Abstract and Keywords
This article focuses on the processing of breads. It first provides a historical overview of breadmaking, noting that the process of making bread in ancient times is not all very different from modern bread manufacturing practices, before describing the main and optional ingredients, mixing, fermentation, and proofing as well as the baking and cooling process involved in breadmaking. It then considers the shelf life of breads and how it can be affected by staling and microbiological spoilage. It also examines sourdough and sourdough bread, with emphasis on the ecology of traditional and gluten-free (GF) sourdoughs; starch hydrolysis and bread staling; the mechanism and effects of proteolysis on bread quality; exopolysaccharides as hydrocolloids replacers; sourdough as a flavor-enhancer ingredient; and application of sourdough for prolonging the shelf life of bread. Finally, it discusses the use of GF diet as therapy for people with celiac disease.
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