302, 526
Petrosino, Anthony, 49, 57
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, 151, 361, 702
Phrenology, 5, 9, 12, 16–17
Physical abuse, 321
Physical guardianship, 517, 521, 592
Physiognomy, 12, 15
Piehl, Anne Morrison, 702
Pinderhughes, Howard, 277(table)
Pine, Daniel S., 32
Pinker, Steven, 46
Piquero, Alex R., 192, 662, 663
Pitts, John, 285
Pitts, Victoria L., 526
Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, 229, 379
Pittsburgh Youth Study (PYS), 94, 226, 228, 237, 240, 241, 242, 245
Place, defining, 556–59
Place management, 556, 562–73
activities in high-crime places, 565–66
decisions that affect crime opportunities, 567–68
levels of, 564–65
market mechanisms and, 569–70
new directions for theory, 570–73
process of, 566–67
routine activity theory and, 555, 562–64
Place managers, 556, 562–70, 572, 595
development of concept, 563
differences from other controllers, 564(table)
levels of, 564–65
methods used to influence crime at places, 562–68
policy options that leverage, 568–70
Pleydon, Anne P., 297
Ploeger, Matthew, 298–99
Plomin, Robert, 58
Poaching, 627, 629, 630, 635–36
Poelhuis, Caroline W. Klein, 57
Pogarsky, Greg, 659–62, 663–64
Poland, 418
Police
crime places/management and, 561, 568–69
environmental impact reduction suggestions, 639–40
immigrants and, 445
neighborhood ties and, 343–44, 346
social support theory on, 167, 168
street culture and, 380
Police Services Study, 339
Polish immigrants, 278
Political restraint of the market, 432, 433
Ponzi schemes, 477
Pooled places, 555, 556, 562, 569
defined, 558
place management not applied to, 563
Population growth and density, 627
Portland, Oregon, 700, 703
Positive discount rate, 660
Positive valence, 499
Poverty, 505–6, 619. See also Absolute deprivation theory
culture of, 376
gang ethnographies on, 275
immigrants and, 444
incarceration and, 699, 703
neighborhood ties and, 336
Power-control theory, 317–18
Pratt, Travis C., 128, 178(table), 179, 315, 674
Precontemplation stage of change, 219
Predictive risk factors, 91
Preeclampsia, 31
Prefrontal cortex, 24, 25, 27
Pregnancy, teenage, 699
Premature birth, 31
Prenatal Early Infancy Program (PIEP), 169
Prenatal period
alcohol use during, 23, 30, 31, 33
brain development during, 168–69
smoking during, 23, 30, 31, 33, 58
Preparation stage of change, 219
Pridemore, William Alex, 178(table), 179
Primary labor markets, 614
Principles of Criminology (Sutherland), 117
Principles of effective correctional intervention, 69
Principles of Morals and Legislation, The (Bentham), 654–55, 656
Prison. See Incarceration
Prison cycling, 698–703
Prison-industrial complex, 617
Private social control, 337, 338, 693, 694
Problem-Oriented Policing conferences, 568
Prochaska, James O., 206, 219, 220
Projection, 263
Proletariat, 428–30
Property crime
crime pattern theory on, 540
gender and, 319
(p. 727) general strain theory on, 319
girls engaging in, 302
rise in, 408
routine activity theory on, 514, 520, 523, 524–25
social institutions and, 417
social support theory on, 176
Proprietary places, 555–56, 559(figure)
crime concentrations in, 559–60, 570
crime concentration within groups of facilities, 560–61
defined, 558
displacement, diffusion, neighborhood effects, 561–62
importance of ownership, 558
reasons for importance of, 559–62
Prospect Theory, 664, 668n7
PROSPER school-based programs, 267–68, 269
Prostitution, 321, 429, 468
Protex Industries, 633
Proximal places, 555, 559(figure), 569, 570
defined, 558
place management at, 563
Proximity (to motivated offenders), 516–17, 518, 519
Proximity events, 536, 543, 547, 548
Psychological Review (journal), 16
Psychological social learning theories, 116, 128
Psychological theories of crime, 74–75
Psychology of criminal conduct (PCC), 69–82
correctional component (intervention) of, 72, 76–80, 82
criminological component (theoretical) of, 72, 73–76, 82
historical context of, 70–73
technology component (tools) of, 72, 80–82
Psychology of Criminal Conduct, The (Andrews and Bonta), 73, 78, 122
Psychopathy
biological factors in, 22, 24, 25
hormonal imbalances and, 30
Lombroso on, 11, 15
psychophysiology of, 29
social support theory on, 175
Psychophysiology, 22, 27–29, 33
P300 waveforms, 29
Public Interest, The (journal), 70
Public social control, 337, 338, 693, 694
Puerto Rican gang members, 281
Puffer, J. Adams, 275, 276(table), 280
Pugh, M. D., 264
Punishment
celerity of, 650–51, 653, 656, 657, 658, 659–65, 666
certainty of, 650–51, 654, 655–56, 657, 658, 659–65, 666
hormonal imbalances and reaction to, 30
Lombroso on, 10
objective properties of, 651–52, 655–56, 657
perceptual properties of, 651–52
self-, 122
severity of, 650–51, 654, 655–56, 657, 658, 659–65
social learning theory on, 122, 123, 124
social support theory on, 170
stability of, 674
Purposive target searches, 536, 545–47, 548
Pyrooz, David, 286
Race/ethnicity. See also specific racial and ethnic groups
gang ethnographies on, 275, 283–84, 285, 288
general multilevel opportunity theory on, 587
green criminology and, 626, 636, 637
of immigrants, 450–51
Lombroso on, 5, 9, 10, 12, 14
market economy and, 431
neighborhood ties and, 336
social support theory on, 172–75
street culture and, 374–75
structural inequality and, 355–56
violence and, 152
Radical behaviorism
psychology of criminal conduct and, 74, 75, 76
social learning theory and, 119, 120–21
Rafter, Nicole, 18
Raine, Adrian, 16, 17, 24, 25, 30, 31, 32
Ralphs, Robert, 285
Rape. See also Sexual assault
developmental/life-course criminology on, 241
routine activity theory on, 515, 525
Rational choice theory, 232, 405, 475, 494–507, 579
the brain and, 495, 498–500
on crime patterns by levels of analysis, 582–83(table)
on green criminology, 633–34
reconsidering, 500–506
summary of, 581
useful features of, 494
weaknesses of, 494–95
Raudenbush, Stephen W., 339, 340, 360, 555, 694
Reagan, Ronald, 615, 616
Rebellon, Cesar, 304
Recidivism
Big Four risk factors for, 123–24
Central Eight risk factors for, 123–24
coercion and, 613
incarceration length/conditions and, 673, 679, 681, 683
Lombroso on, 7
noncustodial vs. custodial sentences and, 680
psychology of criminal conduct on, 72, 76, 77–78, 79, 81–82
rehabilitation and, 685–86
(p. 728) social learning theory on, 122–24
social support theory on, 167, 171
Reckless, Walter C., 76
Redemptive scripts, 211, 213, 215–16
Reentry programs, 684–85
Regicide, 413
Regoli, Robert M., 611
Regulating conduct. See ORCA
Rehabilitation, 685–86
Canadian School on, 71–72, 81
psychology of criminal conduct and (see Psychology of criminal conduct)
social learning theory on, 122–23
social support theory on, 167
Reid, John B., 125, 126
Reid, Lesley Williams, 441, 444
Reintegrative shaming, 167, 496
Relationship principle, 121
Relative deprivation theory, 353, 355–56
Religion, 9, 16, 208, 231, 317
Remunerative power, 608
Renauer, Brian, 700
Rengert, George F., 597n5
Replacement self, 211
Repression, 611
Reptilian complex of the brain, 497
Research City, England, 284
Residential mobility/turnover, 231, 336, 443, 444, 445
Resilience, 486–87
Resource, Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), 633, 634
Resource deprivation index, 353, 357
Respect, 377–78, 379
“Rethinking Crime and Immigration” (Sampson), 449
Reynald, Danielle M., 522, 587
Reyns, Bradford W., 518
Rhodes, William, 197
Rice, Kennon J., 527, 597n6
Richie, Beth E., 303
Riis, Jacob, 275, 276(table)
Risk, need, and responsivity (RNR) framework, 72, 77, 78, 79
description of, 123
measuring adherence to, 80–82
Risk domains, 92–94
Risk factors, 89–109
causal, 91
characteristics of studies on, 96–100
defined, 90
developmental perspective on, 89, 90–92
domains of, 92–94
for early onset of offending, 230
in ICAP theory, 235–36
implications for practice and research, 107–9
predictive, 91
for recidivism, 123–24
risk research paradigm on, 89, 90–95
Risk principle, 76, 79, 80, 123. See also Risk, need, and responsivity framework
Risk research paradigm, 89, 90–95
Robbery, 143, 144, 462
armed, 380, 470, 587, 588–89, 664
bank, 544–45
choosing to commit, 468, 469, 470
commercial, 557
crime pattern theory on, 540
developmental/life-course criminology on, 229, 230, 231, 241
drug, 463, 468
in former Soviet Union, 408
gender differences in, 294
general multilevel opportunity theory on, 586–87, 588–89, 590
immigration and, 449
place management and, 557
rise in, 415
routine activity theory on, 515, 520, 521, 525, 527
social institutions and, 415
street, 338, 557, 589
structural inequality and, 359
target search theory on, 543
Roberts, Brent W., 213
Robins, Lee, 16
Robinson, John P., 40–41
Roche, Kathleen M., 174(table)
Rochester, New York, 229
Romanian orphans, 57, 169
Roncek, Dennis W., 527
Roper v. Simmons, 17
Rose, Dina R., 691–92, 694, 695, 696, 699
Rosenfeld, Richard, 177(table), 179, 405, 412, 431–32, 433–34
Ross, E. A., 333
Rotterdam, Netherlands, 283
Routine activities, 515, 537–38
Routine activity theory, 475, 513–30
cyberlifestyle-, 518
definition of routine activities, 515
distinctions from mainstream theories, 515–16
expansions of, 516–18
guardianship and (see Guardianship)
individual-level studies of, 523–26
limitations of, 515, 522–23
measurement of key theoretical concepts, 518–23
motivated offenders and (see Motivated offenders)
multilevel studies of, 528–29
place management and, 555, 562–64
predictive validity of, 523–29
target attractiveness and (see Target attractiveness)
(p. 729) theoretical foundations of, 514–15
Rowdiness, 503
Rowe, David, 16, 45
Roy, Kevin, 216
Ruback, Barry, 592
Rudolph, Jennifer L., 210–11, 215
Rules of the game, 406, 407, 408, 409, 410, 412
Rulison, Kelly, 267–68
Rumbaut, Ruben G., 447
Running away, 321
Russell Square Area Project, 345
Russia, 179, 287, 435, 478, 479–81, 674
Rutter, Michael, 49, 50
Ryberg, Nick, 487
Ryder, Judith A., 699
Sabol, William J., 691, 695, 699, 701–2
Sacramento, California, 448, 701
Safe place templates, 542–43
St. Jean, Peter, 699
St. Louis, Missouri, 281, 305, 379, 587
St. Paul, Minnesota, 448
Salcido, Olivia, 452
Sampson, Robert J., 166, 171, 177(table), 189, 190, 191–92, 193, 194, 195, 196, 197, 198, 199–200, 201, 205, 208, 210, 213, 215, 218, 229, 338–39, 340, 343, 348, 358, 359, 360, 362, 365, 374, 377, 380, 448–49, 525, 528, 555, 589–90, 591, 676, 677, 694
Sanchez-Jankowski, Martin, 277(table)
Sanders, William, 277(table)
San Diego, California, 449–50
San Francisco, California, 305
Savolainen, Jukka, 178(table), 412, 434
Savoring, 660, 666
Scarpa, Angela, 30, 173(table), 175
Schizophrenia, 24
Schmaling, Karen B., 239
Schnaiberg, Allan, 634
Schner, Joseph G., 297
School and education, 231
code of the suburb participants and, 390
coercion impact on, 612, 614–15
crime victimization and, 593
ICAP theory on, 235
Lombroso on, 9
risk factors for crime and, 92, 93–94, 99(table), 100, 101(table), 102(table), 103(table), 104, 105–6, 107, 108, 230, 235
social support theory on, 170
violence and, 379
Schreck, Christopher J., 379, 525, 593
Schur, Edwin M., 299
Schwartz, Gary, 375
Schwartz, Martin D., 526
Scripts, 206, 211, 213, 214, 215–16, 236, 545
condemnation, 211
criminogenic, 213, 215–16
redemptive, 211, 213, 215–16
Seattle, Washington, 339, 448, 557, 560, 592, 699
Seattle Social Development Project, 229
Secondary labor markets, 614
Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC), U.S., 479
Security-industrial complex, 616
Self-control, 169–70, 610, 612
Self-control theory, 131–41, 266, 405
criticism of, 132, 140–41
empirical testing of, 131, 135–38
on gender and delinquency, 314, 315–16
importance of underlying assumptions, 131, 132–34, 140
parsimony of, 131, 138–39, 140–41
shift from social control theory to, 131, 134, 137
Self-efficacy, 74, 215, 468, 610
Self-esteem, 93
Self-management principle, 121
Self-punishment, 122
Self-regulation, 122
Self-reinforcement, 122
Self-restraint, 486, 487
Self-serving bias, 661–62
Self-shame, 333
Sellin, Thorsten, 14
Sensation-seeking, 486, 487
Sensitive periods, 91
Serendipity, 544
Serotonin, 23, 30, 33
Severity of punishment. See Punishment, severity of
Sexual abuse, 321
Sexual assault. See also Rape
immigration and, 451
routine activity theory on, 517, 521, 526
social support and recovery from, 162, 165
Sexually risky behavior, 169, 699
Sexually transmitted diseases, 699, 703
Shakur, Sanyika, 276(table)
Shame
reintegrative, 167, 496
self-, 333
Shared environmental influences, 49, 50
Shaw, Clifford R., 117, 278, 280, 333–34, 335–36, 345–46, 372–73, 375, 380, 383, 555, 571–72, 692, 693, 694
Shaw, Daniel S., 243
Sheldon, William H., 116
Sheley, Joseph F., 178(table)
Sherman, Lawrence W., 170, 496, 560
Shimshack, Jay P., 634
Shoplifting, 226, 229, 230, 264, 496, 661
“Shopping” for friends, 126
Short, James F., Jr., 276(table), 279, 288, 348, 375
Shover, Neal, 171, 213–14, 464, 466, 471
Side bets, 210
SIENA statistical package, 269
Siennick, Sonja E., 208, 209
(p. 730) Signaling behavior, 483, 484
Silver, Eric, 340
Simenon, Joke, 173(table), 176
Simons, Richard L., 298
Simons, Ronald L., 154–55, 362, 379
Simpson, Sally S., 300, 307
Singer, Mark I., 151
Single-parent families, 358, 590–91, 695
Situated choice, 210
Situational Action Theory, 419
Situational crime prevention, 567, 597n3
Situation modeling, 545
Skin conductance, 27–28, 33
Skinner, Burrhus F., 74
Skolnick, Jerome H., 277(table)
Skulls, shape of. See Phrenology
Slovenia, 287
Small, Mario Luis, 381, 382
Smith, Adam, 427
Smith, Douglas A., 295, 298, 590–91
Smith, M. Dwayne, 178(table)
Smith, Paula, 79, 680, 681
Smith, William R., 527, 597n6
Smoking/tobacco use
during pregnancy, 23, 30, 31, 33, 58
as a risk factor for crime, 96
social support vs., 169
Smuggling, wildlife, 635, 636
Snijders, Tom A. B., 268
Snodgrass, Jon, 572
Snow, David A., 382
Social bonds
coercion and, 610
gender and delinquency and, 314, 316–17
incarceration and, 676
Social capital, 165, 166, 210
Social class, 626, 636, 637. See also Coercion; Socioeconomic status
Social cognitive theory, 74
Social constructionist theory, 500
Social control. See also Formal social control; Informal social control
general strain theory on, 148
parochial, 337, 338, 693–94
private, 337, 338, 693, 694
public, 337, 338, 693, 694
social support and, 163, 165(table), 166–67, 179–80
Social control theory, 94, 131–41, 144. See also Age-graded social bond/control perspective
on crime patterns by levels of analysis, 582–83(table)
on criminal opportunity, 579, 581, 592, 593, 596n1
criticism of, 132, 140–41
on emotions, 496
empirical testing of, 131, 135–38
on gender and delinquency, 314, 316–17, 318
importance of underlying assumptions, 131, 132–34, 140
on incarceration, 676
parsimony of, 131, 138–39, 140–41
on peer networks, 259–60, 269
shift to self-control theory from, 131, 134, 137
as social bond theory, 92, 131, 160, 316
subjective-social control model, 209
Social development model, 92
Social disorganization theory, 94, 144–45, 357, 372–73, 381, 429, 555, 557
coercive mobility thesis and, 691–92, 693–94, 699
description of, 335–37
deterrence theory distinguished from, 334, 344–47, 348
differential association theory and, 117
on immigration and crime, 335, 444, 445
on neighborhood ties, 333–37, 339, 344–47, 348
social support theory compared with, 160
systemic model of, 334, 336–37, 358–59, 691–92
Social dominance, 30
Social guardianship, 517, 521, 524, 527, 592
Social institutions, 405–21. See also Institutional performance; Institutional regulation/legitimacy; Institutional structure
analytic framework for studying, 406–10
core dimensions of, 409–10
criminological applications of perspective, 410–18
defined, 407
future of theorizing on, 418–20
social systems and, 407–9
Socialism, 430
Social isolation, 362, 371, 381–82, 383
Socialization influences, assumption of the generality of, 46–48
Social learning theory, 92, 115–28, 267, 429
Canadian School of (see Canadian School theories)
on gender and delinquency, 321, 322–23
general strain theory and, 156
Hirschi’s view of, 134
on incarceration, 676–77
Personal, Interpersonal, and Community-Reinforcement perspective, 122–24
psychological, 116, 128
psychology of criminal conduct and, 73, 74, 75, 76
sociological, 116–18, 128
Social network perspective, 94, 165, 373
applications of, 268
crime pattern theory and, 539
informal social control and, 336
neighborhood ties and, 339, 341
on peer networks, 257, 258, 259, 262, 263–64, 265
(p. 731) structural inequality and, 358–60
target search theory and, 545
Social order, 430
Social organizations, 358–60
Social reproduction (of the class structure), 607, 608, 610, 613–16, 620
Social skills training, 74
Social support
actual, 161, 162
capital-labor balance of power and, 608, 619–20
coercion and, 608, 612, 613, 619–20
concept of, 162–63
defined, 162, 346
expressive, 161, 163, 172
formal, 161, 163
general strain theory on, 148, 149, 150, 151
informal, 161, 163
instrumental, 161, 163, 168, 172
across the life course, 161, 166, 168–72
multiple levels of, 161, 163
parental, 50, 51(figure), 54
perceived, 161, 162
street crime and lack of, 464
Social support theory, 160–80
basic premise of, 160
concept of social support in, 162–63
Cullen’s, 164–68, 611
difference from other theories, 160–61
differential coercion theory and, 611
empirical status of, 172–80
studies questioning propositions of, 175–76, 179, 180
Social systems, 407–9
Social ties. See Neighborhood social ties
Social welfare policies. See also Welfare programs
homicide rates and, 411–13
inequality, crime, and, 434–35
Socioeconomic status (SES). See also Social class; Structural inequality
as a risk factor for crime, 96, 97(table), 99, 107, 230
street culture and, 373–76, 379
Sociograms, 268
Sociological social learning theories, 116–18, 128
Sociological theories of criminality, 594
Somatic marker hypothesis, 28
Somatotyping, 16
South, Nigel, 628
South America, 286
South Bronx, New York, 697
South Korea, 175
South London, England, 43
Soviet Union. See Former Soviet Union
Spain, 286, 431
Spano, Richard, 526
Spatial patterns of criminal events, 538
Specialization in offending, 230
Specific deterrence, 650, 674–76, 679
Specific responsivity principle, 77, 79, 123. See also Risk, need, and responsivity framework
Spergel, Irving, 276(table)
Sports, 317
Spouse abuse. See Domestic violence
Stability
in offending, 136–37
of punishment, 674
Stafford, Mark C., 524, 525
Stafford, Sarah L., 634
Stalking, 519
Standard Social Science Model (SSSM), 46–49
State-dependent processes, 201
Stattin, Häkan, 48
Steffensmeier, Darrell, 14, 299, 303
Sterilization, involuntary, 13
Stewart, Eric A., 154–55, 362, 379
Stigmata/markers of criminality, 5, 6
Story lines, 215–16
Stouthamer-Loeber, Magda, 44
Stowell, Jacob I., 449
Strains
agentic, 319
coercive, 612
communal, 319
criminogenic, 166
gender, patriarchy and, 321
violence and, 146–48
Strain theories, 92, 373, 405, 429. See also General strain theory
on gender and delinquency, 313, 314, 318–21
Hirschi on, 133, 134, 135
ICAP theory and, 232, 235
social support theory compared with, 160
Street code. See Code of the street
Street crime, 461–73, 485, 486, 611
cash importance in, 462–63, 471–73
green crime compared with, 625
offense selection, 467–71
reasons for choosing, 465–67
socioemotional context of, 462–65
theory and policy implications, 471–73
Street culture, 370–84, 463, 465
coercion in, 610–11, 615, 618
criticisms and controversy over findings, 375–76
current research and alternative perspectives, 380–84
early perspectives on, 372–76
empirical evaluation of, 378–80
recent perspectives on, 376–84
revival of interest in, 376–78
Street robbery, 338, 557, 589
Stress
influence on crime, 505–6
social support and, 162
Stretesky, Paul B., 637
Striatum, 25
Strodtbeck, Fred L., 276(table), 279, 288, 375
(p. 732) Structural adjustment policies, 435
Structural deficits, 374
Structural imaging studies, 24–25, 32–33
Structural inequality, 352–65
as criminal motivation, 352, 354–57, 364
cultural/subcultural adaptations and, 352, 360–63
informal social control and, 352, 357–60, 364
as a multidimensional concept, 356–57
Structural-Marxist theory, 608–9
Structural perspective on desistance, 206, 210, 211–12, 215, 218, 219
Structural unemployment, 617, 618–19
Subcultural models, 373–76
Subcultures of violence, 144–45, 148, 374
general strain theory on, 153–56
peer networks and, 267
structural inequality and, 361–62
Subjective perspective on desistance, 206, 209, 210–12, 214, 215, 218, 219
Subjective-social control model, 209
Substance abuse. See also Alcohol use; Drug use
in girls, 300
as a risk factor for crime, 92, 96, 106
social support theory on, 175
Suburb, code of the. See Code of the suburb
Suicide, 9–10, 11
Sullivan, Christopher J., 612
Sullivan, Mercer C., 277(table)
Supreme Court, U.S., 13, 17
Surgeon General’s Office, U.S., 144
Sutherland, Edwin H., 14, 15, 70, 74, 82, 115, 116, 117–18, 119, 120–21, 124, 128, 259, 260, 265, 322, 323, 373, 375
Sutherland Address (American Society of Criminology), 594
Suttles, Gerald D., 375
Swart, William J., 305
Swartz, Kristin, 79
Sweden, 286, 479
Swedish Adoption Twin Study of Ageing, 58
Swidler, Ann, 382
Switzerland, 478
Sykes, Gresham, 76
Symbiosis, 514–15
Symbolic interactionism, 119, 120
Systemic models
of crime, 405
of social disorganization, 334, 336–37, 358–59, 691–92
Taft, Donald R., 446
Tallahassee, Florida, 699, 700
Target, defined, 536
Target antagonism, 517, 521
Target attractiveness, 516, 520–21, 524, 528, 530n2, 589
characteristics of, 517
measuring, 520, 522–23
operationalizing, 521
Target gratifiability, 517, 521
Target hardening, 514, 517, 518, 562, 592
measures of criticized, 521
positive association with victimization, 529–30
Target selection, 536
Target suitability, 515, 517, 521, 530n