Abstract and Keywords
This article deals with the production of cocoa and chocolate. Cocoa beans are the raw material for chocolate and cocoa-derived products. Cocoa trees are native to equatorial climate regions, but Europe and the United States are the world’s leading chocolate producers and consumers. The fermentation of cocoa beans exerts a major influence on the sensory characteristics of chocolate. Studies undertaken in the twentieth century have yielded significant insights into the basic physiology and ecology of cocoa fermentation as well as the biochemical changes that occur during the cocoa fermentation, drying, and roasting processes leading to chocolate flavor. The article first provides an overview of the global production of cocoa and chocolate before discussing the fermentation process, taking into account the role of the substrate, microbial fermentation, drying, and cocoa processing. It also examines how chocolate flavor and quality develop during fermentation.
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