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date: 23 August 2019

(p. 617) Index

(p. 617) Index

A
Abraham, J. D., 90, 92
Acemoglu, D., 397
Ackerman, P. L., 126, 286, 410
action theoretical framework and SOC theory
retirement as a decision-making process, 93–95
retirement as an adjustment process, 95–97
Activating Senior Potential in Europe (ASPA), 218, 220
activity theory of aging, 341–342
Adams, G. A., 6, 48, 95, 184, 203, 304, 395, 580, 612, 613
“adaptability competence” issues, 110
adaptations of aging, 75, 160
adjusting to retirement, 311–321
challenges in, 589
change management resources, 252–259
description (by Wang), 478
determinants of adjustment, 316–319, 588
activities, leisure time, 317
care in planning, 591
financial resources, 317
health. well-being issues, 317–318
individual attributes, 316–317
partners, 317
resources, 317
situational characteristics, 318–319
family considerations, 362–364
depression, 363–364
marital quality and conflict, 363
retirement satisfaction, 362–363
forms of, 5–6
future research directions, 319–321
gender differences, 210, 311–321
health resources, 254–255
impact of retirement on the individual, 315–316
motivational resources, 254–255
needs of individuals, considerations for, 250
P-E fit, 250
change management, effects of planning, 251
dimensions of environmental change, 251–252
“fit” defined, 250
needs-based/needs-related aspects, 250, 259–263
“P” defined, 250
personal change management resources, 252–259
relevance of change-orient aspects, 251
personality-based resources, 255
perspectives on retirement, 95–97
research results, 206
self-efficacy beliefs, 254–255
social resources, 256–258
leisure activities, 257
social support, 257–258
theoretical approaches
continuity theory, 313
life course perspective, 313–314
psychological adjustment research, 313
role theoretical approach, 312–313
stage models, 312
stress research, 312
work-related resources, job skills, 258–259
adolescents, need for financial literacy, 422–423
Adult Education and Family Literacy Act (AEFLA), 482
adult personal and social development theory (Levinson), 74
Adult Programs, Workforce Investment Act, 481
adulthood (emerging adulthood)
lessons learned from, 66–69
anti-aging trends, 68
consequences of relaxation of social roles, 67
downside of a prolonged phase, 68
need for self-development of “agentic” potentials, “reflexive project,” 67
positive features, 66
threats to social life, self-identity, 67
parallels with Third Age, 62
adulthood, emerging
Affect Infusion Model (AIM), 414
Africa
economically active post-65 adults, 512
minimal early retirement encouragement, 532
South Africa, universal basic pension benefits, 403
African Americans
gains during World War II years, 17
gender wage inequity, 31
Medicare data, 467, 472
post-retirement age unemployed women, 62
risk-averse attitude of, 37, 413
shortened life expectancy, 376
unemployment issues, 36, 374, 376
Agahi, N., 341, 343, 348
age and the retirement process, 202–207. See also adjusting to retirement
age-related conceptualizations, 127–128, 271
challenges of older workers, 203–204
implications for global policy makers, 203
life expectancy, 206–207
links between retirement and age, 204
mode of retirement, including post-retirement work, 205
planning for retirement, 205
role theory and, 204
timing of retirement, 205
age discrimination, 222, 277
anti-discrimination laws, 388, 393–396
in Australia, 527
early retirement and, 285
EEOC complaints data, 36
European Union laws against, 162
high unemployment and, 306
National Bureau of Age Discrimination, 526
recession-related complaints, 19
as retirement decision factor, 272
in Scandinavian countries, 527–528
in Southern Europe, 526–527
in the United Kingdom, 527
in the U.S., 16, 159, 162, 203, 527
Age Discrimination in Employment Act (ADEA) (1968), 388
ADA comparison with, 396–397
BFOQ exemption, 394
Civil Rights Act comparison with, 394
description, 16, 28–29, 393–394
EEOC enforcement of, 28, 394, 395
effectiveness of, 162
influence on pensions, 160
(p. 618) state statute rules, 394
theoretical effects of, 395
age discrimination law, 393–396. See also Age Discrimination in Employment Act; Americans with Disabilities Act; Framework Directive 2000/78/EC
continued existence of discrimination, 396
defined/described, 393–395
enforcement, 395
European law, 396
mandatory retirement studies, 395–396
in the U.S., 16, 159, 162, 203, 527
aging
adaptations of, 75
changes in fluid and crystallized intelligence, 111
memory issues, 111–112
natural age-related physiological, biological decline, 75–76, 111
SOC theory thoughts about, 111
and timing of retirement, 75
Agrarian Justice (Paine), 13
agreeableness (personality trait), 255
Aguiar, M., 148
Ahacic, K., 342
Ajzen, I., 237, 239, 240
alcohol use/alcoholism, 3, 332–333
Alcover, C., 232, 551
Alessio, H., 348
Allen, D. G., 439
Alliger, G. M., 270
Altonji, J. G., 181
Amabile, T. M., 597
ambivalence towards retirement, 242–245
associative network metaphor, 243
between-dimension ambivalence, 242
origins of, 243
within-dimension ambivalence, 242
American Association of Community Colleges retraining programs, 483–484
American Association of Retired Persons (AARP), 18, 131, 161, 435, 528, 530
American Changing Lives Survey, 344, 347, 348
American Reinvestment and Recovery Act (2009), 482
Americans’ Changing Lives (ACL) study, 183
Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA), 388, 396–397
Americans with Disabilities Act Amendment Act (2008), 397
ancient history of retirement (ancient to 1700), 12
Anderson, P. M., 302, 416, 438
Andrus, Ethel Percy, 18
Angrist, J. D., 397
Antonakis, J., 607
approach-avoidance motivation theory, 44
aptitudes, age-related declines in, 91
Aries, Philippe, 59
Armitage, C. J., 239
Armstrong, G. K., 346, 519
Armstrong-Stassen, M., 523, 528, 529, 531
Arnett, J. J., 66
Ashenfelter, O., 396
Asher, M., 384
Asians
labor force growth expectations, 27
unemployment issues, 36
Atchley, R. C., 74, 76, 77, 96, 204, 274, 313, 342. See also Continuity Theory (Atchley)
Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study, 331
Atlantic Philanthropies retraining program development, 484
Attitude-Engagement Model, 228, 240, 240–242
attitudes towards retirement, 228–245
association of identity with work, 229
attitudes (defined), 232
comparison-level model, 229–230
Cornell Model, 230–232, 245
databases used for review of, 232–237
PAST Model of attitude, 243
retirement (attitudinal) ambivalence, 242–245
associative network metaphor, 243
between-dimension ambivalence, 242
origins of, 243
within-dimension ambivalence, 242
retirement attitude-behavior relationships, 237–242
Attitude-Engagement Model, 240–242
Theory of Planned Behavior, 237–240
variances in retirement decisions, 229
attraction-selection-attraction (ASA) paradigm, 281, 284, 285
Auerbach, A. J., 142, 149
Aumann, K., 478
Australia
age discrimination in, 527
financial planning preparedness studies, 412
gender-related study of employees, 209
growing affluence of Third Agers, 69
immigrant population data, 560
immigration policies, 510
mandatory retirement abolishment, 514
retention of older worker plan, 531
retirement transition, importance of, 523
studies of savings fund members, 415
superannuation guarantee programs, 404
technology use studies, 499
Third Age prerequisites met by, 60
training for older workers, 533
WANE Project development, 530
Australian Bureau of Statistics, 207
Australian Human Rights Commission, 527
Austria
equalization of men’s, women’s retirement eligibility, 160
saving behavior prevalence, 405
Autor, D. H., 398
Aventur, F., 526
Average Indexed Monthly Earnings (AIME), 375
average wage index (AWI), 375
Avolio, B. J., 217
AXA Retirement Scop survey (2008), 421
B
Baby Boom generation, 24. See also Gen Xers; Generation Y (Millennials); generational differences
aging of, 3, 51, 59, 65
BLS estimates about, 575
bridge employment and, 580, 581
declining labor force representation, 560
description of, 441–442, 559
desire to continue working, 561
early retirement decision, 580
economic downturn retirement losses, 376
embrace of psychology of entitlement, 575
extended work capacity of, 30
Gen Xer, Generation Y comparison, 585
increases in extraversion, 577
increases in narcissism, 577
job attitudes, 578–579
large-scale retirement of, 559–560, 573, 574
Laslett’s vision’s conflict with, 69
locus of control measure, 577
mental health issues, 579
MetLife retirement survey, 295–297
retirement challenges, 376
rise of positive individualistic traits, 577
sense of being out-of-synch, 285
work-centricity of, 580
work values, 578
Bajor, J. K., 90, 91–92
Bajtelsmit, V. L., 413
Baker, E., 210
Baker, M., 46
Bal, A. C., 93, 127
Ballantyne, A., 504
Baltes, B. B., 91–92, 342, 356, 360
Baltes, M. M., 92, 93, 96, 342
Baltes, P. B., 60, 89, 90, 92, 93, 96, 409
Banas, J. T., 593
Banks, J., 196, 411
Barnes, H., 211, 413
Barnes-Farrell, J. L., 360, 362
Barnett, R., 121
Barron, F., 596
Barsky, R. B., 192
Becker, G. S., 217
Beehr, T. A., 43, 47, 49, 50, 77, 78, 184, 211, 268, 269, 272, 285, 304, 554, 590, 612, 613
behavior relationships-retirement attitude, 237–242
Attitude-Engagement Model, 228, 240, 240–242
Theory of Planned Behavior, 228, 237–240, 412
Beier, M. E., 410, 443, 479
Bem Sex-Role Inventory, 577
Bendick, M., 434
Benhabib, J., 148
Benitez-Silva, H., 357
Bennett, M. M., 554
Berkman, L., 348
Berman, E. M., 440
Bermasek, A., 413
Beshears, J., 192
“Best Employers for Workers Over 50” list (AARP), 131
between-dimension ambivalence, 242
Beutell, N. J., 359
Bezerlein, M., 414
bias against older workers, prevalence of, 218, 434, 527
Big Five personality traits, 255–256
agreeableness, 255
(p. 619) conscientiousness, 255
extraversion, 255
negative trait, 256
neuroticism, 255, 256
openness to experience, 255
positive traits, 255
Blanck, P. D., 397
Blau, D. M., 302, 303
Blazey, M., 345
Blekesaune, M., 46
Block, J., 604–605
blogs/blogging, 496, 499, 504
Blue Cross hospital insurance, 462
Blue Shield physician insurance, 462
Blumberg, M., 403, 407
Bolles, Richard, 102, 104
“Bona Fide Occupational Qualification” (BFOQ) exemption to the ADEA, 394
Bonafide Occupation Qualifications (BFOQs), 17
Bond, J. T., 478
Bossé, R., 343
Bound, J., 31, 398
Bowen, D. E., 455
Bradburn Affect Balance Scale, 349
The Brave New World (Huxley), 69
Brazil
limited pensions opportunities, 403
older worker recruitment, 531
workplace participation rates, 513
bridge employment, 5, 6, 19, 293–307. See also part-time jobs
of Americans (aged 50+), 23, 77
Baby Boom generation and, 580, 581
continuity theory and, 83
creativity and, 594
definition/description, 46, 48, 51, 128, 298, 358
determinants of, 49, 222, 273, 300–304
for early retirees, 454
effects of health on, 79
family-related factors, 358–359
as form of retirement, 273
Gen Xers and, 581
global variability, 524
immigrants and, 564, 566–567
increasing opportunities for, 286
older worker reengagement in, 288
outcomes of, 304–306
predictors of, 358
prevalence of, and labor force participation trends, 295–300
British men study, 300
Dutch worker study, 299–300
gradual retirement, 298–299
U.S. worker flexibility study, 300
“War Babies,” 298
reasons for not needing, 44, 305
as retention strategy, for mature workers, 437
staying in same profession, 273
21st century perspective, 553–554
work ability and, 83, 215
British Regional Heart Study, 329
Brooke, L., 531
Brookes, B., 114
Brougham, R. R., 95
Brown, S. K., 304, 391, 478
Bruine de Bruinn, W., 188, 193
Buckingham, M., 547
Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS)
Baby Boomers, estimates about, 575
Gen X, estimates about, 575
Gen Y, estimates about, 575
labor force statistics, 183
married couple data, 355
occupational growth rate data, 480
retirement data projections, 574
unemployment data, 478
volunteering data, 486
worker age data, projections, 125
Burkhauser, R. V., 397, 398
Burr, J. A., 299, 344
Burtless, G., 390
Bushman, B. J., 577
Butler, R., 60, 64
Bye, D., 318
C
Cahill, K. E., 298, 300, 301, 303
Calvinism, views on aging, 12
Campbell, W. K., 577
Canada
anti age-discrimination laws, 162
early pension pathways, 520
immigration policies, 510
later-in-life life history interviews, 421
mandatory retirement abolishment, 514
minimal early retirement encouragement, 532
nurse preference for phased retirement, 523
older worker recruitment, 531
organizational age distribution findings, 529
parents’ financial planning for retirement, 415
Registered Retirement Savings Plans, 417
relation of economy to employment numbers, 163
retention of nurse plan, 531
retention of older workers, 532
WANE Project development, 530
Canetti, Elias, 330
Card, D., 396
care for others component of Third Age, 61
career rainbow (Super), 104–105
career stages, nature of, 104–105
“career minicycles,” 105
life career rainbow model, 104
“worker arc”/”pensioner arc,” 104
Carman, K. G., 188
Caro, F. G., 344
Carstensen, L. L., 62, 63, 64, 287. See also socioemotional selectivity theory
Cascio, W. F., 217, 543
Cate, R. A., 62, 64–65
Cattell, Raymond, 422
Cennamo, L., 582
Center for Retirement Research at Boston College (CRRBC), 194, 423
Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS), 460, 464, 465
Central Europe
bridge employment availability, 524
depreciation model perspective, 526
employment exit dominated strategy, 526
hiring rates of older workers, 532
mandatory retirement ages, 514, 521
older worker (65–69) employment data, 521
pension pathways, 520
phased retirement availability, 524
view of loss of older workers, 529
workplace participation rates, 512, 513
Chaffee, S. H., 224
change management resources, in retirement planning, 252–259
health resources, 253–254
motivational resources, 254–255
personality-based resources, 255–256
social resources, 256–258
leisure, 257
social support, 257–258
work-related resources, job skills, 258–259
changing nature of work and retirement. See work and retirement, changing nature of
Chapman, D. S., 413
Charles, K. K., 300
Charness, N., 480, 484
Charupat, N., 416
Chen, Y. P., 299, 303, 344, 412, 485, 597
Cheng, E., 533
chief executive officers (CEOs), succession planning and, 121
child labor, 155, 158
children
concerns about parents of, 167
inclusion in retirement pleasures, 62, 167
inclusion in Social Security Act, 15–16
need for financial literacy among, 422–423
postponement of retirement for, 166–167, 358
retirement planning inclusion, 276, 364
Second/Third Ages and, 60
support of parents by, 306, 382, 406
transfers of property to, 157
wills and distrust of, 156
younger vs. older worker orientation, 356
China
declining workplace participation, 513
demographic/labor force patterns, 3
early retirement practices, 520–521
economic background data, 379–380
encouragement of older workers, 532
flexible retirement options, 523
labor shortage issues, 529
National Census (2010), 379
old-age security system
equity challenges, 382–383
extended coverage challenges, 382
financial sustainability challenges, 383
overview, 380–382
pension fund investment challenges, 383
unifying fragmentations in system, 382
older worker employment data, 522
parametric reform (2005), 380
pension systems, family support, 519
people over 60 years of age, 74
recruitment of older workers, 531
reducing older worker obsolescence, 528
retirement policy age, 513
(p. 620) structural reform (1997), 380
Chiremba, S. T., 415
Chiteji, N., 181
Chiu, W.C.K., 219
Choi, J., 192
chronological age, effect on motivation of older workers, 127
Civil Rights Act (1964), 16–17, 394, 472
civil service employees (federal), 48
Civil War (U.S.), post-war pension system, 13
Claes, R., 127
Clark, G. L., 303, 523
Clarkberg, M., 357
CLASS (Community Living Assistance Services and Supports) Act, 469
class differences and retirement, historical contexts, 157
Cleveland, J. N., 282, 440–441
Clifton, D. O., 547
“Cobb-Douglas” production function for services, 141. See also life-cycle model of retirement
COBRA (Consolidated Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act) insurance coverage, 466, 470
cognitive ability, age-related changes, 286
cognitive belief systems about retirement, 254
Cognitive Economics Projects (CogEcon), 182, 186, 187, 193
cognitive evaluation theory, 127
Cognitive Reflection Test, 416
cognitive social learning theory, 576
“cognitive trust” (defined), 413
Coile, C., 301, 302
The Columbia Retirement Handbook, 4
Commission on Economic Security (1934), 15
Committee for Economic Development, 434
Community Living Assistance Services and Supports (CLASS) Act, 469
comparison-level model, key predictions of, 229–230
computer-mediated communication (CMC) platform, 494
“concave” utility function. See static model of retirement
conceptual/operational definitions of retirement, 42–52
future research directions, 51–52
phases/measures of retirement, 43–44
types of retirement definitions
change of career/later-in-life employment, 49
combinations of retirement types, 50–51
exit from one’s main employer, 48–49
hours worked/earnings below minimum cutoff, 46–47
nonparticipation in the workforce, 45
receipt of retirement income, 47–48
reduction in hour worked/earnings, 45–46
self-assessed retirement, 49–50
Congressional Budget Office study (2004), 304
Conner, M., 239
conscientiousness (personality trait), 255
continuity theory (Atchley), 43, 73–84
adjustment to retirement and, 73–74, 75, 313
bridge employment-related decisions, 79
description/premises of, 274, 304, 312, 313, 562, 590
development/historical background of, 73–74
early retirement and, 282
future research directions, 84
helpfulness of, 83
influence of health on retirement decision, 78
internal and external continuity, 76–77, 79, 342
leisure activities in retirement and, 342–343
and OLSAA study, 76, 77
post-retirement lifestyle considerations, 271
pre-retirement future research directions, 84
psychological adjustment research and, 313
psychological variables, work-related, 78–79
retirement adjustment, transition and, 363
retirement context of, 77–78
retirement-related antecedents, outcomes perspectives, 78–80
role of income in retirement-related decisions, 78
as a theoretical construct, 74–76
timing of retirement, 75
transition period self-management, 110
uses of, 73–74
work ability as a continuity construct, 80–83
work-related predictors of retirement, 78–79
continuous career development, 102, 102–115
contract theory (Lazear), 389
“convexity of preferences” property, 138, 141, 145. See also static model of retirement
coping strategies, 19, 65, 76
active coping strategies, 91
Cordell, D. M., 413
Cornell Model of role evaluations, 228, 230–232, 245
attitudes towards retirement modification, 230–232
economic factors, role in attitudes, 232
personality incorporated modifications of, 230
Cornell Retirement and Well-Being Study, 348
coronary mortality study data, 329
cost leadership
defined, 119
support strategies, 119
Costa, D. L., 527
Cote, J., 67
Cox, J., 215, 479
creativity and retirement, 588–599
age-related changes, research, 64
bridge employment and, 594
continuity theory and, 590
creativity-role transition relationship, 593
divergent thinking and, 593–594
early retirement and, 594
future research directions, 598–599
goal persistence and, 594–595
innovative/differentiation strategy and, 119
leisure activities and, 340
openness to role transitions, 591–593
organizational climates and, 438, 547
“retire creatively”
defined, 589–590
post-retirement adjustment, 591
retirement planning, decision-making, 590–591
self-determination theory and, 595
creativity and retirement, predictors of post-retirement well-being
the creative context, 597–598
autonomy, 597
social tie availability, 597
support for creativity, 597–598
the creative retiree, 596–597
creative self-efficacy, 596–597
need for closure, 596
openness to experience, 596
Crimmins, E. M., 451
Cro-Magnon people, 12
Cronbach, L. J., 422
CROW (Center for Research into the Older Workforces) survey, 529
Croy, G., 412, 413
crystallized intelligence, 91, 127, 286, 410
Cull, W. L., 521
cultures of retirement, meso-level structures, 161
cumulative advantage/disadvantage theory, 107
Current Population Survey (US Census Bureau), 163, 183, 397
Currie, Janet, 398, 498
Cutler, S. J., 339, 340, 342, 348
Czaja, S. J., 480, 484
Czasch, C., 239
D
Dahlin, E. C., 522
D’Ambrosio, M. B., 523
Dan, A. A., 415
Danigelis, N. L., 348
data analysis issues (research methods)
analytic strategies, 191–192
multilevel modeling, 191–192
regression analysis, 191
structural equation modeling, 191
missing data, 189–190
missing data treatments
Heckman selection models, 190
imputations, 190
listwise and pairwise deletion, 189–190
sample weights, 190–191
Datan, N., 63
Dave, D., 305, 329
Davey, A., 346, 358, 363
Davidoff, A. J., 302
Davidson, P., 483
Davis, S., 121, 359, 412, 594
De Fruyt, F., 592
(p. 621) de Lange, A. H., 127, 127–128
De Nardi, M., 148
de St. Aubin, E., 261
death-hastening strategies, historical context, 155, 156
“death panel” Affordable Care Act controversy, 462
Decicca, P., 300
decision-making process for retirement, 93–95, 267–278
age-related discrimination as factor, 272
decision points, 269–274
decision to retire, 270–272
form of retirement, 272–273
planning for retirement, 269–270, 275
family influences on retirees, 276
feeling “tired of work” consideration, 272
financial resources assessment, 269
future orientation of prospective retirees, 269, 270, 275
gaps in decision making literature
research to practice transition, 276–277
theoretical foundations, 274–276
health-related planning
health of self, 270, 271–272
health of spouse, 272
need for workplace health promotion efforts, 277
job flexibility considerations, 272
pension plan considerations, 271
“push” and “pull” forces, 273, 277, 362
rationality vs. irrationality factors, 275
retirement process, overview, 268–269
social enjoyment of workplace factors, 272
Social Security system considerations, 271
Wang/Shultz, five proposed theories, 275
decline stage (in career stage model), 104
defined benefit (DB) plans, 29, 122–124
age-specific work disincentives, 294
bridge employment and, 301
declining offering of, by employers, 177
defined/described, 122–123
distribution prohibitions, 131
global data, 405
shift from DB to DC plans, 123, 294, 301, 405
defined contribution (DC) plans, 29, 122–124. See also 401(k) plans
bridge employment and, 301
defined/described, 123, 390
global data, 405
increasing offerings of, by employers, 177
New Pension Scheme (India), 384
popularity of, 390
shift to DB plans, 123, 294, 301, 405
DeKoekkoek, P. D., 203
Delaney, M. M., 413
delayed retirement. See also phased retirement programs; Senior Citizens’ Freedom to Work Act
family-to-work conflict and, 361
increased Social Security credit for, 177, 294
institutional incentives for, 23, 28
normal retirement age and, 302
pension laws and, 393, 395–396
unemployment and, 163
DeLeire, T., 397
demographics of aging and retirement, 22–39
bridge employment data, 23
dependency ratio data, 24
factors for population aging, 24
future outlook
Baby Boomer expectations, 38
labor force diversity, 36–38
growth of 65 and older (1900–2010), 23
hangover effect, 216
incentives/disincentives to work or retire, 28–33
joint retirement, 33
pensions and health insurance, 29–30
public policy, 28–29
worker characteristics, 29–30, 30–33
job market for older adults, 33–35
labor force participation trends, 24–28
projections of 85 and older (by 2050), 24
2007–2009 financial crisis, 35–36
Dendinger, V. M., 6, 304
Denmark
gender-related retirement data, 208
mandatory retirement policy, 521
minimal early retirement encouragement, 532
official retirement age, 519
older worker (65–69) employment data, 522
saving behavior prevalence, 405
training for older workers, 533
workplace participation rates, 512, 513
Dennis, H., 434
Dentinger, E., 357
Denton, F. T., 44, 49, 51, 52
Department of Defense (DoD) training programs, 481
Department of Labor (DOL)/Employment Training Administration (ETA), 480, 482
dependency ratio data, 24
Depolo, M., 232, 551
depression experienced by retirees, 5, 62, 94, 363–364
Desmette, D., 361
DeVaney, S. A., 6, 358, 415
DeViney, S., 47, 207, 209, 220
DeWall, N. C., 579
Diacon, S., 206
Diamond, P. A., 149
Dibbden, J., 527
Dikkers, J.S.E., 127–128
DiPierro, D., 534
DiRago, A. C., 60, 62, 69
disability insurance, 166, 179. See also Social Security Disability Insurance
disengagement theory (Beehr), 44
Dislocated Worker Programs, Workforce Investment Act, 481
divorce
education-related declining rates, 66
macro-level structures and, 153
spousal allowance requirements, 159, 164
“do-it-yourself” approach to retirement, 294, 300, 303, 307
Dohmen, T., 182
Domian, D. L., 413
Doraszelski, U., 181
Dorfman, L. T., 315, 345
Dorn, D., 221
Douglas, P. H., 14
Dove-Steinkamp, M., 362
Ducharme, L. J., 440
Duckworth, A., 195
Duggan, M. G., 398
Durnette, M. D., 218
Dwyer, D. S., 357
dynamic integration theory (Labouvie-Vief), 64
dynamic model elements (life-cycle model of retirement), 140–142
E
Earl, J. K., 205, 209, 256, 412, 421
Early Retiree Reinsurance Program (ERRP), 30, 466, 470
early retirement, 280–290. See also early retirement and P-E fit theory; early retirement incentives (ERIs)
advantages of, to employers, 451
continuity theory and, 282
creativity and, 594
“crown of life” experience during, 65
defined, 77
objective definitions, 281
subjective definitions, 282
designing incentive packages for, 7
EBRI Retirement Confidence Survey data, 304, 360
global policies, 519–521
image theory and, 282
involuntary transition to, 36
lack of work autonomy, work stressors as causes, 46
poor health factor for, 30–31
positive consequences for financial services industry, 17
retiree health insurance and, 30
reversal of trend towards, 65
self-report measures of intention, 50
Social Security penalties for, 28
temporal progression model inclusion, 5
Early Retirement Age (ERA) (Social Security Program), 398
early retirement and P-E fit theory
ASA paradigm and, 281, 284, 285
changes in the environment
full-time employment, full-time retirement alternatives, 286
generational/group composition differences, 285–286
occupation, 284
occupational, organizational, job and group fit, 284–285
social-normative expectations, 285
workplace age discrimination, 285
changes in the person
cognitive ability, 286
physical health and ability, 286
values and emotions, 287
dimensions of fit, 283–284
age-related declining P-E fit, 283–284
global and facet-specific measures, 283
levels of the environment, 283
self-reports of fit, 284
sources of perceptions, 283
supplementary vs. complementary fit, 283
future research directions, 287–290
differential rates of decline, 287–288
(p. 622) disengagement, reengagement, 288
fit, early retirement, embeddedness, 288–289
personality, P-E fit, early retirement, 289
relative fit, early retirement, 289–290
socioemotional selectivity theory and, 62, 64, 112
time-related changes
in the environment, 284–286
in the person, 286–287
early retirement incentives (ERIs), 449–457, 574
advantages/benefits of, 451
description, 579–580
design of ERIs
economic incentives, 453–454
eligibility, 453
further employment opportunities, 454
social-psychologic considerations, 454–455
future research directions, 456–457
implementation process, 455–456
nature of programs, 450–453
employee participation determinants, 451–453
employer implementation motivation, 450–451
push and pull factors, 452–453
earnings below a minimum cutoff, 46–47
East Asia
first pillar retirement plans, 405
old age support systems, 403–404
Eastern Europe
encouragement of older workers, 532
recruitment of older workers, 531
savings behavior data, 405
Ebbinghaus, B., 512, 514, 519–520, 521, 522
EBRI Retirement Confidence Survey (2010), 304, 360
EBSCO database, 232
Eby, L. T., 593
Economic Growth and Tax Relief Reconciliation Act (EGTRRA) (2001), 392, 393
Economic Recovery Tax Act (1981), 391
Economic Research Service (U.S. Department of Agriculture), 181
economic theories of retirement, 136–149
applications
government programs, labor supply, 146–148
longevity and retirement, 145–146
extensions and generalizations, 148–149
life-cycle model, 140–145
determinants of retirement, 144
discussion, 142
dynamic model elements, 140–142
estimated parameter values, 144–145
solution, 142–144
static model, 137–140
Ekerdt, D. J., 220, 257, 327, 332, 343, 478, 485
Elder, G. H., 343
Elderhostel, 485
Elective Selection (SOC Theory)
centrality of goals to, 95, 96
described, 89
interaction with age, 92
preferred outcomes of, 89, 93
and successful retirement prediction, 94
emerging adulthood. See adulthood (emerging adulthood)
Employee Benefit Research Institute, 478
employee benefits, spending data, 122
Employee Retirement Income Security Act (ERISA) (1974). See also defined benefit (DB) plans; defined contribution (DC) plans
description, overview, 388, 389
impact on retirement, 390–391
minimum benefit requirements, 391
types of plans, 389–390
vesting rules, 390
employee stock ownership plans (ESOPs), 390, 391
Employees’ Deposit Linked Insurance (EDLI) scheme (India), 384
Employees’ Pension Scheme (EPS) (India), 384
Employees’ Provident Fund Organization (EPFO) schemes (India), 384
employer sponsored programs
need for clearly explaining programs, 277
pensions
defined benefit/defined contribution, 29
historical background, 160
retiree health insurance, 29–30, 302–303
employer’s perspective on retirement, 224
access to “previous statistical experiences” data, 217
age and discrimination, 217
aging population liabilities, 216–217
empirical results (of studies)
relationship between age and productivity, 217–219
stereotypic view on retirement timing, 219–220
implicit contracts with employees, 216
retirement process management, 220
hiring older workers, 222–223
keeping vs. dismissing older workers, 220–222
seniority wages principle, 216
spot market view of labor market, 216
employment. See also bridge employment; part-time jobs
African Americans, unemployment issues, 374, 376
aging workers project (Europe), 530
China, older worker data, 522
1880, declining rates, male workers, 22
hybrid employment, 216
inclusion in retirement decision process, 5
law and retirement, 388–399
manifest/latent functions of, 45
older worker data (Europe), 521
reduction in hours worked, earnings, 45–46
Employment and Training Administration (ETA), 482
Employment Retirement Income Security Act (1974), 163
English Longitudinal Study of Aging (ELSA), 181, 183, 315, 328, 556
Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC), 28, 49, 397, 434, 436, 527
Erez, M., 288
ERIC database, 232
Erikson, E. E., 60, 64, 74
Erikson, E. H., 261
Esping-Andersen, G., 511
establishment stage (in career stage model), 104
estimated parameter values (life-cycle model of retirement), 144–145
Ethel Percy Andrus Gerontology Center (University of Southern California), 18
Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, 181
Eurofound Survey, 533
Europe (European Union). See also Activating Senior Potential in Europe; Central Europe; Southern Europe
advocacy for reversal of early retirement, 511
early retirement practices, 519
economically inactive post-65 adults, 512
employer perspectives on retirement, 221, 221–222
employment of aging workers project, 530
encouragement of late-life employment, 159
Framework Directive 2000/78/EC, 396
funded private plan considerations, 405
generous government pensions, 271
government encouragement of older workers, 552
people over 60 years of age, 74
personal growth desirability, 533
phased retirement policy, 522, 524
retirement age data, 449, 588
retirement initiatives, 215
savings data, 404
Survey of Health, Aging, and Retirement, 181
technology use studies, 499
Western Europe employer pension provisions, 403
workability studies, 553
European Code of Good Practice, 529–530
European Employee Benefits Benchmark, 404
European Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC), 329
European Working Conditions Survey (2010), 533
Eurostat Labour Force Survey (1997), 533
Evans, D. R., 316
Expectancy Theory (Wang and Shultz), 275
exploration stage (in career stage model), 104
external continuity (continuity theory)
basis of, 76
gender-related differences in, 76–77
leisure activities in retirement and, 342
self-generated predisposition toward, 76
extraversion (personality trait), 255
(p. 623) Eysenck Personality Inventory, 577
Eysenck Personality Questionnaire, 577
F
Facebook, 433, 495, 496, 499, 504
Fair Employment Practices (FEP) office, 394
Fair Labor Standards Act (1938), 14
Falk, A., 182
The Fall of Public Man (Sennett), 69
families and retirement, 354–366
bridge employment factors, 358–359
demographics relevant to retirement, 355
future research directions
cohort effects, 364
longitudinal research, 365–366
measurement issues, 366
recent economic changes, 364
retirement financial planning, 365
work-family and retirement, 364–365
impact on retirees’ attitudes, 551–552
importance of family, 355
kin relationships, 358
spousal relationships
bereavement issues, 63
caring for ill spouse, 165, 208, 211, 242, 272
coordination of retirement, 33, 47, 69, 166, 167, 281, 289
health insurance and, 29
influence of spouses, 357
life career rainbow and, 104
marital status, 356–357
pressure from spouse, 50
Social Security spousal benefit, 159, 164
social support of spouses, 258, 302, 357–358
transition and adjustment, 362–364
depression, 363–364
marital quality and conflict, 363
retirement satisfaction, 362–363
work-family perspective, 359–362
conservation of resources model, 359
enhancement and retirement, 361–362
work-family conflict, 359, 359–361
Families and Work Institute study (2006), 578
Farmer, S. J., 272
Farmer, S. M., 597
Farrell, S. K., 550
federal civil service employees, 48
federal government (U.S.). See also individual legislation and programs
financial tools created by, 19
grassroots activism pressure on, 15
historical background of retirement, 10–20
lessons learned, 20
ancient to 1700 era, 12
1700 to 1920s era, 12–14
1920s to 1945 era, 14–16
1945–1990 era, 16–18
1990–2010 and onward, 18–20
payment alternatives, 43
possible apportionment of state funding, 51
feedback systems theory, 74
Feist, G. J., 593
Feldblum, C. R., 436
Feldman, D. C., 6, 43, 78, 218, 273, 285, 304, 356, 358, 456, 550, 590, 593, 594, 611
females and retirement. See also families and retirement; males and retirement; marriage/long-term marriage; spousal relationships
adjusting to retirement, 5–6, 95–97, 206, 210
approach to retirement, 62
Brazil, workplace participation patterns, 513
China, declining workplace participation, 513
decreasing work disability trend, 30
finance-related gender differences, 207
health-related gender differences, 207–208
Hungary/United Kingdom retirement age, 52
and internal/external continuity, 76–77
late-life occupational change, 479
leisure-related factors, 345–346
Medicare data, 467, 467–468
mode of retirement, post-retirement work, 208–209
National Longitudinal Survey of Mature Women, 357
1980–2010 LFP rates, 24–28
1960s-1980s labor force participation data, 293
partial before full retirement, 46
planning for retirement, 209–210
positive tolerance for risk, 413
pre-1985 data, 295
ratio of women’s to men’s wages, 31
socialization-related gender differences, 208
Third Age economic resources. vs. men, 62
timing of retirement, 208
volunteering in retirement, 208, 210
Fenn, P., 206
Fernandez, M. E., 358
Ferrari, J. R., 413
fertility patterns, influence on population, 24
Feys, M., 592
FICA (Federal Insurance Contributions Act) tax (U.S.), 374
filial piety and/or obligations, 156, 156
financial dilemmas of immigrant retirees, 566
financial literacy, 410
financial planners
eight types of, 408
use of actuarial estimates, 206
financial planning for retirement (FPR), 7, 161, 402–424. See also financial planning for retirement (FPR), empirical research
challenges of, 406–407
cognitive/motivational complexities, 406–407
global financial crisis, 406
process and implications, 407
economic, sociological, psychological perspectives on, 402–403
future research directions, 423–424
global perspectives of, 403–404
investor behavior, conceptual model, 407–410
classes of developmental influences, 410
“continuity over change” concept, 408
Image Theory, 408
limitations of
disciplinary shortcomings, 419–420
integrative approaches, 420
methodology and design, 420–422
need for early-in-life financial training, 422–423
pension funds challenges with, 402
reason for abstaining from, 269, 276
reason for participating in, 270, 275, 276
three-pillar system, 373, 377, 404–406
variability in, 269
financial planning for retirement (FPR), empirical research
capacity to plan and save
decision making skills, abilities, 410–411
financial literacy, 410
demographic indicators, 417–419
opportunity to plan and save
economic dynamics, incentives, 417
institutional opportunities, 416–417
social forces, 415–416
willingness to plan and save
affective considerations, 414
attitudinal investigations of FPR, 413–414
consumer segmentation research, 414
impact of personality on FPR, 412–413
importance of goals, 411–412
financial preparation for pre-retirees, by HR, 122–124
addressing employee lack of participation, 123–124
assessment of financial resources, 269
automatic enrollment/escalation and education programs, benefits and consequences, 124
defined benefit (DB) plans, 122–123
defined contribution (DC) plans, 123
401(k), 403(b) plans, 123, 124
internal vs. external alignment factors, 123
Findsen, B., 484
Finite Mixture Modeling (FMM), 336
Finkelstein, L. L., 218, 550
Finland
gender-related retirement data, 208
workability studies, 553
First Age, comparison with Third Age, 60
Fishbein, M., 237, 240
Fisher, C. D., 240
Fisher, G. G., 190
fitness (keeping fit), as leisure, 341
Fitzpatrick, T. R., 363
Five Factor Model of personality, 576
The Fixed Period (Trollope), 13
FLAME (Finnish Longitudinal Study on Municipal Employees)
bridge employment decision factors, 83
pre-/post-retirement work ability according to different pension benefits, 82
study parameters, 80–81
WAI measures of perceived work ability, 81
work ability trajectory analysis, 81
(p. 624) Flood, M. G., 239
fluid intelligence, 91, 127, 286, 410
Flynn, M., 529, 534
focus group sessions, with HR managers, 127
forced vs. voluntary retirement, 156, 221
forms of retirement, 272–273. See also bridge employment; decision-making process for retirement; early retirement; phased retirement programs
economic factors, 179
forced vs. voluntary retirement, 156, 221
historical perspective, 157
male vs. female planning, 209
predictors of choice of, 273
relation to other variables, 48
total withdrawal from workforce, 52, 273
Foster, J. D., 577, 607
457(b) plan (for government employees), 375
403(b) plans, 123, 375, 390, 391, 392
401(k) plans, 269, 275, 375, 390, 417
automatic enrollment participation, 119, 124
description, 391
developmental background, 300–301
economic recession (2008) losses, 376
elective contributions to, 392
as part of a DC plan, 123, 177, 192, 294
pension plan administration influence on, 192
Revenue Act establishment of, 391
types of plans, 375
Fourth Age, 60, 61
frames of reference (Cornell Model), 230
Framework Directive 2000/78/EC, 396
France
bridge employment availability, 524
declining labor participation rates, 11
depreciation model perspective, 526
Gas and Electric Company study, 328
increased retirement age, 271
older worker employment data, 521
pension pathways, 520
relation of economy to employment numbers, 163
retirement policy changes, 3
worker’s protests, 52
Francis, V., 440
Franks, M. M., 348
Freund, A. M., 89, 90, 93, 96
Freysinger, V., 346, 348
Friedberg, L., 301, 391
Fu, X., 344
full retirement (nonparticipation in the workforce), 45
Fuller, A., 485
functional age, determining factors, 127
Fung, H. H., 90, 92
Future of Retirement Survey, 530
future orientation of prospective retirees, 269, 270, 275
G
Gaillard, M., 361
Galinsky, E., 478
Gall, T. L., 316
Gardner, D., 582
Garfein, A. J., 346
Garling, T., 413
Garman, E. T., 416
Gas and Electric Company (GAZEL) study (France), 328
Geldhauser, H. A., 418, 549–550
Gen Xers
Baby Boom, Generation Y comparison, 585
BLS estimates about, 575
bridge employment and, 581
comfort level with technology, 442
early retirement decisions, 580
increases in extraversion, 577
increases in narcissism, 577
job attitudes, 578–579
locus of control measure, 577
mental health issues, 579
mentorship craved by, 575
pending retirements of, 574
rise of positive individualistic traits, 577
work-centricity issues, 580
work values, 578
gender issues and retirement, 207–211. See also females and retirement; males and retirement
adjusting to retirement, 210, 311–321
couples planning, 210–211
external continuity and, 76–77
finance-related differences, 207
future research directions, 211
globalization and, 66
health-related differences, 207–208
leisure-related factors, 345–346
mode of retirement, post-retirement work, 208–209
planning for retirement, 209–210
socialization-related differences, 208
timing of retirement, 208
unemployment discrepancy, U.S., 35
General Law pension system (1862), 13
Generation Y (Millennials), 442, 442–443
Baby Boomer, Gen Xer comparison, 585
BLS estimates about, 575
comfort with technology, 584
job attitudes, 579
perception as self-absorbed, 584
retirement expectations, 581
work values, 578
generational cohort theory, 574, 574–575
generational differences, 573–586. See also Baby Boom generation; Gen Xers; Generation Y (Millennials)
Bureau of Labor Statistics
about Baby Boomers, 575
about Gen X, 575
about Gen Y, 575
about Veterans, 575
challenges of research, 582–583
cognitive social learning theory and, 576
Five Factor Model of personality and, 576
future research directions, 584–585
generational cohort theory, 574, 574–575
HR implications, 583–584
HR management approach
bridge employment, 580
early retirement decision, 580
early retirement incentives, 579–580
in individual attributes
job attitudes, 578–579
mental health, 579
personality characteristics, 576–577
work values, 577–578
time-lagged design, research method, 575–576, 578, 580
generativity needs, of retirees, 261
Gentile, B., 579
George, J. M., 589, 595, 597
German old-age insurance system (GOAIS), 377–378
Germany
adjustment to retirement data, 316
declining labor participation rates, 11
economic background, data, 377
financial professional study, 416
growing affluence of Third Agers, 69
growth rate, compared with U.S., 374
GRV pension system, 377–378
health insurance fund data, 329
immigrant population data, 560
mandatory retirement policy, 521
old age security system, 377–378
economic crisis influence, 379
globalization impact on policy, 379
issues and challenges, 379
overview, 377–378
revenue-pension system imbalance challenges, 379
older worker employment data, 521
pension pathways, 520
phased retirement availability, 524
relation of economy to employment numbers, 163
retirement policy changes, 3
retirement trajectory data, 206
Riester Pensions, 377, 379
Rürup Commission, 378, 379
social insurance program development, 156–157
Socioeconomic Panel Study, 5
WANE Project development, 530
gerocomeia (nursing homes) (Roman Empire), 12
Gerontological Society of America, 18
gerontological studies, historical background, 16
Gerrans, P., 414
“Get Rich Slow” game (CRRBC), 423
Giandrea, M. D., 298, 300
Gibby, R. E., 422
Gibson, H., 340
Giddens, A., 67, 69
Gielen, A. C., 300
Giles, H., 220
Gilleard, C., 68
Gilleskie, D. B., 303
Gilliam, J., 413
Glass, T., 348, 413
Glazer, S., 272
global aging program (Stanford Center on Longevity), 512
global retirement practices, 510–536. See also individual countries
depreciation model perspective, 526–528
flexibility in retirement transition, 522–524
bridge employment, 524
immediate, full-time retirement, 523
phased retirement, 523–524
future research directions, 534–536
HR management practices, retirement patterns, 525–526
(p. 625) legal/socioeconomic contingencies of cross-cultural differences, 514–519
maintenance model perspective, 528–531
migration/migratory policies, 510–511
population aging, workforce participation, 512–514
retirement pathway variability, 519–521
timing of retirement
early retirement, 519–521
late retirement, 521–522
on-time retirement, 521
trends in HR management practices, 531–534
flexible work arrangements, new kinds of work, 534
recruitment and selection, 531–532
retention, 532
training and personal development, 532–534
Globalife Project, 533
globalization
Baby Boomers and, 113
gender career equality and, 66
German retirement policy and, 379
macro level changes in work and, 544
private sector influenced by, 35
goal setting theory (Locke and Latham), 127
Gobeski, K. T., 49, 50, 78, 612
Goedee, M., 412
Goetz, J. W., 413
“going part time” before fully retiring, 46
Golay, L., 362
Golub-Sass, A., 66
Gorard, S., 485
Gough, O., 531
Gouskova, E., 181
Government Accounting Office (GAO), 131
government pension plans, 46–47
Grable, J. E., 413, 414, 416
Grace-Martin, K., 222, 299
Great Britain
British Regional Heart Study, 329
declining labor participation rates, 11
labor shortages, postponing of retirement, 529
Nuffield Research Unit into the Problems of Ageing, 18
retention of older workers plan, 531
Whitehall II study, 327, 328, 331–332
Great Depression (U.S.), 14–16. See also New Deal programs
state-level pension programs, 14–15
Townsend Plan proposal, 15
Great Society legislation (Johnson), 16
Greece (ancient Greece), military retirement requirement, 12
Greene, J., 315, 592
Greenhaus, J. H., 359
Greenspan, Alan, 17
Greenwood, J., 148
Greller, M. M., 479
Griffin, B., 204, 205, 206, 208, 209, 300
Griffin, R. W., 593
Gross v. FBL Financial Services (2009), 394
Group Personal Pension Plans (GPPPs), 417
group threat theories, 562
Grove, Andrew, 105
Groves, R. M., 190
Growth Mixture Modeling (GMM), 336
growth stage (in career stage model), 104
Gruber, J., 46, 183, 192, 196, 302, 418, 512
GRV pension system (Germany), 377–378
Guilford, J. P., 593
Guillemard, A. M., 526
Guinn, B., 349
Gupta, N. D., 419
Gustman, A. L., 28, 51, 180, 299, 302, 302–303, 356, 357
Gutierrez, H. C., 414
Gutter, M. S., 413
Guvenen, F., 148
H
Haenlein, M., 494
Hall, D. T., 43, 105, 114
Hall, G. Stanley, 16
Hammer, L. B., 441
Hampton, V. L., 413
Han, S. K., 303
Handbook of Econometrics (Bound, Brown, Mathiowetz), 187
Hanisch, K. A., 232, 240
Hanna, S. D., 413
Hansson, R. O., 90, 92, 203
Harcourt, M., 131
Hardy, M., 204, 315, 525
Hariharan, O., 413
Harper, S., 527, 528, 531, 533
Harrington, M. M., 596
Harrison, D. A., 240
Harvard Study of Adult Development (Vaillant), 103, 341
Hassan, H., 190
Hayslip, B., 414
Hayutin, Adele, 512
Hayward, M. D., 357
Hazelrigg, L., 315, 525
Health and Retirement Study (HRS)
advantages of, 47, 315
assessment of impact, 305
bridge employment benefits data, 79
couples/joint decisions findings, 302
defined contribution findings, 391
description, 180–181, 184, 298
employee provided retiree health insurance and, 303
forced retirement issues, 166
gender and retirement decision data, 208
gender-functional impairment study, 207–208
important role played by, 196
IRA data, 419
National Institute of Aging funding, 194
perceptions of usual retirement age, 161
physical functioning data, 327–328
postponement of retirement decision, 160–161
psychological well-being measures, 5
retirees retirement path data, 478–479
SHARE data, ELSA study comparisons, 556
health behaviors. See also health issues; physical health and retirement
aging workers and, 30
alcohol use, 3, 332–333
assessment instruments, 254
Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities study, 331
Dutch Limburg province cohort study, 332
Dutch NIDI study, 327, 331, 333
ELSA study, 333
England factory workers study, 330–331, 333
future research directions, 334–336
GLOBE study, 331
HRS studies, data analysis, 334
Kaiser Permanente study, 332–333, 333
male blue-collar worker study (U.S.), 332
manual work, body/muscle mass study, 333
physical activity, 330–332
self-reports of regular exercise study, 331
smoking, 333
Veterans Administration Normative Aging Study, 332
weight change, 333–334
Whitehall II study, 331–332
health insurance, 124. See also Medicaid; Medicare; TRICARE supplemental insurance assistance; Veterans Administration (CHAMPVA) supplementary insurance
early retiree insurance, 466–467
employer-based retiree insurance, 466
employer sponsored programs, 29–30, 38, 165, 302–303
German study analysis, 329
government-funded programs, 16
NRTA/retired teachers, 18
pensions and, 29–30
for retirees
declining availability, 30
HR planning for, 124–125
impact of loss of, 30
influence of premiums, 302
influence on retirement decision, 302
as retention inducement, 432
health issues. See also physical health and retirement
age-related declines, areas of, 91, 203
assessments of employee behaviors, 254
cognition and aging research, 91
health limitations and abrupt retirement, 93
influence on retirement decision, 78, 286
influence on retirement planning, 253–254
resources for retirement transition, 253–254
retirement-related outcomes, 79
health maintenance organizations (HMOs), 462
health savings accounts, 124–125
Healthy Retirement Project, 251
Hebestreit, L. K., 485
Hedge, J. W., 203
Heeringa, S. G., 190
Heller, P. S., 523
Helman, R., 413
Help Age International report (2010), 528
Helson, R., 62, 64–65
Henderikse, W., 552
Hendricks, J., 339, 340, 342
Henkens, K., 51, 203, 206, 251, 314, 315, 318, 331, 333, 357, 415, 477, 552, 612
Heo, J., 257
(p. 626) Hercowitz, Z., 148
Hershey, D. A., 209, 256, 269, 412, 414, 415, 421
Herzog, A. R., 183, 344, 346, 347, 348
Hesketh, B., 204, 205, 206, 209, 300
Heymans, M., 127
Hibbett, A., 527
Higgs, P., 68
high performance work organizations (HPWOs), 534
High School Financial Planning Program (HSFPP), 422
Hinterlong, J., 348
Hispanics
gender wage inequity, 31
labor force growth expectations, 27, 374
Medicare data, 467, 472
risk-averse attitude of, 37, 413
shortened life expectancy, 376
unemployment issues, 36, 374, 376
historical background of retirement within the U.S., 10–20
lessons learned, 20
influence of economic conditions, 20
modernity of retirement, 20
need for a lot of knowledge, 20
there’s always more to learn, 20
ancient to 1700 era, 12
1700 to 1920s era, 12–14
1920s to 1945 era, 14–16
1945–1990 era, 16–18
1990–2010 and onward, 18–20
Ho, J. H., 356
Hobfoll, S. E., 359
Hochschild, Arlie, 63
Hofmeister, H., 211
Hogan, R., 208
Holmberg, D., 348
Holtom, B. C., 288
Hong Kong
gender-related retirement data, 208
limited retirement planning, 404
older worker recruitment, 531
retention of older workers, 532
Hoonakker, P., 361
Hospital Insurance (HI) program. See Part A, Medicare (Hospital Insurance program)
Hotchkiss, J. L., 397
hours worked/earnings below a minimum cutoff, 46–47
House, C., 145, 148, 183
Howard, J. H., 316
Howe, N., 383
Hubbard, R. G., 148
Hudomiet, P., 182
Huffman, D., 182
Hughes, J., 514
Hukkelberg, S., 239
hukou (China, household registration system), 380
Hulin, C. L., 232, 240
human capital theory, 216, 217
human resources (HR) management, generational differences
bridge employment, 580
early retirement decision, 580
ERIs, 579–580
human resources (HR) management, global practices
retirement patterns, 525–526
trends in management practices, 531–534
flexible work arrangements, new kinds of work, 534
recruitment and selection, 531–532
retention, 532
training and personal development, 532–534
human resources (HR) management, strategic management of retirement, 117–132. See also early retirement incentives (ERIs); recruitment and retention strategies for mature workers
“best practices” perspective, 118
cost of older vs. younger employees, 450
employee benefits, spending data, 122
firm-specific strategies, 118
future research directions, 132
global practices, 525–526
HR architecture (defined), 118
methods of strategic management
succession planning, 121–122
workforce management (HR planning), 119–121
NCCI tailored plans, 119
organizational interactions with retirees, 128–130
recruitment, 129–130
retention, 129
retirement work, 128
outplacement services, 454
Porters distinctions in HR practices, 119
pre-retirement workforce issues, 122–125
financial preparation, 122–124
health benefits, health savings accounts, long-term care insurance, 124–125
retiring workforce issues, 125–128
knowledge transfer, 117, 121, 122, 125–126
motivation/performance management, 126–128
use of psychological contract theory, 123
Hungary, male vs. female retirement age, 52
Hurd, M., 142
Hurst, E., 148
Hutchens, R., 222, 299, 523
Huxley, Aldous, 69
hybrid employment, 216
I
ICTs (information and communication technologies), 493
illegal immigrants, 374, 564, 565, 566
Ilmarinen, J., 553
Im, C., 577
Image Theory (Wang and Shultz), 275, 282, 411
immigrant retirees’ perspectives on retirement, 564–567. See also illegal immigrants
bridge employment as possible solution, 566–567
cultural considerations, retirement living conditions, 565–566
ethical dilemmas, 567
financial dilemmas, 566
retirement location
assimilation theory, 564–565
challenges for non-citizen immigrants, 565
pull/push factors perspective, 565
transnational behavior theory, 565
immigration and retirement trends, 559–569
future research directions, 567–569
group threat theories, 562
immigrant-retiree tension factors
economy, 563
individual differences, 563–564
visibility, 563
increased flow to industrial nations, 560
organizational responses
finding cheaper alternatives, 560–561
forced retirement, 561
preference for younger immigrant employees, 562
social expectations, 561
stereotypes of older workers, 561
perceived group deprivation (PGD), 562–563
retirees’ responses
needing to work, 562–563
wanting to work, 561–562
social identity theory and, 562
implicit contracts, of employer with employees
Lazaer’s viewpoint, 216, 221
Thurow’s viewpoint, 216
incentives and disincentives to work or retire, 28–33
joint retirement, 32–33
pensions and health insurance, 29–30
public policy
Age Discrimination in Employment Act, 28–29
Social Security eligibility, 28
worker characteristics
education, 32–33
health trends, 30–31
income and wealth, 31–32
“income effect,” 140, 145, 147
India
demographic/labor force patterns, 3
economic background, data, 383
encouragement of older workers, 532
old-age security system, issues and challenges
maintaining sector balance, 385
private annuity market development, 386
public pension schemes problems, 385
regulatory agency coordination, 385–386
social assistance schemes problems, 384–385
old-age security system, overview
civil service schemes, 383–384
EPFO schemes, 384
micro-pension schemes, 385
occupational pension schemes, 384
public sector enterprises pension schemes, 384
social assistance schemes, 384–385
(p. 627) voluntary tax-advantaged saving schemes, 384
Indiana University Purdue University Center on Philanthropy, 181
Individual Development Accounts (IDAs), for youth, 417
Individual Employment Plans (IEPs) (SCSEP), 482
Individual Retirement Account (IRA), 47, 275, 391, 391, 417. See also simplified employee pensions (SEPs)
Industrial-Organization (I-O) Psychologists’ research on retirement, 268
industrialization
influence on retirement policy, 155
older employee capability issues, 14
information and communication technologies (ICTs), 493, 496
initiation rituals, in retirement transition, 154
innovation/differentiation
defined, 119
support strategies, 119
instant messaging (synchronous chat), 433, 442, 494
Institute for Social Research, 194
Institute of Human Development (IHD), longitudinal study, 61, 62–63, 64. See also Third Age (post-retirement period)
Institutes for Learning in Retirement (ILR), 485
institutional memory, of retirees, 121
institutionalization of retirement, 153–157, 163
class differences, 157
cultural variations and norms, 155
death-hastening strategies, 155
declining fertility trend, 159
forced vs. voluntary retirement, 156, 221
societal policies and structures, 154–155
supports for retirees, 156–157
urbanization/industrialization influences, 155, 156
Insurance Regulatory and Development Authority (IRDA) (India), 385
intelligence
crystallized intelligence, 91, 127, 286, 410
fluid intelligence, 91, 127, 286, 410
Inter-University Consortium for Political and Social Research (ICPSR), 183
internal continuity (continuity theory)
basis of, 76
consequences of lack of, 76
leisure activities in retirement and, 342
self-generated predisposition toward, 76
Internal-External Locus of Control Scale, 576
Internal Revenue Code, 389, 393
International Organization of Migration (IOM), World migration report, 510
Internet. See also social media; social networking sites; technology
CogEcon study data collection, 182, 193
comfort of Gen Xers with, 442
targeting of job seekers on, 130
use data, 180, 495, 498
web-based surveys, 182, 186
benefits of, 187
Ippolito, R. A., 392
Ireland
individual savings data, 404
older worker (65–69) employment data, 521
Iso-Ahola, S. E., 346
“isoelastic utility function,” 141. See also life-cycle model of retirement
Italy
equalization of men’s, women’s retirement eligibility, 160
life expectancy, 267
Social Security eligibility, 158
workforce inactivity data, 512
Iwasaki, Y., 349
J
Jackson, R., 383
Jackson, S. E., 119
Jacobs-Lawson, J. M., 209, 269, 412, 413, 421
Jacobson, J. D., 6
Jahoda, M., 45
James, L. R., 345
Janke, M., 346
Jansen, P. G., 127–128
Japan
demographic/labor force patterns, 3
encouragement of older workers, 532
growing affluence of Third Agers, 69
growth rate, compared with U.S., 374
mandatory retirement policy, 514, 521
older worker (65–69) employment data, 521
older worker recruitment, 531
people over 60 years of age, 74
recruitment of older workers, 531
relation of economy to employment numbers, 163
Third Age prerequisites met by, 60
workplace participation rates, 512
Jaques, E., 64
Jegers, M., 412
Jianakoplos, N. A., 413
Jivan, N. A., 301
job attitudes, generational differences, 578–579
Job Corps, 481
Job Descriptive Index (JDI), 230
job market for older adults, 33–35
Johnson, Lyndon, 16
Johnson, M. K., 362
Johnson, R. W., 302, 546, 550
joint retirement, 33
Jolls, C., 395
Jones, B. A., 329, 440–441, 485
Joo, S., 413, 416
Joseph, D. L., 240
Journal of Applied Psychology, 184
Journal of Gerontology, 18
Judd, K., 148
Judge, T. A., 230
Jump$tart Coalition, 422
Jung, Carl, 67
Juster, F. T., 179, 181, 188, 192
K
Kaiser Permanente studies, 332–333, 333
Kalleberg, A. L., 35
Kanfer, R., 126, 286
Kantarci, T., 299, 523
Kaplan, A., 494
Kapteyn, A., 182, 299–300
Karahasanovic, A., 505
Karasek, R. A., 439
Karoly, L. A., 303
Karpinska, K. K., 223
Kasl, S. V., 329
Kasser, T., 107
Katcher, A. L., 521
Kawachi, J., 546
Keen, L., 215
Kegan, Robert, 67
Kelley, H. H., 229–230. See also comparison-level model
Kelly, J. R., 339, 347, 522
Kemp, C., 421
Kenexa Work Trends, 578
Kezdi, G., 182
Kilpatrick, B. B., 413
Kilty, K. M., 316
Kim, H., 6, 78, 211, 304, 316, 356, 358, 363–364, 416, 456, 485, 594
Kimball, M., 192
Kirchler, E., 413
Kirchner, W. K., 218
Kleiber, D., 342, 346
knowledge transfer management, by HR, 117, 121, 122, 125–126
Kohn, M. L., 546
Kolarik, D. C., 345
Konrath, S, 577
Kooij, D., 127–128
Korunka, C., 361
Kosloski, K., 220
Kotlikoff, L. J., 142, 149, 392–393
Kowske, B. J., 576, 578
Kruglanski, A. W., 596
Kruse, D., 397
Kubicek, B., 361
Kwon, J., 416
L
labor force participation (LFP) rates. See also Americans’ Changing Lives (ACL) study
DB vs. DC plans, impact of, 29, 294
demographic changes, transformative effects, 22
dichotomousness of, 297–298
diversity, influences of, 36–38
“do-it-yourself” approach to retirement, 294, 300, 303, 307
education, influences, 32–33
employee-sponsored retiree health insurance influence, 29–30
female Baby Boomers, 38
female wage data, influences, 31
global participation data, 157–158
health issues, influences, 180
male, age 65, data trends, 11
male, state variability, 163
participation trends, and bridge job prevalence, 295–300
personal wealth, influences, 31
retirement age expectations, 24
Social Security changes, influence of, 28
trends, 24–28
1910–2009, male, 293
1950–2000, male vs. female, 33
1980–2010, male vs. female, 24–28
(p. 628) 1998–2004, 28
1960s-mid-1980s, female, 293
racial/ethic data, 27
urbanization/industrialization, influences, 155
U.S. aging projections (1994–2018), 3
white collar jobs, 286
labor unions, onset (1920s-early ‘30s), 14, 20
Labouvie-Vief, G., 64, 64. See also dynamic integration theory
Lacefield, K., 579
Lahey, J., 395
Laibson, D., 192, 192
Laitner, J., 142, 144, 148
Lang, F. R., 93, 96
Larsen, M., 419
Laslett, P., 59–64, 65–66, 67, 68–70
late passion-followers (later career years minicycle pattern), 109–110
Latham, G., 127
Lawrence, B. S., 282
Lazear, E. P., 216, 221, 389
learning and training older workers, 161, 477–491
academic training/retraining, 483–484
age-related variabilities, 484
barriers/limitations to learning, 484
federal government programs
Senior Community Service Employment Programs, 481–482
Workforce Investment Act, 482–483
funding uncertainties for the future, 483
job preparation
fastest growing occupations, 480
occupations in decline, 480
learner identities, 485
research limitations, 479–480
retirement pathways, 478–479
serious leisure, 485–486
stereotypic views about capabilities, 479
styles of learning, 484
types of learning environments, 485
volunteering, 486–489
adjusting to retirement and, 79
benefits of, 317
Bureau of Labor Statistics data, 486
capturing available talent, 487–488
formal training preparation, 489
for gaining certifications, 489
historical background, 486–487
job dissatisfaction and, 300
by men, 346
negative relation to depression, 348
for skill, knowledge building, 488–489
types of opportunities, 65, 344, 488
by women, 208, 210
work-oriented training, 480–481, 485
working in retirement, 479
Leber, U., 522
Lee, J.-Y., 613
Lee, R. M., 96, 181, 288
Lee, S. H., 529
Lee, T. W., 242
Lee, Y., 257
leisure activities in retirement, 339–351. See also MacArthur Studies of Successful Aging
adjusting to retirement and, 317
American Changing Lives Survey, 344, 347, 348
benefits for retirees, 257
choice/self-determination aspects, 339
Cornell Retirement and Well-Being Study, 348
development of, in the Third Age, 62
future research directions, 350–351
leisure, meanings of
being useful/giving back, 341
definition (Kelly), 339
feelings of achievement, 340
health/keeping fit, 341
provide meaning/direction and personal growth, 340
relaxation/play, 340
social interaction, 341
Ohio Longitudinal Study, 346, 348
participation factors
age and health, 346
gender, 345–346
socioeconomic status, 346–347
theoretical perspectives
activity theory, 341–342
continuity theory, 342–343
life course theory, 343
selective optimization with compensation, 342
types of leisure activity
educational activities, 345
hobbies, games, sports, 344–345
informal, with friends and family, 344
solitary, 343–344
travel, 345
volunteer activities, 342, 344, 346, 346, 348
work as leisure, 345
Veterans Administration study, 343
well-being and
physical well-being, 348–349
psychosocial well-being, 347–348
quality of activities, 349
Lemon, B. W., 348
Lennartson, C., 348
Leonard Davis School of Gerontology (University of Southern California), 18
Lepisto, L., 612
Leskinen, E., 184, 319
Levine, P. B., 301
Levinson, D. J., 74
Lewis, A., 413, 498, 546
Liang, J., 207–208
Lianos, T., 567
Liebman, J. B., 302
life career rainbow (Super), 104–105
life course perspective (on life in post-retirement period), 59–70, 77. See also age and the retirement process; gender issues and retirement; Third Age
adjusting to retirement and, 73–74, 313–314
age-based productivity-related stages, 158
Baltes/on successful aging, 60
Butler/life review process, 60
continuity theory and, 77
described, 314, 406
difficulties of ethnic minorities, 107
Erikson/need for attaining ego integrity, 60
every day life, post-retirement period, 62–65
leisure activities in retirement and, 343
lessons learned from emerging adulthood, 66–69
work patterns of Third Age individuals, 65–66
life-cycle model of retirement, 140–145
background information, 216, 406
determinants of retirement, 144
discussion, 142
dynamic model elements, 140–142
estimated parameter values, 144–145
solution, 142–144
life expectancies, 3, 206–207
of African Americans, 376
Australian Bureau of Statistics data, 207
of Baby Boomers, 559–560
bridge employment and, 300
global increase in, 267
of Hispanics, 376
self-estimates, 206–207
workforce participation association with, 282
life satisfaction factors, 347–348
life span age (defined), 128
lifelong learning and rewards opportunities, 544, 545–546
Lightfoot, E., 419
likelihood of another offer (Attitude-Engagement Model), 242
Lim, V. K., 304
Limburg province cohort study, 332
Lingard, H., 440
Lipsett, L., 409
Little, R.J.A., 190
Litwin, H., 349, 404
Liu, S., 79, 304, 320, 580
Locke, E. A., 127, 610
locus of control, of retirees, 111, 255
Loh, V., 205
Loix, E., 412
loneliness, experienced by retirees, 94
Long, J., 257
Loss-Based Selection (SOC Theory), 89, 91
behaviors encompassed by, 89
centrality of goals to, 95, 96
described, 89
non-preferred outcomes of, 93
successful retirement predicted by, 94
lowered satisfaction (Attitude-Engagement Model), 242
Lum, Y., 419
Lumsdaine, R. L., 193, 392, 398
Lusardi, A., 404, 410
Luttmer, E. F., 302
Luzadis, R. A., 395–396
M
Ma, D., 579
MacArthur Studies of Successful Aging, 341
MacEwen, K. E., 415
MacFarland, D. M., 414
MacKenzie, S. B., 613
macro-level structures of retirement
background information, 153
cultural influences on Social Security, 159–160
(p. 629) influence on individuals’ retirement, 164
retirement as institution, 153–157
class differences, 157
cultural variations and norms, 155
declining fertility trend, 159
forced vs. voluntary retirement, 156, 221
societal policies and structures, 154–155
supports for retirees, 156–157
urbanization/industrialization influences, 155, 156
social structures and retirement, 157–159
later-in-life labor force participation, 157–158
population structures, 158–159
Madrian, B. C., 192, 303, 398
Maestas, N., 300, 303, 478–479
main employer concept, 48–49
maintenance stage (in career stage model), 104
maladjustment to retirement processes, 3
males and retirement. See also females and retirement; marriage/long-term marriage; spousal relationships
adjusting to retirement, 5–6, 95–97, 206, 210
Brazil, workplace participation patterns, 513
China, declining workplace participation, 513
declining employment rates (1880), 22
decreasing work disability trend, 30
depression symptoms, 363–364
early (historically) reason for retiring, 42
finance-related gender differences, 207
health-related gender differences, 207–208
Hungary/United Kingdom retirement age, 52
and internal/external continuity, 76–77
late-life occupational change, 479
leisure-related factors, 345–346
Medicare data, 467, 467–468
mode of retirement, post-retirement work, 208–209
1910–2009 retirement age data, 293
1980–2010 LFP rates, 24–28
planning for retirement, 209–210
pre-1985 data, 295
ratio of women’s to men’s wages, 31
socialization-related gender differences, 208
Third Age economic resources. vs. women, 62
timing of retirement, 208
Manchester, J., 31, 391
mandatory retirement
abolishment of in the U.S., 270, 294, 514
ADEA protections against, 28, 162
employee considerations for, 450
employer considerations for, 216
Osler’s speech about, 13
requirements, in non-U.S. countries, 62, 156, 162, 203
Mandatory Retirement Act (1978), 17
Manpower Survey (2007), 530, 531, 532
Maratolli, R. A., 348
March, J. G., 240
Marcinkus, W. C., 440
Marconi, C. D., 414
Mariger, R. P., 148
Markus, H. R., 348
Marmot, M. G., 196
marriage/long-term marriage. See also spousal relationships
expectation variances, 66
financial planning, 413
gender issues and retirement, 210–211
historical perspective, 157
macro-level structures and, 153
post-retirement upheavals, 167
post-1960s influences on, 66
rarity among Black women, 164
well-being/marital satisfaction, 592
Martin, J. K., 440
Massagli, M. P., 299
mastery over the environment (of the retiree)
locus of control, 111, 255
self-efficacy beliefs, 110, 127, 254–255
Mastrobuoni, G., 28
Mauer, J., 188
Maurer-Fazio, M., 514
Mayring, P., 316
McAdams, D. P., 261
McArdle, J. J., 188
McCann, R., 220
McCarthy, J. T., 440–441
McCleod, J. M., 224
McCormick, B. P., 257
McEvoy, G. M., 217
McGarry, K., 303
McGillivray, W., 404
McGonagle, K., 362
McGrattan, E. R., 148
McGuire, F. A., 341, 345
McLanahan, S., 607
McNair, S., 485, 529, 534
McNamara, T. K., 531
Meadows, P., 527
meaningful work, use of talents, 546–547
Medicaid
anticipated deficits in, 307
cutbacks in eligibility and coverage, 294
dual Medicare eligibility, 464, 465, 470
long-term services and, 469
Medicare dual eligibility, 465
negative image of, 61
SSI eligibility and, 465
Medical Aspects of Old Age (Rolleston), 16
Medicare
access to care issues, 467
age-based eligibility, 158, 302, 356, 460
anticipated deficits in, 307
beneficiary characteristics, 467
chronic conditions, 468
cutbacks in eligibility and coverage, 294
dual Medicaid eligibility, 464, 465, 470
future research directions
financing of Medicare, 470–471
Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, 472–473
physician reimbursement, 471–472
potential for reducing racial, ethnic barriers, 472
gaps in coverage, 468–469
Medigap policies, 465–466
origins/description of, 460
Part A (hospital insurance program), 461, 470
Part B (supplementary medical insurance), 461–462, 470
Part C (Medicare Advantage program), 462–463, 470, 473
Part D (outpatient drug benefit), 463–464, 470
policymaker concerns about, 24
retirement insurance and, 398
Social Security Act (1965) inclusion, 16
spending growth, 468
2010 coverage data, 461
utilization data, 467–468
Medicare Advantage program. See Part C, Medicare (Medicare Advantage program)
Medicare Payment Advisory Commission (MedPAC), 467, 471
Medicare Prescription Drug, Improvement, and Modernization Act (2003) (MMA), 462, 463
Medicare Savings Programs, 465
Medigap policies, 465–466
Medline database, 232
Mehdizadeh, S., 348
memory, age-related declines in, 91
Mendes de Leon, C., 348
Menec, V. H., 348
mental health issues, 3, 579
Mentens, C., 412
Merit Principle Survey, 184
Merline, A. C., 521, 524
Merriam, S. B., 485
meso-level structures of retirement, 160–163
economic influences on employers, 163
employer policies and programs, 160–161
government regulations, 162–163
influence on individuals’ retirement, 165
retirement cultures, 161
Mesolithic people, 12
Messinis, G., 533
Metcalf, H., 527
MetLife retirement survey (2009), 295–297, 433
Mexican Health and Aging Study (MHAS), 181
Michigan Retirement Research Center, 194
Mickelson, K. S., 480, 481
micro-level structures: individuals’ retirement, 163–167
macro-level influences, 164
meso-level influences, 165
micro-level influences, 165–167
Middle Ages, types of retirement, 12
Mignonac, K., 593
military retirement
ancient Greece and Rome, 12
post-Civil War pension system, 13
U.S., state-based military pensions, 157
Milligan, K., 46
minicycle models and patterns, later career years
early strugglers following path with a heart, 109
late passion-followers, 109–110
multi-careers, 109
one career one life seekers, 107–109
Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI), 579
Mirowsky, J., 206
Mirvis, P. H., 43
(p. 630) Mitchell, O. S., 186, 193, 288, 395–396, 398, 410, 412
Mitchell, T. R., 242
Mizruchi, E. H., 347
Mobley, W. H., 242
Modigliani, F., 140
Moen, P., 66, 209, 211, 303, 316, 320, 357, 363, 363–364, 522
Monk, C., 30
“monotonicity of preferences” property, 138, 139, 149. See also static model of retirement
Moon, M., 485
Morales, J. F., 232, 551
Morgan, J. N., 183, 344, 347
Morgan, K., 346
Moriano, J. A., 232, 551
Morris, J. K., 329
Morrison, R. F., 315, 592
Morrow-Howell, N., 348
Mortensen, K., 398
motivation and performance management, by HR, 126–128
motivational-instrumental theory, 44
motivational resources, in retirement planning, 254–255
Mowen, J. C., 256, 412, 421
multi-careers (later career years minicycle pattern), 109
Mulvey, H. J., 521
Munnell, A. H., 30, 66, 222, 223, 301, 304, 305, 391
Muratore, A. M., 421
Musick, M. A., 344
Mutchler, J. E., 299, 344
Mutran, E. J., 358
My Age Site (website), 499
MyFriendsOnline (website), 499
MySpace (website), 499
N
Narcissistic Personality Inventory (NPI), 577
National Bureau of Age Discrimination (Netherlands), 526
National Bureau of Economic Research (NBER), 194
National Center for Women and Retirement Research, 193
National Center on Workforce Development/adult (NCWD/A), 437
National Commission on Social Security Reform (NCSSR), 17
National Council on Compensation Insurance (NCCI), 119
National Employer Survey, 186
National Endowment for Financial Education (NEFE), 422
National Income and Product Accounts, 302
National Institute of Adult Continuing Education (NIACE) survey (1999), 485
National Institute on Aging (NIA), 179, 180, 181
National Longitudinal Survey of Mature Women, 357
National Medical Expenditure Survey, 303
National Old Age Pension Scheme (NOAPS), 384–385
National Older Worker Career Center, 434
National Retired Teachers Association (NRTA), 18
National Science Foundation (NSF), 179, 181
National Social Assistance Scheme (NSAS) (India), 384–385
National Study of the Changing Workforce and the Quality of Employment Survey, 65, 578
National Survey of Families and Households, 209
Neanderthal people, 12
Neece, W. M., 203
Netherlands
adjustment to retirement data, 316
National Bureau of Age Discrimination, 526
older worker employment data, 521
pension pathways, 520
phased retirement availability, 524
retirement-related data, 220
spouse retirement discussions, 224
WANE Project development, 530
Netherlands Interdisciplinary Demographic Institute (NIDI) study, 327, 331, 333
Netlog (website), 499
Neugarten, B., 63
Neukam, K. A., 209, 414
Neuman, K., 305, 328–329
Neumark, D., 395, 399
neuroticism (personality trait), 255, 256
New Deal programs, 14–16
Commission on Economic Security, 15
Fair Labor Standards Act, 14
Social Security Act, 15–16
Wagner Act, 14
Works Progress Administration, 14
New England (1635–1700), work history, 12
New Pension Scheme (NPS) (India), 384
New Zealand
financial preparedness studies, 412, 412
superannuation guarantee programs, 404
Newman, D. A., 240
Neymotin, F., 413
Ng, T.W.H., 218, 593
Nicholas, C., 504
Nichols, S., 414
Nielson, N. L., 272
Nightingale, D. S., 480, 481
Nimrod, G., 342, 345
1945 to 1990 (retirement history), 16–18
Age Discrimination in Employment Act, 16
American Association of Retired Persons, 18
attitudes towards older workers, 17
Civil Rights Act, 16–17
Great Society legislation, 16
increasing retirements to Florida, 17–18
Mandatory Retirement Act, 17
Medicare Act, 16
National Commission on Social Security Reform, 17
retirement satisfaction scale, 18
Social Security Act (1965), 16
Social Security Act revisions, 16
1990 to 2010 and onward (retirement history), 18–20
Bush’s privatization proposal, 19
growth of retirement planning industry, 19
IRAs/Roth IRAs, 401K plans, 19
private pension plans/tax incentive plans, 18–19
social scientist studies, 19
1920s to 1945 era (retirement history), 14–16
Great Depression/New Deal programs, 14–16
onset of labor unions, 14
Nofsinger, J. R., 416
nonparticipation in the workforce (full retirement), 45
Noone, J. H., 412, 418, 421
normal retirement age (NRA), in the U.S., 271, 294, 301–302, 374, 398
Nuffield Research Unit into the Problems of Ageing (Cambridge University), 18
Nusbaum, N. J., 522
Nuttman-Shwartz, O., 315
Nytro, K., 441
O
Obama, Barack, 19, 469, 471
O’Brien, C., 206
O’Donoghue, T., 413
Office of Vocational and Adult Education (OVAE), 482
Ohio Longitudinal Study, 346, 348
“Old-Age, Survivors, and Disability Insurance” (OASDI). See Social Security system
Old Testament, verse on retirement, 12
Older Americans Act, 481
Oldfield, Z., 196, 411
OLSAA (Ohio Longitudinal Study of Aging), 76, 77
Olson, D. A., 606
on-the-job training, for younger vs. older workers, 221
one-career one-life model, 107–109
One-Stop Career Centers (SCSEP), 481, 482
Only the Paranoid Survive (Grove), 105
Onyx, J., 210
openness to experience (personality trait), 255
optimization process (SOC Theory), 89
“option value” of work (Stock and Wise), 301
Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD)
countries with defined benefits plans, 405
delayed retirement initiatives, 196
estimate of China’s Gini coefficient, 380
retirement initiatives, 215
retirement rates, high-income countries, 196
tax on work/labor force participation study, 302
2008 recession and pension funds, 379, 406
workforce inactivity comparisons, 512
youth and elder employment research, 163
organizational age, 127
organizational cultures, retirement-related, 161
organizational interactions with retirees, 128–130. See also human resources (HR) management, strategic management of retirement
recruitment, 129–130
(p. 631) retention, 129
retirement work, 128
Osgood, N, J., 347
Osler, William, 13
Ostroff, C., 455
other-directedness, dangers of, 69
outplacement services, for early retirees, 454
outsourcing and off-shoring, 450, 511, 544, 573
P
P-E fit (personal and environment) fit theory, 250. See also early retirement and P-E fit theory
change management, effects of planning, 251
dimensions of environmental change, 251–252
“E” described, 250
“fit” described, 250
needs-based/needs-related aspects, 250, 259–263
financial needs, 259–260
generativity needs, 261
social needs, 260–261
work-related needs, 261–262
“P” described, 250
personal change management resources, 252–259
health resources, 253
motivational resources, 254–255
personality-based resources, 255–256
social resources, 256–258
work-related resources, job skills, 258–259
relevance of change-orient aspects, 251
Pacific Rim
first pillar retirement plans, 405
old age support systems, 403–404
Paillard-Borg, S., 345
Paine, Thomas, 13
Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID), 179, 181–182, 197
Parker, A. M., 188, 348
Parker, M. G., 257, 341
Parry, J., 211
Part A, Medicare (Hospital Insurance program), 461, 470
Part B, Medicare (supplementary medical insurance), 461–462, 470
Part C, Medicare (Medicare Advantage program), 462–463, 470, 473
Part D, Medicare (outpatient drug benefit), 463–464, 470
part-time jobs
for easing retirement transition, 103
older worker preference for, 110
as phased retirement, 5, 43, 69
self-employment possibility, 48
as supplementary to Social Security, 17
by women, 46
passion for work
competence levels and, 110
late-passion followers, 109–110
of one-career one-life individuals, 107
PAST (Past Attitudes are Still There) Model of attitude, 243
Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (PPACA) (2010), 30, 460, 461, 463, 466, 472–473
Patterson, D. W., 203
Paullay, I. M., 270
PAYGO (pay-as-you-go) system. See also Social Security system (U.S.)
in China, 380
in Germany, 379
in the U.S., 374, 376, 461
Pederson, P. M., 257
Peng, H., 398, 609
Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation (PBGC), 390
Pension Protection Act (2006), 124, 130, 392
Pension Provider Survey, 301
pension system (U.S.). See also defined benefit (DB) plans; defined contribution (DC) plans; financial planning for retirement; human resources (HR) management, global practices; human resources (HR) management, strategic management of retirement
ADEA influence on, 160
career stages, nature of, 104
decision-making process for retirement, 271
delayed retirement laws, 393, 395–396
early pension pathways, 520
goals of pension reform, 392
Great Depression, state-level programs, 14–15
historical background, 160
influence of expansion on retirement, 392–393
phased retirement program issues, 393
post-Civil War creation, 13
types of, 29
Pepermans, R., 412
Peppers, L. G., 348
Perese, K., 302
Perkins, Frances, 15
Perkins Act Vocational and Technical Programs, 481
Perrucci, C. C., 208
person-environment fit theory, 44
personal growth, as leisure, 340
Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act (PRWORA) (1996), 567
personality-based resources, for retirement transition, 255–256
personality traits. See Big Five personality traits
Petroska, J., 205, 209, 256, 412
Pew Research Center study, 588
phased retirement programs, 216
Central Europe availability, 524
corporate response to, 65
cost containment factor, 128
defined, 205
for early retirees, 454
European policy, 522, 524
formal vs. informal programs, 129
global practices, 523–524
legal barriers to, 130, 162
NCCI adoption of, 119
part-time jobs as, 5, 43, 69
pension system issues, 393
United States preferences, 524
phases and measures of retirement, 43–44
actual retirement/life-situation transition, 44
assessment/decision to retire phase, 43–44
imagining phase, 43
Phelan, C., 142, 179
Phelps, E. S., 217
physical health and retirement (studies), 326–329. See also health behaviors; health issues
Dutch NIDI study data, 327, 331, 333
early retirement study data, 329
English Longitudinal Study of Aging data, 328
European Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition data, 329
Finnish worker study, 328
French Gas and Electric Company data, 328
future research directions, 334–336
German health insurance fund data, 329
Health and Retirement Survey data, 327–328, 328–329
involuntary vs. normative retirement study, outcomes, 327
Israeli/British studies data, 327
older research, influences of retirement, 326
opposite study conclusions, 326
post-retirement coronary mortality data, 329
Swiss Household panel data, 328
Veterans Administration Normative Aging Study data, 327
Western Collaborative Group Study data, 327
Whitehall II study data, 328
Pienta, A. M., 210, 299, 357
Pierfelice, L., 345
Pinquart, M., 5, 206, 210, 316, 349, 608
Pitt-Catsouphes, M., 304, 478
Planned Behavior, Theory of (Wang and Shultz), 228, 237–240, 275, 276, 412
planning for retirement, 249–263. See also decision-making process for retirement
Continuity Theory and, 251
environmental, personal factors, 268
financial resources assessment, 269
health-related planning
health of self, 270, 271–272
health of spouse, 272
Healthy Retirement Project factors, 251
job flexibility considerations, 272
P-E fit, 250
change management, effects of planning, 251
dimensions of environmental change, 251–252
“fit” defined, 250
needs-based/needs-related aspects, 250, 259–263
“P” defined, 250
personal change management resources, 252–259
relevance of change-orient aspects, 251
pension plan considerations, 271
planning-personal characteristics-retirement characteristics interactions, 251
(p. 632) post-retirement positive outcomes of, 249
self-efficacy beliefs about retirement, 254–255
social considerations, 270
Social Security system considerations, 271
stress factors, 252, 253
Podsakoff, N. P., 613
Podsakoff, P. M., 613
Poland, retirement gender equity eligibility, 160
Porath, Ben, 148
Porter, L. W., 119
Potocnik, K., 523, 526–527
Powers, E., 399
Pre-Retirement Education Planning (PREP), 193
pre-retirement HR workforce issues, 6, 122–125
financial preparation, 122–124
health benefits, health savings accounts, long-term care insurance, 124–125
preferred provider organizations (PPOs), 462
Prescher, J., 612
prescription drug coverage. See Part D, Medicare (outpatient drug benefit)
Primary Insurance Amount (PIA), 374–375, 375
Pringle, C. D., 403, 407
Process of Retirement Planning Scale (PrePS), 421
process view of retirement, 4–5
ProQuest digital dissertations, 232
protean career model, 102–115. See also bridge employment
“adaptability competence” issues, 110
assumptions made about retirement, 103
career stages, nature of, 104–105
“career minicycles,” 105
life career rainbow model, 104
“worker arc”/”pensioner arc,” 104
cumulative advantage/disadvantage theory and, 107
difficulties of ethnic minorities, 107
end-of-career related value, intrinsic purpose, 107
future research directions, 112–114
adaptability, 113
assistance with late career transitions, 113–114
career minicycles, 113
process vs. variance research, 113
search for generational differences, 113
influence of one’s reference group, 110
minicycle models and patterns, 105–112
early strugglers following path with a heart, 109
influences of aging, 111–112
late passion-followers, 109–110
multi-careers, 109
one career one life seekers, 107–109
role of bridge employment, 103
self-awareness in maxi-cycle later stages, 105–106
SOC strategies for goals, 106–107
socioemotional selectivity theory and, 112
stressful aspects of retirement, 103
traditional vs. modern view of retirement, 102
Provident Fund Regulatory and Development Authority (PFRDA), 385
psychological contract theory, use of by HR, 123
psychological correlates of retirement, 318–319
psychosocial age, 127
psychosocial development theory (Erikson), 74
psychosocial well-being, 347–348
PsycInfo database, 232
public use datasets, 179–183. See also Health and Retirement Study
Americans’ Changing Lives Study, 183
Cognitive Economics Study, 182
Panel Study of Income Dynamics, 179, 181–182, 197
RAND American Life Panel, 182, 186
Retirement History Study, 179–180, 299
Wisconsin Longitudinal Study, 179, 182–183, 185, 191
“push” and “pull” forces of retirement (Barnes-Farrell), 273, 277, 362, 565
Pushkar, D., 318, 342
Q
Quach, A., 416
Qualified Medicare Beneficiaries (QMBs), 465
quality enhancement
defined, 119
support strategy, 119
Quick, H. E., 209
Quicken Financial Planner software program, 416
Quinn, J. F., 298, 300, 390
R
Rabin, M., 413
Raghunathan, T. E., 190
RAND American Life Panel (ALP), 182, 186
Rashad, I., 305
Rational Choice Theory (Wang and Shultz), 275
rational-economic theory, 44
Rau, B., 6, 48, 580, 612
Raymo, J. M., 356, 360–361, 361
Reagan, Ronald, 17
recareering patterns, 479, 490
recession in the United States (2007–2009 financial crisis), 35–36, 182
coping with, by older workers, 19
gender-based unemployment discrepancy, 35
layoffs caused by, 443
long-term influence on economy, 356
loss of older worker desirability, 20
retirement postponement influence, 303, 364
steps for prevention of, 14
recruitment and retention strategies for mature workers, 431–445
barriers to retaining older workers, 434
benefits of retaining older workers
employee benefits, 433
organizational benefits, 433
societal benefits, 433–434
intergenerational considerations, 439–443
Baby Boomers, 441–442
coworker support, 441, 443
Generation X, 442, 442
Generation Y (Millennials), 442, 442–443
traditionalists, 441
multi-age generational supportive work environments, 438–439
organizational culture, 438
organizational scenarios, 443–444
reasons for retirement
financial, economic factors, 432
health factors, 432
personal, family factors, 432–433
trends, 433
workplace factors, 432
recruiting strategies, 435
retention strategies, 435–437
best practices, 437
bridge employment, 437
job and work flexibility, 436–437
managerial, leader support, 439
training, 437
Redman, T., 219
Reese, H., 409
Registered Retirement Savings Plans (RRSPs), 417
Reitzes, D. C., 358
relaxation/play, as leisure, 340
replacement chart, for succession planning, 121
research on retirement. See also research on retirement, multilevel perspective; research on retirement, research methods
advances in research, 4–6
challenges faced by the field
conceptualization complexities, 606–607
lack of consideration for research context, 608–609
lack of interdisciplinary communication, 604–605
need for accumulating causality knowledge, 607–608
types of topics studied, 178
research on retirement, multilevel perspective, 152–168
background, 153
future research directions, 167–168
gains of retirement researchers, 613–614
macro-level structures
background information, 153
cultural influences on Social Security, 159–160
influence on individuals’ retirement, 164
retirement as institution, 153–157
social structures and retirement, 157–159
meso-level structures, 160–163
influence on individuals’ retirement, 165
meso-level structures of retirement, 160–163
economic influences on employers, 163
employer policies and programs, 160–161
government regulations, 162–163
retirement cultures, 161
micro-level: individuals’ retirement, 163–167
macro-level influences, 164
(p. 633) meso-level influences, 165
micro-level influences, 165–167
strategies for moving forward
clarifying research contributions, 610–611
conceptualizing key constructs, 611–612
determining research questions, 610
establishing theoretical framework, 612
research design, data analysis, 612–613
research on retirement, research methods, 177–198
data analysis issues
analytic strategies, 191–192
missing data, 189–190
sample weights, 190–191
defining/measuring retirement, 178–179
evolution of methods
interdisciplinary research, 194–195
longitudinal research, 193–194
study of women and retirement, 193
experimental methods
natural or quasi-experiments, 192
true experiments, 192
future research directions, 195–196
measurement, 456
qualitative methods, 192–193
quantitative methods: survey research methods
cross-national studies, 183
government datasets, 183–184
public use datasets, 179–183
survey methods
data collection mode, 186–187
measurement issues, 187–189
sample designs, 185–186
survey nonresponse, 186
survey sampling, 184–185
retention strategies for mature workers. See recruitment and retention strategies for mature workers
“retire creatively”
defined, 589–590
post-retirement adjustment, 591
retirement planning, decision-making, 590–591
retirees. See also bridge employment; recruitment and retention strategies for mature workers
adjustment to retirement process, 77
continued employment by, 23
early retirement decision
ambivalence about, 456
family-related factors, 452
financial factors, 452
work-related factors, 452
family influences on, 276
from federal civil service, 48
mastery over the environment
locus of control, 111, 255
self-efficacy beliefs, 110, 127, 254–255
older worker view of, 43
reasons for retirement
financial, economic factors, 432
health factors, 432
personal, family factors, 432–433
trends, 433
workplace factors, 432
retirement, conceptual/operational definitions, 42–52. See also retirement process
future research directions, 51–52
phases/measures of retirement, 43–44, 178–179
actual retirement/life-situation transition, 44
assessment/decision to retire phase, 43–44
imagining phase, 43
as process vs. single event, 43
traditional definition/description, 22–23, 42–43, 47
types of retirement definitions
change of career/later-in-life employment, 49, 102
combinations of retirement types, 50–51
exit from one’s main employer, 48–49
hours worked/earnings below minimum cutoff, 46–47
nonparticipation in the workforce, 45
receipt of retirement income, 47–48
reduction in hour worked/earnings, 45–46
self-assessed retirement, 49–50
retirement attitude-behavior relationships, 237–242
Attitude-Engagement Model, 240–242
Theory of Planned Behavior, 237–240
Retirement Confidence Surveys (2010), 405, 413, 414, 478
Retirement Confidence Surveys (2011), 404
Retirement Descriptive Index (RDI), 230
Retirement Equity Act (1984), 391
Retirement History Study (RHS), 179–180, 299
Retirement Planning Questionnaire II, 421
retirement process. See also decision-making process for retirement; forms of retirement; human resources (HR) management, strategic management of retirement; macro-level structures of retirement; mandatory retirement; planning for retirement; research on retirement, multilevel perspective; retirement, conceptual/operational definitions; Selection, Optimization, and Compensation (SOC) Theory
as analogous to changing jobs, 276
changing nature of, 548–553
family factors, 551–552
individual level factors, 549–550
job and organizational factors, 550–551
socio-economic factors, 552–553
continuity theory of, 43, 73–84
defined/described, 22–23, 178–179, 228–229, 268, 298, 354
demographics of aging and, 22–39
economic theories of, 136–149
employer’s perspective on, 224
global variability in mandatory retirement, 268
historical background in the U.S., 10–20
institutionalization of, 153–157, 163
class differences, 157
cultural variations and norms, 155
death-hastening strategies, 155
declining fertility trend, 159
forced vs. voluntary retirement, 156, 221
societal policies and structures, 154–155
supports for retirees, 156–157
urbanization/industrialization influences, 155, 156
life course perspective (post-retirement period), 59–70
as life style choice vs. forced transition, 268
management, by employers
hiring older workers, 222–223
keeping vs. dismissing older workers, 220–222
pathways to retirement, 478–479
process overview, 268–269
protean career model and, 102–115
“push” and “pull” forces, 273, 277, 362
retirement-related decisions, predictors of, 78
Retirement Research Consortium (RRC), 194
retirement satisfaction scale, 18
retiring workforce issues, HR perspective, 125–128
knowledge transfer, 125–126
knowledge transfer protocol, 117, 121, 122, 125–126
Revenue Act (1978), 391
Ricci v. DeStefano (2009), 394
Richardson, V., 316
Richter, M. N., 440
Rieff, Philip, 67
Riester Pensions (German), 377, 379
Rise, J., 239
Rivis, A., 239
Robbins, S., 96
Robinson, J. L., 303
Rodgers, W. L., 190
Rogowski, J. A., 303
Rohwedder, S., 183, 192, 195, 196
role theory, 5, 77, 275
adjusting to retirement and, 73–74, 312–313
creativity and, 591–593
described, 204, 313
workforce participation variance and, 208
Rolleston, Humphrey, 16
Roman Empire
councils of elders, 12
gerocomeia (nursing homes), 12
military retirement requirement, 12
Roosevelt, Franklin Delano, 14–16
Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, 577
Rosenkoetter, M., 347
Roszkowski, M. J., 413, 414
Roth 401(k) plan, 375, 411. See also 401(k) plans
Rothwell, W. J., 121
Rovba, L., 397
Rozario, P., 348
Roznowski, W., 240
Rubin, D. B., 190
Rudolph, C. W., 93
Ruhm, C. J., 299, 392
Rürup Commission (Germany), 378, 379
Rust, J., 142, 179
Ryan, R. M., 107
Ryder, H. E., 148
(p. 634) Sablynski, C. J., 288
Saksvik, P. O., 441
Samuelson, P. A., 149
Samwick, A. A., 301
Sapir, E. V., 404
Sass, S. A., 222, 223, 304
Save More Tomorrow program, 416
“Save! The Game” (iPhone children’s game), 423
Savishinsky, J., 315
Sawyer, J. E., 593
Scandinavian countries
age discrimination in, 527–528
gender-related retirement data, 208
generous government pensions, 271
older worker (65–69) employment data, 522
retirement ages, 519
technology use studies, 499
training for older workers, 533
workplace participation rates, 512, 513
Schaie, K. W., 63, 484
Schein, E., 439
Schindler, I., 5, 316, 349, 608
Schippers, J., 552
Schlosser, F. K., 519
Scholz, J. K., 148
Schooler, C., 546
Schuler, R. S., 119
Schultz, K. S., 269
Schur, L., 397
Schurtz, D. R., 579
Schwartz, Barry, 67
Schwochau, S., 397
Scientific Management (Taylor), 14
Scott, J. C., 303
search for alternatives (Attitude-Engagement Model), 242
Searle, M. S., 346
Second Age (early adulthood), 59. See also Third Age
comparison with Third Age, 60, 62, 64
transition to Third Age, 59
The Second Shift (Hochschild), 63
Seif, D. G., 302
Selection, Optimization, and Compensation (SOC) Theory, 88–98
and the action theoretical framework
retirement as a decision-making process, 93–95
retirement as an adjustment process, 95–97
age, performance, and, 90–92
aging as viewed by, 111
assessment of SOC behaviors, 90
assessments of goals, 95
background information, 88–89
compensation (described), 89–90, 91
description, 342
future research directions, 97–98
goal continuity strategy, 96
goals, assessments of, 95
“ideal” vs. “less ideal” of retirement, 94
internal and external forces, 93
job displacements, benefits considerations, 94
job performance study, 92
minicycle patterns and, 106–107
momentary measures of SOC strategies and job performance study, 92
optimization process, 89, 96, 97
selection
described, 89, 96
Elective Selection, 89, 92, 97
Loss-Based Selection, 89, 91
work-family issues, 90, 94
work strategies of older adults, 90
self-assessed retirement, 49–50
self-awareness in later stages of career maxi-cycle, 105–106, 109, 110
self-efficacy beliefs about retirement, 110, 127, 254–255
Self Employed Women’s Association(SEWA), of India, 385
self-employment, post-career transitions to, 222
self-estimates of life expectancy, 206–207
self-fulfillment, as hallmark of the Third Age, 60, 60–61, 64
Self-Invested Personal Pensions (SIPPS) (UK), 417
self-realization, as hallmark of the Third Age, 60, 61, 65
self-regulation theory, 44
Senescence or the Last Half of Life (Hall), 16
Senior Citizens’ Freedom to Work Act (2000), 28, 392, 393
Senior Community Service Employment Programs (SCSEP), 481–482
seniority wages principle, 216
Sennett, Richard, 69
SEPs (simplified employee pensions), 391, 392
Seshadri, A., 148
1700 to 1920s era (retirement history), 12–14
General Law pension system legislation, 13
older employees, capability issues, 14
post-Civil War pension system, 13
Scientific Management (Taylor), 14
Shapiro, M., 192
Sheeran, P., 239
Sheldon, K. M., 107
Shinar, O., 440
Shiovitz-Ezra, S., 349
Shobe, M. A., 417
Shore, L. F., 282, 527, 529
Shultz, K. S., 6, 51, 79, 184, 250, 253, 256, 259, 275, 304, 315, 319, 320, 354, 362, 421, 422, 450, 451, 477, 478, 548, 552, 574, 580, 588, 592, 606, 611
Silverman, M., 142, 144, 148
Silverstein, M., 257, 257, 348
Simon, H. A., 240
SIMPLE retirement plans, 392
simplified employee pensions (SEPs), 391, 392
Singh, J., 413
Sirdeshmukh, D., 413
slaves, abandonment by owners, 155
Slingerland, A. S., 331
Slovakia, saving behavior prevalence, 405
Smale, B.J.A., 349
Small Business Job Protection Act (1996), 392, 393
Small Employer Retirement Survey, 392
Smeeding, T. M., 398
Smith, D. B., 196, 211, 320, 357, 363
Smith, J. P., 188
Smith, P. C., 114, 230. See also Cornell Model of role evaluations
Smith, Patricia Cain, 18
Smith v. City of Jackson (2005), 394
smoking and retirement, 333
Smola, K. W., 576, 578
Smyer, M. A., 304
Snape, E., 219
social identity theory (Ashforth), 43, 562
social insurance program development (Germany, 19th century), 156–157
social interaction, as leisure, 341
social learning theory (Bandura), 276, 576
social media, 433, 493–507. See also social networking sites; technology
common characteristics of, 494
digital generation gaps, 504
emergence, scope of, 494
evolution of web sites, 494
information exposure concerns, 496, 505
opportunities/challenges of use, 496
social networking sites, 494–495
study of older workers, 496–506
database selection, 496–497
discussion of study, 504–506
keyword search, 497–498
results of study, 498–504
screening the full-text, 498
screening titles and abstracts, 498
social needs of retirees, 260–261
social networking sites (SNS), 494–495, 496. See also Facebook; Twitter; YouTube
social-normative theories, 44
social resources, for retirement transition, 256–258
leisure, 257
social support, 257–258
Social Science Citation Index, 232
Social Security Act (1935), 15–16, 477
revisions (1939), 16
revisions (1950, 1970s), 16
Social Security Act (1965), 16
amendments (1983), 28
Medicare addition, 16
Title XVIII, 460
Social Security Administration (SSA), 179
Social Security Disability Insurance (SSDI), 388, 398
social security retirement system of Germany. See German old-age insurance system (GOAIS)
Social Security system (U.S.)
administration of SSI, 375
average wage index calculation, 375
creation/expansion (1940s-1950s) of retirement benefits, 22
cultural influences on, 159–160
description, 398
early filing for, 449, 590
Early/Normal Retirement Age effects, 398
federal regulation of contribution plans, 162
FICA tax funding of, 374
financial incentives within, 294–295
funding crisis expectations, 159
(p. 635) incentives influencing the labor supply, 450
increased delayed retirement credit, 294
increased disability benefits enrollment, 28
increasing normal retirement age, 3, 28, 156, 164, 177, 282, 294, 301–302, 552
influence on poverty levels, 157
original name of, 374
pay-as-you-go financing of, 159
policymaker concerns about, 24
potential loss of benefits, 450
workforce projections, 477
working while collecting, 47
Social Security Trust Fund, bankruptcy concerns, 17
Social Security Wage Base (SSWB), 374, 376
social structures and retirement, 157–159
age-based productivity-related stages, 158
later-in-life labor force participation, 157–158
population structures, 158–159
Society for Human Resource Management, 121, 434
socioeconomic status
cumulative advantage/disadvantage theory and, 166
as factor in retirement planning, 77, 107
financial crisis impact on, 35
forced retirement and, 166
health status and, 208
and leisure-related factors, 346–347
education, 347
occupational level, 347
in preindustrial societies, 157
socioemotional selectivity theory (Carstensen), 62, 64, 112, 287, 342
Solem, P. E., 46
Solomon, J. C., 207
Solon, G., 181
Song, C., 397
Sorenson, A., 66, 593
Soto, C. J., 64–65, 66
Sousa-Poza, A., 221
South Africa, universal basic pension benefits, 403
Southern Europe
age discrimination in, 526–527
bridge employment availability, 524
depreciation model perspective, 526
employment exit dominated strategy, 526
hiring rates of older workers, 532
mandatory retirement age, 514
older worker (65–69) employment data, 521
pension pathways, 520
permanent retirement, 523
training for older workers, 533
view of loss of older workers, 529
workplace participation rates, 512
Spasojevic, J., 305