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date: 17 November 2019

(p. 315) Index

(p. 315) Index

Page numbers ending in t indicate tables. Page numbers ending in f indicate figures.

Abdominal migraine, 293–294, 293t
Abraham, S., 174
Achievement striving characteristic, in AN individuals, 68
Ackard, D. M., 94
Adolescents/young adult, AN treatment, 231–256
early adolescence (ages 12-14), 233–234
adolescent-focused psychotherapy, 240, 242–244
cognitive remediation therapy, 255
family-based therapy, 249–250
general therapeutic approaches, 236–237
family-based therapies
fundamental assumptions, 248t
general issues, 247–249, 248t
genetic factors, 232
influence of puberty’s onset, 231–232
late adolescence, young adulthood (ages 18-24), 235–236
adolescent-focused therapy, 246–247
cognitive remediation therapy, 255
family-based therapy, 252–253
general therapeutic approaches, 238–239
maturation/development fears of patients, 232–233
middle adolescence (ages 15-17), 234–235
adolescent-focused psychotherapy, 244–246
cognitive remediation therapy, 255
family-based therapy, 250–252
general therapeutic approaches, 237–238
novel treatments, 254–255
stages of adolescent-focused therapy, 241t
Affective utility concept (Darwin), 68
Age and Gender Considerations in Psychiatric Diagnosis: A Research Agenda for DSM-IV (Narrow, First, Sirovatka, Regier), 199
Agras, W. S., 50
Ahrén-Moonga, J., 49
Alexithymia
in adult eating disorders, 69–70
defined, 69
elevation of, in AN, 68–69
self-reporting of, by AN individuals, 70
Amenorrhea and menstrual dysfunction
body image distortion comparison, 40
criterion D in DSM-IV-TR, 114, 116
heritability vs. eating disorders, 5
physical exam findings, 130, 131
American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP), 138
American Dietetic Association (ADA), 139
American Psychiatric Association (APA), 139
Anabolic steroid use, 93–94, 96, 100
Androgynous body type, 88
Anorexia nervosa (AN). See also Adolescents/young adult, AN treatment; Anorexia nervosa (AN), epidemiological data; Anorexia nervosa (AN), individuals with; Infantile anorexia
adolescent development and, 154–155
binge-type anorexia, 165
cognitive control, reward processing, 309–310
constitutional-systemic factors interactions, 48
controllability factor, 40
cultural factors, 50
developmental, self-regulation model, 67–85
ecological risk factors, 46–47
EDNOS comparison with, 113
estrogen receptor beta association, 99
family evolution and process, 149–160
genetic, constitutional, temperamental risk factors, 47–48, 95
historical background, description, 88
influences on cardiac system, 69
integrated Rx of, 52
libido suppression from, 95
life-cycle changes and, 154–155
male-female symptom similarity, 89
medications studied for, 276t277t
middle childhood treatments
family-based, 221–222
individual therapy, 222–223
multifamily therapy (MFT), 223
parenting and, 48–49
partial anorexia nervosa (pAN), 127
personality disorders and, 49–50
pro-ana (anorexia) websites, 61–62
psychosomatic syndrome classification, 39
pubertal maturation ties to, 83
risk factors, 165
treatment in the context of obesity, 258–270
Anorexia nervosa (AN), epidemiological data
age of onset, 46
Australia, 27
cross-sectional population surveys, 21t22t
Finland/Spain studies, 17
Germany data, 27
incidence data: clinical case registries, 18t
girls under age 10, 20
incidence rates by age group, 44
limited male information, 19
mortality rates, 29–31, 30, 44, 127, 138
outcomes in adolescents, 44
race/ethnicity, 47
recovery rates, 44–45
Spanish data, 17, 20, 22t
Anorexia nervosa (AN), individuals with
ambivalence towards emotions, 68–69
amenorrhea/menstrual difficulties, 131
behavioral extremes, 154
cardiac complications, 128–130
co-opting of reappraisal to maintain ill state, 81–82
cognitive change/event reappraisal and, 80–83
competitive goal pursuits of, 75, 77–78
dermatological signs, 135
early adolescence (ages 12-14)
cognitive remediation therapy, 255
early adolescents (ages 12-14), 233–234
adolescent-focused psychotherapy, 240, 242–244
family-based therapy, 249–250
general therapeutic approaches, 236–237
emotional experiences constructs, 68–70
alexithymia, 68–70
developmental model, 70f
emotional eating, 72–73
interoceptive awareness, 69
emotional regulation strategies, 67–68
endocrine, metabolic disturbances, 130–133
gastrointestinal disturbances, 135–136
(p. 316)
gradual onset of, 152
impact of starvation, 152–153
late adolescence, young adulthood (ages 18-24), 235–236
adolescent-focused therapy, 246–247
cognitive remediation therapy, 255
family-based therapy, 252–253
general therapeutic approaches, 238–239
limited patient efforts at treatment, 16, 19
male vs. female response to treatment, 100
middle adolescence (ages 15-17), 234–235
adolescent-focused psychotherapy, 244–246
cognitive remediation therapy, 255
family-based therapy, 250–252
general therapeutic approaches, 237–238
mother-daughter attachment patterns, 151–152
neurocognitive presentation, 134–135
nonconscious emotion regulation, 74–75
school/academic performance and, 49
self-reporting of alexithymia, 70
sensitivity to own heartbeat, 69
set-shifting deficits, 73–74
skeletal changes, 133–134
visually guided attention irregularities, 73–74
Anterior cingulated cortex (ACC), 309–310
Anxiety Disorder Interview Schedule (ADIS-IV), 117
Apepsia hysterica (early name for AN), 88
Appetite, increases in
assessment, 295
associated conditions
adaptive increase, 296
craniopharyngioma, 292, 295
endocrine disorders, 294t, 295
genetic syndromes, 294t, 295–296
malabsorption, 294t
medication induced, 296–297, 296t
neuroendocrine disorders, 294t
etiology, 294–295
physiology of regulation, 288–289
Appetite, loss of
assessment, 291, 291t
associated conditions
cancer, 291
central nervous system lesions, 292–293, 292t
chronic cardiopulmonary disease, 292, 292t
chronic kidney disease, 291
functional GI disorders, with abdominal pain, vomiting, 293–294
infection, 292
etiology, 290–291
Aripiprazole (Abilify), 281t, 282, 296t
Asian families, and anorexia nervosa, 158
Assessment challenges, current diagnostic and assessment instruments, 109–123. See also Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition; Great Ormond Street Children’s Hospital Criteria; International Classification of Disease
classification systems, 109–110, 112
diagnostic systems, 112–116
overcoming challenges, 111–112
pillars of assessment
informational procedures, 111
interviews, 110, 117–119
norm-referenced tests, 110–111
observation, 111
self-report questionnaires, 119–121
ATHENA prevention program, 167
Athleticism, 96
Attachment
anxious attachment, 42
close attachment relationships, 77
developmental view, 43f
insecure attachment, 53
mother-daughter patterns, 151–152
validation and, 42
Attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), 34, 89, 275, 281
Australia
active surveillance data collection, 91
AN inpatient admissions data, 27
anabolic steroid use, 93–94
study on role of media, 58
Autonomic nervous system, 288
Bargh, J. A., 67
Behavioral responses in eating disorders, 71
Bimodal response system to emotional experiences, 73
Binge eating disorder (BED)
biopsychosocial aspects of, 260t
comorbid female sexual abuse, 166
ecological risk factors, 46–47
EDNOS classification in DSM-IV, 258–259
epidemiological data, 20, 21, 23t, 25–29
identification as subtype, 32
male vs. female rates, 47
psychosomatic syndrome classification, 39
race/ethnicity data, 47
risk factors, 165–166
treatment in the context of obesity, 258–270
Binge-purge cycling, 41
Binge-purge subtype, 309
Binge-type anorexia, 165
Biological considerations, in eating disorders, 45
Biopsychosocial structure of eating disorders, 45, 260t
Bipolar disorder, 34, 281t, 282
Birch, L. L., 206
Black, M. M., 202
BMI (body mass index)
amenorrhea and, 132
boys vs. girls, 95
epidemiological data, 26–30, 32
fear/anxiety in children, and levels of, 49
GI disturbances and, 136
heart rates and, 129–130
Liverpool/tv watching study, 63–64
models/body image study of BN subjects, 60
peptide YY, inverse relationship with, 133
skeletal changes and, 133–134
Body dysmorphic disorder, 26, 45, 93, 165
Body image/body acceptance prevention programs, 172
Body image distortions
ages for expressing concern, 59
Guatemala City study, 60
internalization of “ideal body,” 59–61
male vs. female, 40
media promotion of thinness, 57–58
The Body Project prevention program, 173
Body satisfaction
5-year longitudinal study, 60–61
importance of, 59
influence of media, 56, 59
Internet-based intervention, 64, 172, 174
Bone mineral density, 131, 133–134
Bornstein, R. A., 49
Boyar, R. M., 131
Bradley, M. M., 73
Bradycardia, 69, 128–130
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), 6–7
Bruch, Hilde, 77, 150, 151
Bryant-Waugh, R., 118, 224
Bryson, S., 50
Bulimia nervosa (BN). See also Bulimia nervosa (BN), epidemiological data; Bulimia nervosa (BN), individuals with
ages of peak development, 59
biopsychosocial aspects of, 260t
body shape/weight study, 60
(p. 317)
cognitive control, reward processing, 310–311
constitutional-systemic factors interactions, 48
cultural factors, 50
developmental model approach, 41
dual pathway model, 92–93
ecological risk factors, 46–47
EDNOS comparison, 113
family evolution and process in, 155–156
genetic, constitutional, temperamental risk factors, 47–48, 95
homosexuality/bisexuality and, 94
integrated Rx of, 53
Internet-based interventions, 64
male-female symptom similarity, 89
menstruation, binge eating and, 98–99
middle childhood treatments, 223–224
parenting and, 48–49
partial bulimia nervosa (pBN), 127
pro-mia (bulimia) websites, 62
psychosomatic syndrome classification, 39
risk factors, 165
role of media, 59
school/academic performance and, 49
transdiagnostic CBT study, 267
treatment in the context of obesity, 258–270
Bulimia nervosa (BN), epidemiological data
age of onset, 46
cross-sectional population surveys data, 22t23t
Finland/Spain rates, 17
Germany data, 27
incidence data: clinical case registries, 18t19t
lifetime prevalence rates, 45
mortality rates, 30
race/ethnicity, 47
rate variability
male to female, 45
older vs. younger age, 19
urban vs. rural setting, 16
Spanish data, 17, 20, 23t
Bulimia nervosa (BN), individuals with
amenorrhea/menstrual difficulties, 131
cardiovascular presentation, 128–130
cognitive-behavioral therapy for, 261, 263, 267
difficulties with identification of feelings, 70
endocrine, metabolic disturbances, 130–133
Byrne, S., 118
Camberwell Family Interview (CFI), 151
CAMHS (General child and adult mental health services), 193
Cardiovascular presentation, in physical examination, 128–130
autonomic regulation, 129–130
bradycardia, 129
other complications, 130
QT prolongation on ECG, 129
structural changes, 130
Carlat, D. J., 94
Carr, M. M., 210
Carver, C. S., 74
Casey, B., 306
Cash, F. F., 172
Catholic families, and anorexia nervosa, 158
Cell phone usage, 57
Central nervous system, 288
lesions, 292–293
Chatoor, I., 204, 206
Children. See also Infancy and early childhood
appetite, satiety vulnerabilities, 47
assessment tools, 110–111
challenges, 111–112
body image distortions, male vs. female, 40
classification system diagnostic categories, 110
effects of bullying, 50
fear/anxiety and BMI levels, 49
middle childhood treatments, 214–228
Pediatric OCD Treatment Study, 281
physically ill children, 288–300
vagal tone construct application, 76
Children’s Eating Attitudes Test (ChEAT), 121
Children’s Interview for Psychiatric Syndromes (ChIPS), 117
Choking phobia, 43, 112, 117, 208–209, 225
Clomipramine, 277t, 281t
Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), 52f, 219, 280–281
for binge eating disorder, 263–264
for bulimia nervosa, 160, 261–264
comparison with IPT, 262
for food phobia treatment, 227
implementation in obesity, with BN, BED, 263–264, 266–267
Internet-based format, 262
in outpatient therapy, 191–192
self-guided care success, 223–224
success of, vs. medication, 41–42
transdiagnostic CBT, 266–267
Cognitive-development theory (Piaget), 215–216
Cognitive processes and brain circuitry, 305–312
anterior cingulated cortex, 309–310
cognitive control, reward processing
in anorexia nervosa, 309–310
in bulimia nervosa, 310–311
cognitive development dynamics, 306–307
cognitive process, 308–309
“collaborative brain,” 306
control and reward processing
in anorexia nervosa, 309–310
in bulimia nervosa, 310–311
Embedded Figures Test, 308
fMRI studies, 306–307, 309–311
Go/No-Go task, 307, 309–310
Homograph Sentence Completion Task, 308
inefficient/dysregulated processes, implications of, 308–309
Matching Familiar Figures Test, 308
prefrontal cortex (PFC), 305–307, 309–311
Cognitive remediation therapy (CRT), for AN individuals
determination of usefulness, 311
early adolescence, 255
late adolescence, young adulthood, 255
middle adolescence, 255
Cohen, P., 198
Conduct disorders
attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder, 34, 89, 275, 281
external disorder categorization, 302
gender distribution, 89
home-based treatments, 192
manifestations of, 156
Consent-compliance issues, middle childhood, 220
Coronary artery disease, 90
Craig, A. D., 71
Craniopharyngioma, 292, 295
Crisp, A. H., 45
Crittenden, P. M., 152
Cross-sectional population surveys, point prevalence reports
anorexia nervosa, 21t22t
binge eating disorder, 23t
bulimia nervosa, 22t23t
EDNOS, 24t
Cultural issues, 157–158
Cyclic vomiting syndrome (CVS), 294–295
Dahl, M., 198
Dallos, R., 151
Darwin, Charles
affective utility concept of emotions, 68
communication aspect of emotions, 75
Davidson, T. L., 74, 173
Davis, R., 174
Day unit treatment options, 187–188
DBT (dialectical behavior therapy), 189
Dellava, J. E., 49
Denmark
anorexia nervosa data, 18t
inpatient/outpatient, 25
binge eating disorder data, 25
bulimia nervosa data, 19t
rates (1977-1986), 25
Dermatological signs, physical examination findings, 134
(p. 318) Descriptive model approach (to diagnosis and treatment)
described, 39–40
“drive to thinness” symptom, 41
Developmental model approach (to diagnosis and treatment), 40–43
approach to bulimia, 41
body image distortions component, 40–41
CBT component, 41–42
constitutional-system factors, interactions, 48
cultural factors, 50
“drive to thinness” symptom, 41
implications of
diagnosis, 50–51
treatment, 51–53
parenting, 48–49
peer factors, 50
personality, 49–50
psychotherapeutic component, 41
risk factors
ecological, 46–47
genetic, constitutional, temperamental, 47–48
school/academic performance, 49
social context considerations, 40
Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Primary Care (Wolraich, Felice, Drotar), 44
Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition (DSM-IV), 112
alternative classification systems, 43–44
Axis 4, social context lack of acknowledgment, 40
behavioral disorder diagnosis, 114
core features of AN, 43
diagnostic criteria, ages 6-12 years, 214
earlier editions, AN classification, 110
eating disorder section, 44, 112–115
AN criteria, 113–114
BN criteria, 114–115, 258
EDNOS criteria, 113, 115, 311
epidemiological-associated data, 17, 20–21, 26–28, 32–34
Feeding Disorder of Infancy and Early Childhood category introduction, 198–199
gender identity disorder, 97
Project EAT study (DSM-IV data basis), 91–92
reliability vs. Great Ormond Street Children’s Hospital Criteria, 117
Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th edition (DSM-V)
need for recognition of minimal cognitive eating disorder symptoms, 44
proposed categories
Avoidant Restrictive Disorder, 224
binge eating disorder, 258
gender incongruence, 97, 199
Diagnostic Classification of Mental Health and Developmental Disorders of Infancy and Early Childhood (Zero to Three), 199
Diagnostic Interview for Children (DISC-IV), 117
Diagnostic Interview for Children and Adolescents (DICA), 117
Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children (DISC-IV), 117
Dialectical behavior therapy (DBT), 189
Diamond, J., 44
Dieting component of prevention program, 174–175
Dissonance-based interventions, 173
Drabant, E. M., 81
Drotar, D., 202
Dual pathway model of BN, 92–93
Dura, J. R., 49
EAT survey, 58
Eating Disorder Exam-Questionnaire (EDE-Q), 119–120, 122–123
Eating Disorder Examination (EDE), 117, 118–119
Eating Disorders Association, 193
Eating Disorders Examination (EDE), 219
Eating Disorders Inventory (EDI), 69, 110t, 120–123, 164
Eating Disorders Inventory-Children (EDI-C), 121
Eating Disorders Work Group, 258
Ecological risk factors, 46–47
Eddy, K. T., 44
EDNOS (eating disorders not otherwise specified). See also Purging disorder
amenorrhea/menstrual difficulties in, 131
cardiovascular presentation, 128–130
comparison with AN, BN, 113
DSM-IV definition, 17, 113, 115
endocrine, metabolic disturbances, 130–133
female vs. male study focus, 17, 21
incorrect classifications of, 32–33
middle childhood issues, 220–221
subtypes 1 and 2, 17
transdiagnostic CBT study, 267
vague wording of criteria, 32
EDNOS (eating disorders not otherwise specified), epidemiological data, 16
Danish data, 25
female vs. male data availability, 17, 20–21
Finland data, 17, 26–27
Norwegian data, 21, 28
Spanish data, 17, 20, 24t
Swedish data, 28
U.S. data, 20
Eggum, E. D., 76
Eggum, N. D., 76
Eisenberg, N., 76
Eisler, I., 150
Electrolyte changes, laboratory findings in physical examination, 136–137
Elliott, C. A., 69
Embedded Figures Test, 308
Emotion regulation, 74–75
adeptness of AN individuals, 2, 67–68, 82
AN attention deficits and, 80
CBT treatment, 42
conflict avoidance and, 79
defined/described, 68, 74–75, 78
dietary restraint and (Merwin study), 83
goal pursuit and, 77–78
situation modification and, 83–84
Emotion theory and theorists, 68
Emotional eating construct, 72–73
Emotions/emotional experiences, 68
communication aspect of, 75–76
components/utility of, 68
constructs related to
alexithymia, 68–70, 77–78
biological considerations, 71
emotional eating, 72–73
interoceptive awareness, 69
interoceptive sensitivity, 70
contagiousness of, 76
contexts/response systems, 73–74
emotion regulation, 74–75
homeostatic emotions, 71
identification of feelings, difficulties with, 70, 71–72
of infants, 71, 75
motivational impulses for, 68–69, 72
self-regulatory strategies, 75–80
attention deployment, 80
interim summary, 77–78
situation modification, 79
situation selection, 78–79
types of, 78–79
validation and attachment, 77
Endocrine/metabolic disturbances, physical exam findings, 130–133
alterations of linear growth, 132
amenorrhea, menstrual dysfunction, 131
leptin and cortisol, 131–132
other hormonal changes, 132–133
thyroid dysfunction, 132
Endocrine syndromes, in increase in appetite, 294t
Engagement as outcome predictor, 188
(p. 319) Enteric nervous system, 288, 293
Epidemiology: continuity, discontinuity of symptoms
incidence, prevalence, outcome, 44–45
methodological considerations, future perspectives, 45
symptomatology, 43–44
Epidemiology: data sources on mortality, 27–29
death certificate studies, 31
studies of age as predictive variable, 31
Epidemiology: incidence data, 16–20
clinical case registries, 17–20
anorexia nervosa, 18t
bulimia nervosa, 18t19t
exclusions from studies, 16
population-based registries, surveys, 16–17
Epidemiology: prevalence data, 20–25
clinical case registries, 25
exclusions from studies, 16
male BN rates, 91
population-based longitudinal registries, 20
population cross-sectional population surveys
anorexia nervosa, 21t22t
binge eating disorder, 23t
bulimia nervosa, 22t23t
EDNOS, 24t
United Kingdom, male-female AN rates, 91
Epidemiology: recovery, relapse, long-term outcome data
clinical-based studies, 27–29
population-based studies, 25–27
recovery (definitions), 33–34
Erickson, Erik, 215
Escitalopram, 281t
Ethnic perspective on eating disorders, 98
Europe
anabolic steroid use, 93–94
descriptive approach to eating disorders, 39–40
Every Body Is a Somebody program, 174
Everybody’s Different prevention program, 174
Expressed Emotion (EE), 151, 156, 159
False hope syndrome, 82–83
Family-based intervention, for AN middle childhood patients, 221–222
Family-based treatment (Mausley therapy), 247–250, 253, 257, 283
for anorexia nervosa individuals
early adolescents, 249–250
middle adolescents, 250–252
middle childhood, 221–222
older adolescents, young adults, 252–253
critical components addressed by, 159–160
functional assumptions of, 248t
general background, 247–248
modifications for young adults, 252t
for obesity, with BN/BED, 267
overview of, 248t
Family evolution and process, in anorexia nervosa, 149–160
adolescent development, 155
assessment tools, 151
cultural issues, 157–158
etiology (historical perspective), 149–150
Expressed Emotion (EE) measures, 151, 156, 159
family beliefs about eating disorder, 154
gradual onset of eating disorder, 152
impact of starvation, 152–153
intra-/interpersonal maintaining factors, 152
life-cycle stages, 154–155
maintenance of eating disorder, 153
mother-daughter attachment patterns, 151–152
parental inability to take action, 154
sibling relationships, 156–157
treatment choices
cognitive-behavioral therapy, 160
family based therapy, 159–160
refeeding program, 150
separation from family, 150, 151
structural family therapy, 150, 158–159
Family evolution and process, in bulimia nervosa, 155–156
Family treatment apartments (FTAs), 192
Fatness, fears of, 29, 112, 116, 220, 290. See also Obesity
Feeding disorder associated with a concurrent medical condition
clinical presentation, 209–210
diagnostic criteria, 209
treatment, 210–211
Feeding disorder of caregiver-infant reciprocity, 201–203
Feeding Disorder of Infancy and Early Childhood category introduction (DMS-IV), 198
Feeding disorder of state regulation (infants), 201
clinical presentation, 202
diagnostic criteria, 201–202
treatment, 202–203
Females. See also Amenorrhea and menstrual dysfunction
age-based prevention programs, 167
anabolic steroid use, 93–94
body image distortions, 40
conduct disorders, 89
coronary artery disease data, 90
diagnosis/treatment data, 99–100
early AN case histories, 88
and emotional expression, 68
fear of being fat (3rd grade students), 58
Internet usage data, 61–62
Ireland, study of opinion of media, 59
neuronal estrogen pathways, 99
peer factors, 50
picky eating data, 91
with schizophrenia, and eating disorders, 89
schizophrenia and, 89
sexual abuse/BED individuals, 166
sexual orientation study, 94–95
Fichter, M. M., 45
Finland
anorexia nervosa
prevalence data, 20
twin studies/BN girl studies, 17
bulimia nervosa, prevalence data, 20
EDNOS rates, 17, 20
Five-Minute Speech Sample (FMSS), 151
Fluoxetine, 276t, 277t, 279, 281t
Food avoidance emotional disorder (FAED), 116–117, 225–226
Food phobias, middle childhood years, 224–227
Food refusal, 44, 112
choking phobia and, 112
described, 44
Great Ormond Street criteria component, 116–117, 116b
in infants, 198–200, 203, 205, 207–210
middle childhood years, 224–225, 227
post-bariatric surgery development, 141
Food restriction/body dissatisfaction advertisements, 57
Foucault, M., 150
Frank, G., 310
Freeman, R., 44
Freud, Sigmund, 215
Full-threshold syndromes, 92
Functional dysphagia (fear of swallowing), 43, 116–117, 224, 226
Gastrointestinal disorders
abdominal pain and vomiting
abdominal migraine, 293–294, 293t
cyclic vomiting, 294–295
physical examination findings, 135–136
Gay men. See Homosexuality
Gay men. See homosexuality
Gender issues, in eating disorders, 88–101. See also Females; Males
anorexia nervosa
early case histories, 88
male-female symptom similarities, 89
male psychological traits, 90
assumptions made about, 90
biological factors, 98–99
BN/male-female symptom similarities, 89
epidemiology, 91–92
full-threshold syndromes, 92
limited studies of males, 90–91
(p. 320)
partial/subclinical syndromes incidence rates, 91
post-structural feminist theories, 88
Project EAT study data, 91–92
Gender-role endorsement, 58
General child and adult mental health services (CAMHS), 193
General Practice (GP) Database (UK), 91
Genetic, constitutional, temperamental risk factors, 47–48, 95
Genetic mutations, in increase in appetite, 294t
Genetic syndromes, in increase in appetite, 294t
Genetics of Anorexia Nervosa (GAN) Study, 49
Ghaderi, A., 70
Ghrelin (hormone)
functions/mechanisms of action, 288–289, 289f
involvement in kidney disease in AN, 291
levels in AN individuals, 132–134
Gila, A., 90
Gillberg, I., 308
GO GIRLS! prevention curriculum, 173
Go/No-Go task, 307, 309–310
Goldsmith, H. H., 74
Gonadal hormones, 98
Gordon, R., 163
Great Ormond Street (GOS) Children’s Hospital Criteria, 112
criteria development, 116
diagnostic options using, 116b
eating disorder symptom clusters, 43–44
reliability of criteria, vs. DSM-IV-TR, ICD-10, 117
Gross, J. J., 67, 71, 78
Gull, W., 149–150
Gull, William, 88
Haines, J., 175
Hammer, L. D., 50
Hannan, P. J., 175
Hare, T., 307
Heatherton, T. F., 82
Hebebrand, J., 132
Hedlund, S., 45
Heine, R. G., 210
Hepp, U., 97
Herman, C. P., 82
Herpertz-Dahlmann, B., 44
Hirsutism, 131
Home-based treatment options, 188, 192
Homeostatic emotions (Craig), 71
Homer, C., 209–210
Homograph Sentence Completion Task, 308
Homosexuality, 94–97
Hospitalization for eating disorders, 137–142
outpatient follow-up, 140
physiological responses to, 289–290
special considerations
bariatric surgery populations, 141–142
children with chronic illnesses, 140–141
males, 140
overweight children and teens, 141
Hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, 131
Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, 288
Infancy and early childhood, 198–211
achieving dyadic reciprocity, 200
achieving state regulation, 199–200
caretaker discrimination of cues, 77
communication of hunger, 71
development of the regulation of feeding and emotions, 199
emotion regulation strategies, 75
feeding disorder associated with a concurrent medical condition, 209–211
feeding disorder of caregiver-infant reciprocity, 201–203
feeding disorder of state regulation, 201
feeding problems (British Cohort Study), 47
nonorganic failure to thrive, 199
physiological regulation strategies, 76
picky eating, 198, 205
post-traumatic feeding disorder, 207–209
sensory food aversions, 205–207
10-month-old infant problems, 198
transitioning to self-feeding, regulation of emotions, 200–201
Infantile anorexia, 3, 89, 115
clinical presentation, 203–204
diagnostic criteria, 203
research findings, 204
treatment, 204–205
Inpatient treatment options, 187
medical (pediatric), 190–191
psychiatric, 189–190
Institute of Medicine (IOM), 163
Internalization of “ideal body” image, 59–61
International Classification of Disease (ICD-10), 112
criterions B-D, 116
descriptive diagnostic nomenclature, 40
diagnostic criteria, ages 6-12 years, 214
diagnostic options, 115–116, 115b
online version, 116
reliability vs. Great Ormond Street, 117
transsexualism (described), 97
Internet
cyber communities, 62
pro-anorexia/pro-bulimia websites, 61–62
thin body shape ideal promotion, 57
young people usage data, 56, 154
Internet-based intervention
for body satisfaction, 64, 172, 174
CBT delivery, 261–262
Interoceptive awareness, 68–70, 165
Interoceptive Awareness Scale (Interoceptive Deficits Scale), 69
Interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT), 239
CBT compared with, 262
child-parent, adolescent adaptations, 266
implementation, 264–266
strength of program, 278t
success with BN, 261
success with minority groups, 263
theory, 264
use of the group, 266
for weight gain, 266
Intervention choices, 185–195. See also Cognitive-behavioral therapy; Family-based intervention, for AN middle childhood patients; Family-based therapy; Hospitalization for eating disorders; Interpersonal psychotherapy; Treatment settings, eating disorders
cost factors, 185
diagnosis, 188–189
engagement/therapeutic alliance, 188
general issues, 185–186
clinical effectiveness, 186
cost factors, 185, 186
patient choice, preference, 186
risk management, 186
secondary handicaps, 185–186
setting, 185
specialist team choice, 186
Internet-based intervention, 64, 172, 174, 261–262
multifamily therapy (MFT), 189, 191, 223
optimal length of treatment, 188
outcome predictions per service model, 188
psychopharmacological treatment, 275–283
refeeding program, 135–136, 139, 150, 190, 220–221
structural family therapy, 150
TOuCAN satisfaction trial, 192, 193
treatment guidelines, 193–194
treatment options, 187–188
treatment settings
eating disorders, 189–192
mental health problems, 186–188
user and caregiver satisfaction, 192–193
Interviews (for assessment), 110, 117–119
Eating Disorder Examination, 118–119
(p. 321)
Structured Inventory for Anorexic and Bulimic Eating Disorders, 119
IPT-Adolescent Skills Training (IPT-AST), 266
IPT-Weight Gain pilot program, 266
Ireland, study of opinion of media, 59
Isaacs, S., 219
Jacobs, B. W., 219
Jewish families, and anorexia nervosa, 158
Katzman, D., 88
Kaye, W. H., 44
Kendler, K. S., 307
Keski-Rahkonen, A., 44
Kessler, R. C., 15
Kiddie-Sads (K-SADS) interview, 117
Kid’s Eating Disorder Survey (KEDS), 121
Kim, U., 206
Klerman, Gerald, 264. See also Interpersonal psychotherapy
Klinteberg, B. A., 49
Klump, K. L., 99
Koupil, I., 49
Kraemer, Helena, 50, 164
Lacy, J. L., 69
Lampert, C., 44
Lang, P. J., 73
Laxative use
children vs adolescent data, 219, 232
as compensatory behavior, 43, 258
dermatological consequences, 135
electrolyte abnormalities from, 136
failure to mention use, 41, 120
female use, 59, 141
Go/No-Go task study, 309
hypokalemia association, 137
male use, 92, 94, 96, 141
le Grange, D., 111
Leptin and cortisol, laboratory findings in physical exam, 131–132
Lesbians. See Homosexuality
Levine, M. P., 175
Libido suppression, with AN, 95
Linear growth alterations, 132
Lithium, 277t, 281t, 296, 296t
Lock, J., 111, 113
Lopez, C., 308
Lorazepam, 281t
Lucarelli, L., 205
Ludwig, S., 209–210
Madden, S., 91, 113
Males
AN co-twin study, 93
anabolic steroid use, 93–94
body dissatisfaction in puberty, 94
body image distortions, 40
bulimia nervosa rates, 91
college age, drive for thinness, 93
conduct disorders, 89
diagnosis/treatment data, 99–100
early AN case histories, 88
and emotional expression, 68
fear of being fat (3rd grade students), 58
hospitalization criteria for, 140
Ireland, study of opinion of media, 59
limited research studies about, 90–91
mesomorphs and masculinity, 95–96
middle childhood vulnerabilities, 219
peer factors, 50
picky eating data, 91
psychological traits in AN, 90
purging behaviors, 92
schizophrenia and, 89
sexual orientation study, 94–95
Marcé, L., 149–150
Marchi, M., 198
Marlin, D. W., 206
Matching Familiar Figures Test, 308
Matusek, J. A., 173
Maudsley therapy (family-based treatment), 159–160, 222–224, 247–250, 253, 257, 283
Mauro, R. D., 202
McDonough, S. C., 202
McVey, G. L., 174
Media exposure risks for eating disorders, 56–65
5th-12 grade girls study, 58–59
gender-role endorsement, 58
internet data usage data, 56
Internet sources, 61–62
Ireland elementary student survey, 59
media multitasking phenomenon, 57
Mexico promotion of thinness, 58
obesity and media, 63–64
social values driven by media, 58–59
thin body shape promotion, 57–58, 90
dangers of, 59–60
Menstrual dysfunction. See Amenorrhea and menstrual dysfunction
Merwin, R. M., 69, 83
Mesomorph body type, 95–96
Middle childhood (ages 6-12 years) treatments, 214–228
anorexia nervosa treatments
family-based, 221–222
individual therapy, 222–223
multifamily therapy (MFT), 223
bulimia nervosa treatments, 223–224
children—adolescent comparison, 219–220
consent/compliance issues, 220
developmental issues, 215–217
EDNOS treatments, 220–221
general considerations, 219
other eating problems, 224–227
food avoidance emotional disorder, 224–226
food phobias, 224–227
food refusal, 224–225, 227
selective eating, 214, 217, 224–226
systemic issues, 217–219
family management, 217
relationship with parents, 217–218
school systems, 218–219
Mills-Koonce, W. R., 76
Milos, G., 97
Minuchin, S., 150, 151, 247
Misra, M., 134
Moore, G., 76
Moreno, A. B., 167
Mortazavi, M., 70
Mother-daughter attachment patterns (in AN), 151–152
Motivational impulses, 71
Multifamily therapy (MFT), 189, 191, 223
Multivariate models of eating disorders
descriptive model, 39–40
developmental model, 40–43
Muscle dysmorphia, 93
Muslim families, and anorexia nervosa, 158
National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) data, 20
National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Growth and Health Study, 46–47
National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE)
emphasis on concern for siblings, 157
family-based therapy recommendation, 220, 222, 247–248
individual therapy recommendation, 220, 222
outpatient/community care guidelines, 185
treatment setting choice evidence, 189–1990
Nervous system. See also Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis
autonomic nervous system, 288
central nervous system lesions, 292–293
enteric nervous system, 288, 293
Neumark-Sztainer, D., 175, 177
Neurocognitive deficits in AN individuals, 73–74
Neurocognitive presentation, physical examination findings, 133–134
Neuroendocrine syndromes, in increase in appetite, 294t
Neuronal estrogen pathways, 99
Neuropeptide Y, 288, 289f
New Moves program, 178
Norm-referenced tests (for assessment), 110–111
Nutritional deficiencies, 138t
Obesity
Body Project data, 173
co-existence of eating disorders with, 177
(p. 322)
female ethnicity consideration, 98
healthy eating response in AN, 152
iatrogenic effects of interventions, 176
media intervention attempts, 64
overweight and, 267–270
current evidence, 267–268
family-based interventions, 268
multicontextual causes of obesity, 268
skills for behavioral change, 268
sociological model, 269–270
related disease data, 63
school prevention efforts, 172
Obesity, treatment with BN, BED, 4, 258–270
advantages of inclusive intervention, 177–178
CBT implementation
guided, self-help, 264
transdiagnostic approach, 266–267
youth/BN, 263
evidence-based treatments
adults/BN, 261
binge eating disorder, 262
plan considerations, 262–263
youth/BN, 261–262
family-based BN therapy, 267, 268
interpersonal psychotherapy
child-parent, adolescent adaptations, 266
implementation, 264–266
theory, 264
use of the group, 266
for weight gain, 266
treatment considerations
cognitive development, 260
parental/family involvement, 259–260
peer relationships, social context, 260–261
Observation component (of assessment), 111
Obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD), 26–27, 34, 52, 135, 255, 279–281, 308
O’Dea, J. A., 173, 174, 176
O’Kearney, R., 151
Olanzapine, 277t, 278t, 279–280, 281t, 296t
Olivares, J. L., 130
Outpatient treatment options, 187
Overcoming Binge Eating (Fairburn), 264
Oxford Risk Factor Interview, 49
Panic disorders, 69
Parenting and eating disorders, 48–49, 50. See also Family-based intervention, for AN middle childhood patients; Family-based therapy; Family evolution and process, in anorexia nervosa
gradual onset of child’s disorder, 152
inability to take action, 154
mother-daughter attachment patterns, 151–152
treatment choices
refeeding program, 150
separation from family, 150, 151
structural family therapy, 150
Parling, T., 70
Partial anorexia nervosa (pAN), 127
Partial bulimia nervosa (pBN), 127
Partial syndromes, 91
Pediatric OCD Treatment Study, 281
Peebles, R., 113
Peer factors, 50
Perry, C. L., 175
Personality disorders, 44, 49–50
attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder, 34, 89, 275, 281
bipolar disorder, 34, 281t, 282
obsessive compulsive disorder, 26–27, 34, 52, 135, 255, 279–281, 308
panic disorder, 69
schizophrenia, 89, 138t, 151, 279, 281t, 282, 311
seasonal affective disorder, 138t
Pervasive developmental disorders, 40, 89, 112
Phenylthiocarbamide (PTC), 206
Physical exam, findings and history
cardiovascular presentation, 128–130
autonomic regulation, 129–130
bradycardia, 129
other complications, 130
QT prolongation on ECG, 129
structural changes, 130
critical factors for assessment, 139f
dermatological signs, 135
endocrine, metabolic disturbances, 130–133
alterations of linear growth, 132
amenorrhea, menstrual dysfunction, 131
leptin and cortisol, 131–132
other hormonal changes, 132–133
thyroid dysfunction, 132
gastrointestinal disturbances, 135–136
delayed motility, 135
other disturbances, 135–136
laboratory findings
electrolyte changes, 136–137
nutritional deficiencies, 138t
vitamins, 137
neurocognitive presentation, 134–135
skeletal changes, 133–134
Physical symptoms, developmental perspectives, 127–142
laboratory findings
electrolyte changes, 136–137
vitamins, 137
medical evaluation considerations, 128
physical exam, findings and history
cardiovascular presentation, 128–130
dermatological signs, 135
endocrine, metabolic disturbances, 130–133
gastrointestinal disturbances, 135–136
neurocognitive presentation, 134–135
skeletal changes, 133–134
Physically ill children, eating issues, 288–300
appetite regulation physiology, 288–289
behavioral treatment approaches, 297
hypnosis therapy treatment, 299
increase in appetite
assessment, 295
etiology, 294–295
increase in appetite, associated conditions
adaptive increase, 296
craniopharyngioma, 295
endocrine disorders, 294t, 295
genetic syndromes, 294t, 295–296
malabsorption, 294t
medication induced, 296–297, 296t
neuroendocrine disorders, 294t
psychiatric, 294t
loss of appetite
assessment, 291, 291t
etiology, 290–291
loss of appetite, associated conditions
abdominal pain, vomiting, 293–294
cancer, 291
central nervous system lesions, 292–293, 292t
chronic cardiopulmonary disease, 292, 292t
chronic kidney disease, 291
infection, 292
psychological responses, 289–290
treatment approaches
behavioral, 297
hypnosis, 299
pharmacologic, 297–299
Physiology of appetite regulation, 288–289
Piaget, Jean, 215–216
Pica, 47, 110, 115, 138t, 198
Picky eating
boys vs. girls, 91
as eating disorder risk factor, 43, 47, 51
ICD-10 classification, 117
in infants, 198, 205
Pike, K. M., 49
Planet Health intervention program, 172
Polivy, J., 82
Pollack, S. D., 74
Polycystic ovarian syndrome, 131
Post-traumatic feeding disorder, 207–209
Prefrontal cortex (PFC), 305–307, 309–311
Presnell, K., 177
Prevention of eating disorders, 163–179, 168t171t. See also Prevention of eating disorders, components of programs (p. 323)
age group programs, 167
classroom vs. school-based programs, 167, 172
disease-specific interventions, 166
eating disorder-obesity prevention combination, 177–178
harmfulness (possible) of programs, 176
indicated prevention, 164
levels of prevention/prevention continuum, 163–164
primary prevention, 163
risk factors for eating disorders, 164–166
anorexia nervosa, 165
binge eating disorder, 165–166
bulimia nervosa, 165
research limitations, 166
selective prevention, 163–164
theoretical rationales for strategies, 166–167
universal, selective, indicated programs, 167
Prevention of eating disorders, components of programs
body image/body acceptance, 172
dieting, 174–175
dissonance-based interventions, 173
family components, 175–176
healthy eating, exercise, weight regulation, 174
media literacy, 172–173
psychoeducational information, 175
pubertal development, 175
self-esteem, 173–174
sociocultural factors, 175
stress and coping, 174
Project EAT study (DSM-IV data basis), 91–92
Propper, C., 76
Propylthiouracil (PROP), 206
Psychoactive medications
aripiprazole, 281t, 282, 296t
clomipramine, 277t, 281t
escitalopram, 281t
fluoxetine, 276t, 277t, 279, 281t
lithium, 277t, 281t, 296, 296t
lorazepam, 281t
olanzapine, 277t, 278t, 279–280, 281t, 296t
quetiapine, 276t, 281t, 296t
risperidone, 277t, 279–280, 281t, 296t
sertraline, 277t, 281t
Psychopharmacological treatment, 275–283
AN, medication studies, 276t277t
anorexia nervosa
treatment disappointment, 41
atypical neuroleptics, 279–280
comorbid diagnoses treatment, 280–281
drug development, neurobiological perspectives, 281–282
empirical support strength chart, 278t
functional neuroimaging, 282–283
genetic studies, 282
psychoactive medications, 281t
aripiprazole, 281t, 282, 296t
clomipramine, 277t, 281t
escitalopram, 281t
fluoxetine, 276t, 277t, 279, 281t
lithium, 277t, 281t, 296, 296t
lorazepam, 281t
olanzapine, 277t, 278t, 279–280, 281t, 296t
quetiapine, 276t, 281t, 296t
risperidone, 277t, 279–280, 281t, 296t
sertraline, 277t, 281t
Psychosocial “life-crisis” theory (Erickson), 215
Psychosomatic family model, of AN treatment, 150, 247
Psychosomatic treatment, 275–283
Puberty
BDNF and, 6–7
biological factors, 98
“core personality” development and, 45
developmental role of family, 42
hormonal changes/gene expression, 5–6, 89, 95, 98
male body dissatisfaction, 94
male/female, eating disorder rates, 2, 88–89, 91
male/female differences, 89
Purging disorder
as compensatory behavior, 43
epidemiological data, 20, 26, 27.29
in males, 92
middle childhood issues, 220
role of media, 59
QTc syndrome, 113, 128, 129
Quadflief, N., 45
Quetiapine, 276t, 281t, 296t
Raevuori, A., 47, 48
Refeeding program (treatment choice), 135–136, 139, 150, 190, 220–221
Response modulation, in AN individuals, 82–83
Ringer, F., 152
Risk factors for eating disorders, 164–166
anorexia nervosa, 165
binge eating disorder, 165–166
bulimia nervosa, 165
ecological, 46–47
fixed markers, 164
genetic, constitutional, temperamental, 47–48
parental problems, 165
research limitations, 166
Risk/resilience model, for development of psychopathology, 46
Risperidone, 277t, 279–280, 281t, 296t
Rituals of eating, 112
Royal College of Psychiatrists, 193
Same-sex relationships. See Homosexuality
Sameroff, A., 201
Scheier, M. F., 74
Schizophrenia, 89, 138t, 151, 279, 281t, 282, 311
Schmidt, U., 152, 261
Schmitt, B. D., 202
School/academic performance, 49
School-based intervention programs, 167
Selective eating, middle childhood years, 214, 217, 224–226
Selective prevention of eating disorders, 163
Self-esteem based interventions, 173–174
Self-esteem study, 48
Self-regulatory strategies, of emotion regulation, 75–80. See also Emotions/emotional experiences
attention deployment, 80
interim summary, 77–78
situation modification, 79
situation selection, 78–79
types of, 78–79
validation and attachment, 77
Self-report assessment questionnaires, 119–121
Children’s Eating Attitudes Test, 121
Eating Disorder Exam-Questionnaire, 119–120, 122–123
Eating Disorders Inventory, 110t, 120–123
Eating Disorders Inventory-Children, 121
Kid’s Eating Disorder Survey, 121
Selvini-Palozzoli, M. S., 150
Sensory food aversions
clinical presentation, 205–206
diagnostic criteria, 205
research findings, 206
treatment, 206–207
Serotonin levels
5-HT2A, link to eating disorders, 99
refeeding and levels of, 47
Sertraline, 277t, 281t
Set-shifting deficits in AN individuals, 73–74
Sexual orientation/sexuality, 94–95
Shape concern
media thin body shape promotion, 57–61
qualitative differences in nature of, 92–93
as risk factor for eating disorders, 47
Sherman, B., 308
Silverwood, R., 49
Simple disease model (of eating disorders), 42
(p. 324) Skeletal changes, physical examination findings, 133–134
Social biofeedback, 77
Social Cognitive Theory (Bandura), 167
Social values driven by media, 58–59
Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine (SAHM), 231
Society for Adolescent Medicine (SAM), 138–139, 193
Sociocultural perspectives
athleticism, 96
ethnicity, 98
mesomorphs/masculinity, 95–96
transgender individuals, 97–98
Somatoform disorders, 93
Spain
anorexia nervosa data, 17, 20, 22t
bulimia nervosa data, 17, 20, 23t
clinical based studies, 27
EDNOS data, 20, 24t
Spangler, D., 177
Spinrad, T. L., 76
Standardized Family Interview (SFI), 151
Starvation
hormonal system changes, 133
impact of, 77, 152–153
influence on cardiac system, 69, 129
Keys’ studies, 78
loss of discriminating capacities from, 74
physiological effects, 32, 153
psychological components, 45, 151, 156
serotonin levels and, 47
Stewart, D. A., 172
Stice, E., 92–93, 174, 177
Strober, M., 44
Structural family therapy, 150
Structured Inventory for Anorexic and Bulimic Eating Disorders (SIAB), 118, 119, 122
Student Bodies Internet-facilitated intervention, 172, 175
Sturm, L., 202
Subclinical syndromes, 91
Swallowing, fear of (functional dysphagia), 43, 116–117, 224, 226
Task Force for Diagnostic Criteria for Infants and Preschool Children (2003), 199
TBPSP (thin body preoccupation and social pressure to be thin), 50
Tchanturia, K., 311
Theory of Reasoned Action (Fishbein & Ajzen), 167
Thin body preoccupation and social pressure to be thin (TBPSP), 50
Thin body shape promotion (in the media)
internalization of thin ideal, 60–61
Ireland elementary student survey, 59
Mexico study, 58
ultra-thin models, 56, 57
Western cultural ideal of thin, 61
Thyroid dysfunction, 132
Toronto Alexithymia Scale, 69
TOuCAN satisfaction trial, 192, 193
Transdiagnostic cognitive-behavioral therapy, 266–267
Transgender individuals, 97–98
Treasure, J., 152
Treatment settings, eating disorders, 189–192
day units, 191
family treatment apartments, 192
general issues
behavioural management, 189
capacity and consent, 189
course of the disorder, 189
family involvement, 189
motivation, 189
physical/psychological management, 189
strength of the evidence base, 189
home-based, intensive outreach, 192
inpatient psychiatric treatment, 189–190
medical (pediatric) inpatient care, 190–191
outpatient treatment, 191–192
partial hospitalization, 191
Treatment settings, mental health problems, 186–188
balancing child-parent needs, wishes, 187
consent, 187
developmental appropriateness, 186–187
maintenance of education, 187
Tryptophan, anxiety and levels of, 47
U.K. National Inpatient Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Study (NICAPS), 189
United Kingdom
BN rates, 19
difficulties locating BN treatment, 158
early AN male case histories, 88
home-based treatment options, 192
inpatient psychiatric treatment for AN, 189
male/female incidence rates, 91
middle childhood EDNOS guidelines, 220
United States (US)
anorexia nervosa rates, 18t, 20t
binge eating disorder data, 20, 23t
bulimia nervosa rates, 18t, 22t
descriptive approach to eating disorders, 39–40
maintenance of weight follow-up study, 28
NHANES data, ages 8-15, 20
specialty program study (1980-1995), 27–28
Vagal tone (Propper and Moore), 76
VERB, social marketing program, 64
V.I.K. (Very Important Kids) Program, 172
Vitamin deficiencies, 137, 138t, 205
Wade, T. D., 118, 173
Wagner, A., 309
Wang, P. S., 15
Ward, A., 152
Weight loss product advertising, 57
Weight to Eat school-based program, 174
White, M., 150
Williams, L. E., 67
Wilson, G. T., 113
Woodside, D. B., 49–50
Workgroup on the Classification of Eating Disorders in Children and Adolescents (WCEDCA), 113–115, 121
Youth Self-Report (YSR)-Inventory, 165
Zastrow, A., 309
Zucker, N. L., 69, 72