Abstract and Keywords
This article discusses wine as the product of complete or partial fermentation of grapes. It first provides an overview of the wine regions around the world, often designated as Old World and New World, before describing the classification of wine into styles according to chemical composition, noting that most wine styles are derived from specific grape varieties, as well as the sensory evaluation of wine. It then considers the grapevine and its varieties, focusing on the annual growth cycle of the grapevine, the composition of grapes at harvest, the influence of climate on commercial viticulture, and vineyard operations and management. It also examines the winemaking procedures, primary fermentation, the transformation of grape constituents to wine, wine stabilization and fining, wine maturation, aging, and blending, wine clarification operations, and packaging. Finally, it analyzes future trends in viticultural and winemaking practices.
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