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date: 23 August 2019

Abstract and Keywords

Under the pressure of an aging society, establishing a sustainable old-age security system (i.e., social security, pensions, and retirement saving systems) and providing adequate pension benefits for older people become critically important. Before initiating reform, it is necessary for us to understand the current status of old-age security systems. Due to differences in history, population structure, and socioeconomic environment, most countries have a wide variety of old-age security systems. This chapter selects four countries (i.e., the United States, Germany, China, and India) and introduces each of their old-age security systems, then analyzes the major issues and challenges for these countries. In the end, this chapter makes a conclusion based on comparisons among these countries and recommends directions of reform for the future.

Keywords: social security, pension system, retirement saving

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