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date: 18 September 2019

(p. 471) Index

(p. 471) Index

A
Abbott, Max, 408
Aboriginal Australians, 364–365
aboriginal people, 176
in Canada, 386
cooperation among, 177
effects of colonization on, 178
About Health Testing (BPS), 211
About Occupational Testing (BPS), 211
Academy of the Mysteries of Nature, 246
accountability, 49, 106, 151
accreditation, 370
APA and, 324
in Australia, 367
in Brazil, 106
in Canada, 111, 324
ethics training and, 367–368
in Mexico, 110, 314, 316
in New Zealand, 109
NSCBI and, 410
in Russia, 1990s, 431
in Turkey, 107, 446
accuracy in reporting, 140, 145, 147, 353–354
Adorno, Theodor, 54
advertising, 353, 432, 437–438
Afghanistan, 386
Africa, 103
African Charter of Human and Peoples’ Rights, 119
Ahmadinejad, Mahmoud, 384
Allende, Salvador, 381
Allport, Gordon W., 242
American Counseling Association (ACA), 172, 331
American Medical Association Code of Ethics, 22
American Mental Health Counselors Association (AMHCA), 172
American Psychiatric Association, 235
American Psychological Association (APA), xxiv, 11, 21. See also Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct
accreditation and, 324
Anatomically Detailed Dolls and, 46
Committee on Psychological Tests and Assessment, 209
Committee on Scientific and Professional Ethics, 247, 324
Council of Representatives, 235
CPS and, 22, 22–23
credentialing and, 321
Division of International Psychology, 158
eHealth and, 171
ethical decision-making and, 79
ethics codes and, 12, 324
ethics codes development and, 121
human rights and, 291
informal resolution of ethical violations and, 91
Internet searches and, 212
military service and, 234–235
Office of Workforce Analysis, 158
O*NET database and, 244
PENS report and, 234–235, 387–388
Perosio and, 398
sanctions, 324–325
sexuality and, 261
test guidelines, 209–210
test use ethics codes and, 202
torture at Guantanamo Bay and, 236
American Society for Training and Development (ASTD), 253, 256
Anschütz, Georg, 443
Anscombe, Gertrude E. M., 245
Aotearoa, 175, 180
APA Practice Organization (APAPO), 324
APA Resolution on Culture and Gender Awareness in International Psychology, 156–157, 157
apartheid, 178, 385
appeals, 43, 98
basic human, 72
in Europe, 344
fraternal, 91
HKPS and, 333
arbitration, 95
Argentina, 105–106, 309–311
competencies in, 398, 399–400
curtailment of psychology in, 396–399
democracy in, 399–401
dictatorship in, 394
education in, 395, 400–401
implications of psychology in, 397
law in, 396, 398
legalization of psychology in, 399–401
professional associations in, 396
provincial law in, 399
psychological associations in, 399
psychology as profession in, 395–396
psychology as science in, 395
psychotherapy in, 396
recognition of psychology in, 398
state terrorism in, 398–399
torture in, 397
training in, 395
Asia, 104
assessments
complaints against, 93
discrimination and, 260
emerging challenges in, 455
employee selection, 257
ethics of procedure and, 69–70
expanded access to, 162
grounding, 194
(p. 472) growth of psychology and, 452
for indigenous peoples, 176
instruments, 193–194, 194
needs, 62
online, 166–167
procedures, 86
in Russia, 1990s, 432–433
in Soviet Union, 429
subdisciplines and, 74
Assessment System for the Quality of Tests, 209
Associação Brasileira de Psicología, 311
Associação Nacional de Pesquisa e Pós-Graduação em Psicologia, 312
Association for Counseling and Therapy Online (ACTO), 172
Association of German Professional Psychologists, 383
Association of Psychologists of Buenos Aires, 106
Association of Social Work Boards (ASWB), 171
Association of State and Provincial Psychology Boards (ASPPB), 78, 247, 322
ASWB Model Social Work Practice Act, 171
asylees, 191
asylum seekers, 190–191, 191, 195, 196. See also forced migrants
Ataturk, Mustafa Kemal, 444
atonement, 92, 94, 94, 94
Australia
accreditation in, 367, 370
continuing development in, 369
electronic media in, 369–370
ethical complaints in, 369
ethics code development in, 359–361
ethics codes in, 364–365
ethics committees in, 362–364
ethics training in, 367–368
indigenous cultures in, 364–365, 367, 370
law in, 358
literature in, 368–369
national registration in, 370
online counseling in, 370
postgraduate education in, 367
professional associations in, 359–361
regional ethics codes in, 363
registration in, 358–359
social networking in, 369–370
Australian Medical Council, 364
Australian Psychological Society (APS), 127, 359
civil law and, 290–291
eHealth and, 170–171
ethics code development, 359–361
Ethics Committee, 359, 363
invoking ethics code of, 361–362
membership in, 359
resolving ethical complaints, 363–364
restructuring of, 363
sexuality and, 261
Universal Declaration of Ethical Principles for Psychologists and, 361–362
Australian Psychology Accreditation Council (APAC), 367
authorship credit, 140, 146, 147
autochthonization, 30
autonomy
cultural factors and, 78
as ethical principle, 120
in ethical research, 273
indigenous cultures and, 187
IRBs and, 152
in mediation, 93
of psychologists, 87
avoiding harm, 140, 146, 147. See also doing no harm
The Ayurvedic Instruction, 4, 6
Ayurvedic Oath of Initiation, 6, 9
B
Beauvoir, Simone de, 255
Behnke, Stephen, 79
Belgium, 340, 343, 347
beneficence, 44, 120, 151, 273
Bentham, Jeremy, 245
Berry, J. W., 192
bias, 86
in APA Code, 151
discrimination and, 259
in ethical decision-making, 82
ethnocentric, 139
European, 175
minimizing, 156
racial, 33–34
Bible, 115
Bicultural Commitment, 410, 411
biculturalism, 180, 408–410
bioethics, 246, 247
Blumenfeld, Walter, 316
Bond, Michael Harris, 328
Book of Medicine (Osaph), 6
Boulder Conference of 1949, 74
braindump sites, 222–223, 226–227
Brazil, 106, 311–312
bribery, 150
British Psychological Society (BPS), 341
Australian Branch, 360
code of conduct, 247
Code of Ethics and Conduct, 81
compliance with Meta-Code of Ethics, 79
ethical principles and, 76
Forensic Psychology division, 232
sexuality and, 261
Steering Committee on Test Standards, 210
test guidelines, 210–211
test use and, 21
Buddhism, 245
Bush, George W., 233–234, 324, 386
C
Callahan, David, 219
Canada, 110–111
aboriginal cultures in, 386
accreditation in, 324
CPQ and, 323
current ethics research in, 326
ethics codes in, 325, 386
ethics committees in, 325
ethics training in, 325–326
immigration in, 190
legal restrictions in, 323
legal status of psychology in, 323
multiculturalism in, 386
professional associations in, 324
regulatory bodies in, 323, 324
statutory regulations in, 78
Canadian Code of Ethics for Psychologists, 15–16, 325, 412, 413–414
Canadian Institutes of Health Research, 186
Canadian Psychological Association (CPA), 15–16, 111, 247, 324
Code of Ethics, 282–283
ethical decision-making models and, 81
ethical principles and, 76
Guidelines for Professional Practice for School Psychologists in Canada and, 248
test guidelines, 211
test use and, 21
Universal Declaration of Ethical Principles for Psychologists and, 127
Canadian Register of Health Care Providers, 110
Cassin, René, 117, 118
Catholic Church, 246
Cattell, Raymond B., 260–261
Ceausescu, Nicolae, 380–381
Center for Academic Integrity, 218–219
Centre for Global Ethics, 31, 39
Certificate of Professional Qualification in Psychology (CPQ), 322, 323
Chang Peng-chun, 117
Charles II, king of England, 246
Charter of the United Nations, 118
cheating, 218, 228–229
historical, 218
improper response to, 224–225
justifications for, 219
prevalence of, 218–219
by proxy, 223
technology, 216–217
types of, 220
(p. 473) The Cheating Culture (Callahan), 219
Chen Shih-Kung, 6–7
child protection services, 33, 181
children
advocacy for, 417
Guidelines for Child Custody Evaluations in Divorce Proceedings and, 209–210
informed consent and, 276
in NZ Code, 417
personal ethics and, 56
as research participants, 154
test use and, 202
UNCROC and, 417
violence among, 37
Chile, 381–382
China, 21, 104–105, 329, 383–384
cultural conditions of, 21–22
ethics code, 334
ethics codes development in, 121
ethics training in, 335
good practices in, 335–336
high-stakes testing in, 218
informed consent in, 153
society-based ethics committees and, 331
Chinese Academy of Science (CAS), 329, 331
Chinese Mental Health Association (CMHA), 104
Chinese Psychological Society (CPS), 21, 21–22, 104–105, 329
APA and, 22, 22–23
ethical complaints and, 331
ethical standards and, 331
professional associations and, 330
Chinese societies, 328
commitment to good practices in, 335–336
comparison of ethics codes in, 334–335
ethics code development in, 334–335
ethics investigations in, 332–334
ethics training in, 335
legal status of psychology in, 329–330
professional associations in, 330–331
society-based ethics committees in, 331–332
civil disobedience, 251
civil law, 283
Australian Psychological Association and, 290–291
categories of, 288
confidentiality and, 288–289
in ethics codes, 283, 283–286, 286, 287, 286, 287
informed consent and, 288–289
literature on, 291–292
psychological associations and, 294
references to, 286–289
resolving conflicts between ethics codes and, 290–292, 291
specific references to, 288–289
subject areas, 288
Claparede, Edouard, 242–243
clients
access to records of, 50, 50–51
customers versus, 434–435
dialogical connectedness with, 70
in disciplinary evaluations, 92
entitlement of, 48–49
familiarity with social services of, 195
in indigenous cultures, 181
interest in atonement, 94
moral position of, 57
passive, 69
protection from exploitation of, 57–58
protection from third party interests, 348
as research participants, 153–154
rights of, 407–408
secondary, 67, 81–82
sexual relations with, 57, 354
Code of Ethics (APS), 361
Code of Ethics for Counseling and Clinical Practice, 383–384, 390
Code of Ethics for Psychologists (Canada), 386
Code of Ethics for Psychologists Working in Aotearoa/New Zealand (NZ Code), 366–367, 405–406
adoption of, 413
aspirational perspective of, 410–413
biculturalism in, 408–410
Canadian Code of Ethics for Psychologists and, 412
children in, 417
content of, 413–415
cultural context for, 405–406
cultural sensitivity in, 415
ethical decision-making guidelines in, 415–416
integrity in relationships in, 414
Maori in, 410–413, 415
move away from codes of conduct in, 411–412
political context for, 405–406
preliminary drafts of, 412, 413
principles of, 414
purpose of, 413
respect for dignity in, 414
responsibility to society in, 414
responsible caring in, 414
social justice in, 414
structure of, 413–415
Treaty of Waitangi and, 412, 414–415
UNCROC and, 417
Code of Good Practice for Psychological Testing Centers (BPS), 210
Code of Hammurabi, 4, 5, 6, 22, 115, 202
Code of Health and Disability Service Consumers’ Rights, 407–408
Code of Professional Conduct (APS), 359–360, 360–361
codes of conduct, xix–xx
Association of State and Provincial Psychology Boards and, 247
compliance with, 368
in Europe, 247–248
HKPS and, 331
move away from, 411–412
NZ Code and, 405
organizational, 258
regulatory boards and, 31
universal declarations versus, 120
in W/O Psychology, 250
“Codes of Ethics of National Psychological Organizations” (IUPsyS), 283
cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), 161, 184–185
Colegio official de Psicólogos (COP), 340, 351, 356
Colegios, 396, 399
colleagues
actions of, 355
discussing ethical dilemmas with, 57
ethical complaints against, 97
mistreatment of, 437
respect for, 347
in Russian ethics code, 438
collectivism, individualism versus, 391
College of Psychologists in British Columbia, 110–111
Colombia, 312–313
colonialism, 29–30, 178–181, 364, 407–408
Comisión Interinstitucional para la Formación de Recursos Humanos para la Salud (CIFRHuS), 313–314
Comité de Acreditación, 314
Comité Nacional de ética en Psicología (CoNaEP), 315
Commission on Rehabilitation Counselor Certification (CRCC), 171
Committee of Enquiry (CoE), 332, 332–334, 333
Committee of the Psychological Sciences of the Polish Academy of Sciences (KANPAN), 107
Committee on Ethical and Professional Standards (CEPS), 359, 362–363
Committee on International Relations in Psychology (CIRP), 158
Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE), 260
common markets, 122
(p. 474) common platforms, 340
common practices, 48
common standards, 134–135, 135, 147
category development of, 140–147
coding of, 140
consensus approach to, 136
countries with, 141–144
empirical approach to, 136
across ethics codes, 137
good practices and, 137
possibility of, 147
research ethics as, 138–139
research limitations on, 148
research to determine, 138
test use standards and, 138
themes, 140
universal standards versus, 136–137
values and, 137
communication
eHealth and, 162–163, 168–169
indigenous psychology and, 30
in online counseling, 161–162
in Universal Declaration of Ethical Principles for Psychologists, 125
communism, 55, 381, 425–426
community
assent, 270
collaborative partnership with, 273–274
democratic representation of study, 273–274
feedback sessions, 277
in NZ Code, 406
after research, 277
responsibility to, 415
study, 277–278
compensation, 140, 146, 147. See also financial arrangements
competence, 42–43, 86–87
anchoring of, 45
appearance of, 47
boundaries of, for eHealth, 167
cultural, 181–182, 370
cultural diversity training and, 192
enhancement of, 49
ethical dilemmas of, 33
in Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct, 45–46
in Ethical Standards of Psychologists, 14
in Europe, 349–350
intentional ethics as, 63
in interventions, 48
limits of, 45, 349
measuring, 33
in Mercado Común del Sur, 309
in Meta-Code of Ethics, 16, 23, 44, 45, 84
moral obligation for, 45
multicultural, 196
in New Zealand, 109
in Nuremberg Code of Ethics in Medical Research, 13–14
promotion of, 47
in South America, 16
tactical rules and, 44
competent caring for well-being
across cultures, 151
in early to mid-20th century, 13–14
in Universal Declaration of Ethical Principles for Psychologists, 17, 44, 125, 151
complainants, 92, 92–93, 95, 96
Compulsory Assessment and Treatment Act, 417
Computer-Based and Internet Delivered Testing (ITC), 25, 206
computerized adaptive testing (CAT), 223
concentration camps, 11–12
Confederación de Psicólogos de la República Argentina (COPRA), 396
confidentiality. See also privacy
in biomedical research, 270
breaching, 67, 96, 348
business ethics and, 253–254
civil law and, 288–289
Code of Ethics for Counseling and Clinical Practice and, 390
before Common Era, 5
as common standard theme, 140
cross-cultural, 34
of data, 145, 348
duty of, 253
eHealth and, 165
ethical dilemmas of, 253
in Ethical Standards of Psychologists, 12–13
ethics codes and, 253
in Europe, 347–348
focus groups and, 277
inclusion rate of, 147
indigenous cultures and, 178
informed consent versus, 145
interpreters and, 196
limits of, 253, 348
professional associations and, 253
of proposal, 140, 147
psychotherapy and, 253
of research participants, 277
in research with immigrants, 194
Spanish Psychological Association and, 251
suicide and, 99
test use and, 205
transparency versus, 49
W/O Psychology and, 251, 252–254
conflicts of interest, 88, 146
as common standard theme, 140
cross-cultural, 34
dual relationships and, 140
in Europe, 354–355
inclusion rate of, 147
in research, 278
Confucius, 115
Consejo Nacional de Enseñanza e Investigación en Psicología (CNEIP), 314
Consejo para la Acreditación de la Educación Superior (COPAES), 314
Conselho de ética Profissional, 311
Conselho Federal de Psicologia, 311
Conselho Regionais de Psicologia, 311
consent, freedom of, 348–349. See also informed consent
construct-irrelevant variance, 222
Consultative National Commission on the Deontology of Psychologists (CNCDP), 343
consumer behavior analysis, 254
consumers, welfare of, 315
continuing development, 45, 87, 350, 369
continuing education (CE), 45, 318
continuing professional development (CPD), 87
continuity of care, 352
convenience samples, 275
Convention Against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman, or Degrading Treatment or Punishment, 119
Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women, 119
Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities, 119
Convention on the Rights of the Child, 119
cooperation, 54
among Aboriginal people, 177
across geographic boundaries, 135
internal legitimacy and, 62
loyal, 92
Coordinating Committee of Psychologists of the Mercosur and Associated Countries, 122
copyright infringement, 260
Council of Europe, 339
Council of Psychologists Registration Boards (CPRB), 362
counseling. See also online counseling
cultural identities and, 31
ethical decision-making in, 38
indigenous, 30
multicultural competencies and, 31
rehabilitation, 171
in South Africa, 104
in Soviet Union, 429
universalist versus culture-specific, 31
counterterrorism, 387
credentialing
in Colombia, 313
in Europe, 106
in Indonesia, 109
in Iran, 108
in Israel, 108
in Mexico, 110
in New Zealand, 109
in South America, 105
in Turkey, 107
in US, 321
criminal justice system, 232
crisis intervention
eHealth, 167–168
ethical dilemma, 168
for online counseling, 168
for web-based interventions, 168
criticism, 50
openness to, 92
reasonable, 88
receiving, 91
cross-cultural exchange programs, 149
Cuba, 380
cultural awareness
in ethics codes, 126
indigenous cultures and, 182
promotion of, 157
in South African ethics code, 385
training, 176
cultural beliefs, 29, 39
cultural contexts
analysis of, 81
globalization and, 149
for NZ Code, 405–406
Rules of Conduct Pertaining Specifically to Psychology and, 390
cultural diversity
ethics codes and, 405–406
globalization and, 114
teaching of, 192
training, 192
transnational ethics codes and, 453
cultural expectations
external legitimacy and, 62
individualism and, 78
treatment acceptability and, 184
cultural factors
autonomy and, 78
awareness of, 85–86
in eHealth, 169
ethics codes and, 77–78
in international research ethical guidelines, 150
with PTSD, 154
in test use, 156
cultural identity, 31
codes of ethics and, 34
learning, 40
loss of, 39
technology and, 127–128
cultural psychology, 187
cultural relativism, 130
cultural respect
Australian Aborigines and, 365
external legitimacy and, 62
government policies and, 36
Cultural Revolution, 21, 329
cultural sensitivity, 40, 78, 86, 415
customers, 434–435
Czech-Moravian Psychological Society, 349
Czech Republic, 339–340, 343
D
Daily Jewish Prayer of a Physician, 6
Dalai Lama, 130, 245
data, 145
collection, 164, 193
as common standard theme, 140
compression, 254
confidentiality, 145, 348
exploitation of, 437
falsified, 278
forensics, 228, 228–229
limited, 294–295
manipulation, 145
protection, 356–357
in Russian ethics code, 435
storage, 348
validity, 167
death penalty, 36
debriefing, 140, 145, 147
deception, 36, 155–156
Declaration of Geneva, 121
Declaration of Helsinki, 121, 268, 427
Declaration of Independence, 115
Declaration of Madrid, 30
Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, 115–116
deinstitutionalization, 416–417
de Klerk, F. W., 385
delegation, 140, 145
DeLeon, Pat, 236
Delgado, Honorio, 316
delineation, 176
della Porta, Giambattista, 246
democracy, 60, 377, 401
Deng Xiaoping, 383
Denmark, 24, 339, 340, 344
Deontological and Bioethical Code for the Practice of the Profession in Colombia, 313
deontological codes, 244, 245
consulting psychologists and, 243
discrimination and, 259
in FePRA ethics code, 401
membership and, 245–247
in psychology, 247–248
W/O Psychology and, 248–249
deontological conflicts, 244
Department of Defense, 236
developing countries, 275
Dewey, John, 245
Diagnostic and Statistical Manual, 244
dialogism, 261
dialogue
dyadic, 71
ethics of, 70–72
proximity to, 70–71
in relationships, 72
dictatorships
in Argentina, 394
in Chile, 381
human rights and, 402
ideology of, 397
in South America, 394
Universal Declaration of Ethical Principles for Psychologists and, 402
Directory of Unpublished Experimental Measures, 212
disaster, 329
disciplinary evaluations, 91–92
clients in, 92
criminal law versus, 92
interested parties in, 99
disciplinary procedures, 95–97
non-psychologists in, 95–97
preventative role of, 100
problems with, 97–99
psychologist cooperation with, 98
questionnaires on, 97–98
disclosure, 125, 155
Discrete Option Multiple Choice (DOMC), 224
discrimination, 32, 86
avoidance of, 68–69
human resources and, 259
against immigrants, 195
misinterpretation of, 35
positive, 68–69
of research participants, 277
research to eliminate, 157
respect in Europe and, 347
disease, 32
diversity, 39, 157. See also cultural diversity
doing no harm. See also avoiding harm
in Chile, 382
in Ethical Standards of Psychologists, 13
in Nuremberg Code of Ethics in Medical Research, 13
qualitative research and, 275–276
RECs and, 270
risk-benefit determination and, 275
social order versus, 383–384
in Universal Declaration of Ethical Principles for Psychologists, 125
domains of practice, 77–78
dramatis personae, 99
dual relationships, 140, 354. See also multiple relationships
Durie, Mason, 408
Dutch Institute of Psychology, 209
duty
of confidentiality, 253
ethics of, 65–66
ethics of procedure and, 69
Kant and, 246
professional, W/O Psychology and, 253
to protect, 138
E
East Germany, 382
Economic and Social Research Council, 79
economic behavior predictors, 254
economic freedom, 391, 391
indices, 377
national development and, 378–380
economic growth, 55, 186
economic transitions, 375, 376–380
ethics code enforcement in, 402
forms of, 380–389
to market economy, 436–437
social justice and, 391
Editorial Trillas, 314
education
in Argentina, 395, 400–401
in Colombia, 312
distance, 215, 217
ethics codes for, 75
ethics training in, 355–356
high-stakes testing in, 217
in Mexico, 313
in modern Russia, 434
normalization of, in Argentina, 399
online, 219
in open societies, 376
in Peru, 316
postgraduate, 367
in Russia, 1990s, 431
in Turkey, 445
Education and Social Research Council, 461
Education Testing Service (ETS), 211
eHealth, 160–161, 162
as adjunct, 164
anonymity and, 169
APA and, 171
appropriateness of, 166
APS and, 170–171
boundaries of competence, 167
communication and, 162–163, 168–169
confidentiality and, 165
cost effectiveness of, 163–164
crisis intervention, 167–168
cultural factors in, 169
data collection and, 164
data validity, 167
efficacy of, 164
ethical challenges for, 165
ethical guidelines for, 170
ethics codes, 170, 172
expanded access and, 162
financial arrangements, 166
identity verification, 167
implications for, 172–173
informed consent and, 165
intakes, 166
law and, 169
licensing, 169
nonverbal cues and, 169
online assessments, 166–167
online diagnoses, 166–167
records, 166
risks, 165
statutory regulations and, 165
training, 167
electronic signatures, 165
e-mail, 162–163
employee performance, 257
employee selection, 257
English Bill of Rights, 115
English language, 30
entitlement, of clients, 48–49
ergonomics, 243–244
Estonia, 340, 343, 346, 351
ethical awareness, 45, 63, 86, 349
Ethical Code for Psychologists of Mental Tests, 22
ethical complaints
adjudicating, 31
in Australia, 369
in Canada, 110–111
against colleagues, 97
CPS and, 331
evaluation procedures, 91–92
frequency of, 98
in Hong Kong, 332
incidence of, 98–99
intentional ethics and, 64
investigations into, 96
mediation of, 93–95
Meta-Code of Ethics and, 91
in Mexico, 315
in New Zealand, 109
NIP and, 344
process of, 333
resolving, 363–364
severity of, 94
underreported, 98
unproven, 97
withdrawal of, 93
ethical decision-making, 37–38, 75, 80–81, 88–89
bias in, 82
community-based, 153
across cultures, 40
guidelines, 415–416
implementing decisions of, 83
influence of, 81–82
Meta-Code of Ethics and, 84–85
mindset for, 89
models, 39, 81–83
peer consultation in, 82
principles versus ethics codes in, 79–80
process issues in, 84–85
proposed courses of action in, 82
reflection in, 80–81, 83
relative automaticity of, 80
Russian ethics code and, 436
self-protection in, 82
social-constructionist approach to, 38
technical quality of, 74–75
ethical dilemmas, 57, 248
appreciation of, 157
common interests in, 54
of competence, 33
of confidentiality, 253
crisis intervention, 168
cross-cultural, 28, 150
democratic process and, 60
emotionally-based sensitivity for, 56–57
ethical decision-making and, 80
ethical principles in, 59
ethics committees and, 344
frequency of, 75
in international research, 151
law and, 60–61
of legal restrictions, 35–36
limited specificity of, 249
multicultural competencies and, 31
of professional boundaries, 34–35
relating to ethics codes, 249
resolving, 39–40, 87, 352
of respect for dignity, 33–34
section ethics and, 58
in social justice, 36–37
of status of women, 35
with testing security, 222–225
of underlying tensions, 37
Universal Declaration of Ethical Principles for Psychologists and, 39
vignettes of, 32–33
ethical guidelines, 150, 170, 244
ethical principles, 3–76, 129
autonomy of psychologists and, 87
awareness of, 96
common, 24
concept of, 120
context-dependent, 334
engagement with, 79
in ethical dilemmas, 59
history of, 3–4
Meta-Code of Ethics and, 3–4, 389
motivations for, 57
Psychologists Committee of Mercosur and Associated Countries of, 400
(p. 477) revisions of, 42–43
universal, 129–130, 334
universal declarations and, 119–120
Ethical Principles for Nordic Psychologists, 16, 122, 134, 341–342, 454
Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct (APA Code), 151, 247, 324, 325
bias in, 151
competence in, 45–46
Conflicts Between Ethics and Organizational Demands, 252
cross-cultural limitations of, 150
cross-cultural research and, 150–151
ethical principles in, 76
ethical standards versus principles in, 44
ethnocentric bias and, 139
gaps in, 151
Germany and, 383
goals of, 191
IACP and, 105
immigration and, 191–192
informed consent and, 152
Internet and, 171
military psychologists and, 233
multicultural competence and, 196
PENS report and, 387–388
professional knowledge in, 47
as reference code, 138
research practices in, 151
revisions to, 42–43
self-protection in, 50
test security and, 222
ethical standards
advocacy for, 203
CPS and, 331
principles and, 76–77
research considerations for, 136–138
as rules, 44
in Soviet Union, 426–427
Ethical Standards of Psychologists, 11, 324
competence in, 14
confidentiality in, 12–13
doing no harm in, 13
ethical principles in, 11
informed consent in, 13
responsibility to society in, 14–15
structure of, 15
truthfulness in, 14
ethical statements, 26
ethical violations
adjudication of, 342
EFPA and, 91
informal resolution of, 91
NIP and, 91
reasonable critique of, 91
ethics. See also research ethics
from 1st to 17th centuries, 6–9
in 18th and 19th centuries, 9–11
of ambiguity, 255
business, 243, 253–254
common, 55–56, 57, 58
before Common Era, 4–6
definition of, 58
developments, 448
dialogical, 70–72
of duty, 65–66
in early to mid-20th century, 11–15
in historical perspective, 451–453
history of, 3–4
human rights and, 127–130
indigenous, 175, 176, 176–178
individualistic, 71
of intention, 63–65
international, 20–21, 38
internationalization of, xxiii–xxiv
law and, 58–61
law versus, 322–323
from mid-20th century to present, 15–17
normative but nonfunctional, 255
normative versus descriptive, 255–257
personal, 56–57, 63
personal versus group, 255
professional, 43, 57–58, 58–59, 63
section, 57–58
self-protection and, 60
standards, 20
test documents, 21
universality versus specificity in, 453–454
of utility, 66–68
in W/O Psychology, 250–252
Ethics & Behavior, Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 326
ethics code development, xx, 247
APA and, 121
assistance in, 79
in Australia, 359–361
in Chinese societies, 334–335
for EFPA member associations, 346
in Europe, 341–342
increase in, 139
language and, 453
model, 452–453
process of, 282
in Turkey, 447
ethics codes
ACA, 172
acceptance of, 203
ACTO, 172
affecting tests, 205–207
AMHCA, 172
APA and, 12, 324
APA and CPS, 22, 22–23
appearance of competence within, 47
applicability of, 20
in Argentina, 106, 310
aspirational versus bottom line, 76
assistance in, 26
ASTD, 256
ASWB and, 171
in Australia, 364–365
awareness of, 96, 258
in Brazil, 311
British influence on, 246–247
in Canada, 325, 386
Canadian, 110
in Central America, 309
in Chile, 381–382
civil law in, 283, 283–286, 286, 287
as coat-of-arms, 49–51
Colegios and, 399
in Colombia, 312
combining principles and standards in, 136
commonalities among, 376
common standards in, 136, 137
comparisons of, 138, 334–335, 438–439
compliance with, 368
compliance with law and, 289–290, 290
conditions reflected in, 202–203
confidentiality and, 253
constituent rules and, 44–45
construction of, 452
corporate, 252
of countries in transition, 389–390
CPA, 111
CRCC, 171
cultural beliefs versus, 39
cultural differences among, 138
cultural diversity and, 405–406
cultural factors and, 77–78
cultural identity and, 34
cultural sensitivity in, 126
culture-specific, 149–150
for education, 75
of EFPA member associations, 346–347
eHealth, 170, 172
emphasis of, 20
enforcement of, 402
English-language, 284–285
in ethical decision-making, 79–80, 80
ethical dilemmas relating to, 249
in Europe, 247–248, 345–346
evolution of, 39
of FePRA, 401
financial arrangements in, 50–51
forensic activities and, 289
forensic provisions in, 290
globalization and, 127
government influence on, 384–385
history of, 3–4, 120
HKPS and, 330–331
homogenization of, 355
Hong Kong versus China, 334
human rights in, 288, 292–294
indigenous cultures and, 177–178
individualism in, 415
international, xxiii, 24–25, 29
interpretation of, 43
in Iran, 108, 384–385
of ISPA, 157–158
language of, 330–331
law references in, 285
law versus, 340
(p. 478) legal conflicts in, 288
legal obligations and, 288
length of, 286
limited specificity in, 249
loyalties, 250
in Mexico, 110, 314
models, 21–23, 26
moral basis for, 203
NASW and, 171
national, 20–21, 43, 44, 319
in New Zealand, 365–367
non-compatibility between, 251–252
organizational psychology and, 249
in Peru, 316–317
in Philippines, 388
in Poland, 107
principle-based versus standards-based, 207
prioritizing, 31
professional judgment and, 294
psychologist-client relationship bias in, 248–249
as public documents, 75–76
in Puerto Rico, 317
purpose of, 19, 75–76, 203
regional, 23–24, 24, 363
regulatory bodies and, 75
regulatory power of, 294
research-based, 126
research methods studying, 139–140
resolving conflicts between civil law and, 290–292, 291
review of, 343
revisions of, 42–43, 51, 315, 411
in Russia, 425, 433, 434–436, 436–439
for social science research, 268
society and, 282–283
in South Africa, 385
in South America, 309
specialized, 248
specific references to civil law in, 288–289
specific rules versus human values in, 31
statutory regulations versus, 78
structure of, 76
subject area references in, 288
subversion of, 391
as support tool, 80, 89
sustainable, in political transitions, 401
for test development, 202
for test use, 202
test use and, 20–21
themes in, 389
translations of, 148, 390
transnational, 453
in Turkey, 107–108, 446–448
universal, 26, 28–29
US, 325
value of, 282
variation among, 135–136
vulnerable populations and, 416
word searches in, 285–286
as working tools, 75
ethics committees
in Australia, 362–364
authority of, 343–345
in Canada, 325
countries with, 342
ethical dilemmas and, 344
in Europe, 342–345
function of, 343
lack of, in Soviet Union, 427–428
professional associations versus, 342–343
society-based, 331–332
Ethics for European Psychologists (Lindsay, Koene, øvreeide, & Lang), 79, 83–84
Ethics for the New Millennium (Dalai Lama), 130
ethics investigations, 325, 333, 332–334
ethics review, 146, 267
biomedical, 269
as common standard theme, 140
competent, 272
concerns beyond, 273
exemptions from, 272–273
inclusion rate of, 147
mandatory, 269
purpose of, 269
resistance to, 268, 269–272
universalism in, 269
ethics training, xxiv
accreditation and, 367–368
in Argentina, 310
in Australia, 367–368
in Brazil, 311–312
in Canada, 325–326
in China, 335
in Chinese societies, 335
in Colombia, 313
in Europe, 355–357
in Hong Kong, 335
indigenous knowledge in, 182
in Latin America, 308
in New Zealand, 412
postgraduate, 367
in Puerto Rico, 318
of RECs, 278
in South America, 308
in Taiwan, 335
in Turkey, 447
in US, 325–326
Europe, 106
accuracy in reporting in, 353–354
adjudication of ethical violations in, 342
appeals in, 344
avoiding harm in, 351–352
bias, 175
codes of conduct in, 247–248
competence in, 349–350
confidentiality in, 347–348
conflicts of interest in, 354–355
continuing development in, 350
dual relationships in, 354
ethical awareness in, 349
ethics code development in, 341–342
ethics codes in, 247–248, 345–346
ethics committees in, 342–345
ethics research in, 356
ethics training in, 355–357
exploitation in, 354–355
extended responsibility in, 352
honesty, 353–354
incapability in, 350
informed consent in, 348–349
integration of, 376
integrity in, 352–355
law in, 338
law versus ethics codes in, 340
legal status of psychology in, 338–341
limits of competence in, 349
limits of procedures in, 349–350
modern history of, 337
plagiarism in, 353
professional associations in, 341–342
promotion of high standards in, 351
psychological associations in, 341
recognition of professional limitations in, 352–353
regional commonalities in, 355
research participants in, 352
resolving ethical dilemmas in, 352
respect for dignity in, 347–349
respect in, 347
responsibility in, 350–352
sanctions in, 342
self-determination in, 349
social responsibility and, 247
straightforwardness in, 354
variations across, 337–338
working conditions in, 347
European Association of Work and Organization Psychologists, 24, 208
European Certificate in Psychology (EuroPsy), 24, 49, 340–341, 355
European Federation of Professional Psychologists’ Associations (EFPPA), 16, 16
European Federation of Psychologists’ Associations (EFPA), 23–24, 122, 345, 389. See also Meta-Code of Ethics
certification program of, 106
disciplinary procedures questionnaires and, 91
ethical violations and, 91
ethics codes and, 345–346
ethics training and, 355–356
European psychological associations and, 341
member countries, 338, 339
Meta-Code of Ethics and, 134, 150
pragmatism and, 245
regulations within, 340–341
review of ethics codes, 343
(p. 479) Standing Committee on Ethics, 77, 83–84, 342
Standing Committee on Tests and Testing, 206, 208
European Psychology Congress, 97
European Register of Psychologists, 106
European Test User Standards for Test Use in Organizational and Work Settings, 24, 208
European Union (EU), 337, 340–341, 388–389
evidence-based practices, 46
context for, 184
emerging challenges in, 456
for indigenous peoples, 175–176
Examination for Professional Practice in Psychology (EPPP), 110, 322, 323
existentialism, 255
exploitation, 88
of data, 437
in Europe, 354–355
in international research, 155
of research participants, potential, 275
in Russian ethics code, 438
sexual harassment and, 261–262
of students, 355
F
fairness, 68–69
Fallenbaum, Ruth, 236
Federación Colombiana de Psicología, 312
Federación de Psicólogos de la República Argentina (FePRA), 310, 397–398, 400–401, 401
Federal Council of Psychology (Brazil), 106, 208
Federal Research Regulations Common Rule, 268
Fein, Robert, 234–235
Feminist Therapy Code of Ethics, 38
financial arrangements, 50–51, 166, 353–354. See also compensation
Finland, 24
First South-Eastern Europe Regional Conference of Psychology, 127
Fischer, Mary A., 253
Five Commandments and Ten Requirements, 6–7
forced migrants, 191
interventions for, 196
mental health services for, 195–197
research with, 194–195
forensic activities, 288
ethics codes and, 289
jurisdiction of, 294
provisions, 290
forgiveness, 63
Fórum Nacional de ética, 311
France, 343, 346
fraternity, 117
free market economies, 247, 376, 380, 436–437
French Revolution, 115–116, 117, 246
G
Gandhi, Mahatma, 117
Gauthier, Janel, 4, 17, 122, 205
Geisinger, Kurt, 212
Gelles, Michael, 234–235
gender, 310, 315
across cultures, 38
equality, 181
identity, 261
genealogy, 177
Geneva Convention, 233–234
genocide, 32
geographic stability, 29
German Psychological Society, 383
German Society of Psychologists, 50
Germany, 382–383
ethics code of, 346
ethics committees in, 343
immigration in, 190
licensing in, 339
reunification of, 382
gifts, 34–35, 150
Gisborne, Thomas, 9–10
globalization, xix, 28–29, 113–114, 135
adoption of Universal Declaration of Ethical Principles for Psychologists and, 122
benefits of, 130
cultural contexts and, 149
enlightened, 29, 30, 128
ethics codes and, 127
fractured, 29
growth of psychology and, 376
impact of, 129, 149
indigenous psychology and, 39
loss of cultural identity and, 39
social justice and, 39
unilateral, 29, 30
goal setting, 68, 183–184, 183
Golden Rule, 115
Good Medical Practice: A Code of Conduct for Doctors in Australia, 364
good practices, 138–139
in China, 335–336
commitment to, in Chinese societies, 335–336
common standards and, 137
ethics codes style and, 76
organizational, 258
in test use, 206
governments
cultural respect and, 36
influence on ethics codes, 384–385
licensing and, 106
oppressive, 38–39
representative, 380
Graham, Douglas, 413
Greece, 347
Gross Domestic Product index (GDPi), 377
gross national product (GNP), 376
Guantanamo Bay, 232–233, 233, 387
proposed closing of, 237
torture at, 236
Guatemalan Psychological College, 127
guidelines, 203–204. See also ethical guidelines
impacting tests, 209–211
for Internet tests, 206–207
Joint Committee on Testing Practices, 210
standards versus, 20
for technology in testing, 217
test adaptations, 206
testing, 221
test use, 206
Guidelines for Child Custody Evaluations in Divorce Proceedings, 209–210
Guidelines for Professional Practice for School Psychologists in Canada, 248
Guilford, Joy P., 260–261
H
Haly Abbas’ Advice to a Physician, 6
Hawaiian Islands, 179
Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA), 166
Health Practitioner Regulation National Law Act, 358
Health Practitioners Competence Assurance Act, 365–366, 411
Health Professions Council (HPC), 78–79, 79–80
Health Professions Disciplinary Tribunal, 109
Health Research Council of New Zealand, 186
Hebrew Oath of Asaph, 6
Hippocrates, 66
Hippocratic Oath, 4–5, 6, 22, 202, 246
HIV spectrum disorders, 104
homosexuality, 37, 61, 261
honesty, 353–354
Hong Kong, 329
ethical complaints in, 332
ethics code, 334
ethics training in, 335
professional associations in, 330
registration in, 333–334
society-based ethics committees in, 332
(p. 480) Hong Kong Psychological Society (HKPS), 329, 330–331
ethics investigations and, 332–334
language of ethics code of, 330–331
limitations of, 333
Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (HKSAR), 329
Hosin Aghili, Mohamed, 9
Human Development Index (HDI), 376–377, 377–378, 380
human engineering, 243–244
Human Resource Research Organization (HumRRO), 236
human resources, 259
human rights, 32, 114–115
APA and, 291
civil rights versus, 114
declarations on, 54
demand for, 119
dictatorships and, 402
documents, 116
ethics and, 127–130
in ethics codes, 288, 292, 293
ethics codes and, 292–294
first generation of, 117
generations of, 117
history of, 116
indigenous cultures and, 186
IRBs and, 152
language of, 293–294
in law, 115
moral framework and, 113
moral philosophy and, 54
negative connotation of, 128–129
PENS report and, 387
political status of, 118
second generation of, 117
social justice and, 130
third generation of, 117
training, 235
treaties, 119
Universal Declaration of Ethical Principles for Psychologists and, 292
through universal declarations, 114
unjust allegations of violating, 130
violations, 116, 190–191
human trafficking, 32
Humphrey, John Peter, 116–117
Humphrey, Laud, 268
Hungary, 347, 348
Huxley, Aldous, 117
I
Iceland, 24
identity verification, 167, 227
I Latino American Conference on Training in Psychology, 308
immigrants
discrimination against, 195
mental health services for, 195
research with, 192–194
social services for, 195
immigration, 77, 88. See also undocumented people
APA Code and, 191–192
effects of, 195
forced versus voluntary, 191
international, 190
Immigration Court, 196
imperialism, 29–30, 418
Improving North American Safeguards that Help Protect the Public Against Test Misuse, 211
incapability, 45, 350
India, 105
Indian Association of Clinical Psychologists (IACP), 105
indigenization, 30, 34
indigenous cultures
assimilation policies and, 179
in Australia, 364–365, 370
Australia versus New Zealand, 367
autonomy and, 187
clients in, 181
collective responsibility and, 177
confidentiality and, 178
cultural awareness and, 182
definition of, 176
earning trust of, 182
economic growth and, 186
effects of colonization on, 178–181
ethics codes and, 177–178
evaluating outcomes of interventions in, 185
evidence-based practices for, 175–176
goal setting in, 183–184
health concepts of, 364–365
human rights and, 186
interventions in, 182, 183–186
interventions treatment acceptability in, 184
intervention treatment design in, 184–185
loss in, 178–179
mental health assumptions in, 183
methodological requirements of interventions in, 185–186
in New Zealand, 370
power inequalities and, 179–180, 186
psychological treatment for, 179–180
racism against, 179
research guidelines for, 186
rights of, 405
rules and, 177
self-determination and, 181
sovereignty and, 180–181
spiritual beliefs of, 183
sustainability and, 176–177
test use and, 185
violence in, 181
indigenous psychology, 30, 453–454
Aboriginal Australians and, 364
globalization and, 39
Maori and, 366–367
research, 180–181, 186
individual experiences, 56
individualism
in Code of Ethics for Counseling and Clinical Practice, 383
collectivism versus, 391
cultural expectations and, 78
in ethics codes, 415
Indonesia, 109
Indonesian Alliance of Psychologists (HIMPSI), 109
Industrial and Organizational Psychology (I/O Psychology), 243
industrial psychology, 105, 218, 243, 248
information-communication technologies (ICTs), 160, 165
information technology (IT), 217, 222–223
informed consent, 48–49
APA Code and, 152
in China, 153
civil law and, 288–289
before Common Era, 5
as common standard theme, 140
components of, 276
confidentiality versus, 145
cultural assumptions in, 177–178
eHealth and, 165
in Ethical Standards of Psychologists, 13
in Europe, 348–349
for forced migrant mental health services, 195–196
inclusion rate of, 147
increased focus on, 54
in international research, 152–153
Internet and, 165
IRBs and, 151–152
law and, 137–138
minors and, 276
Nuremberg Code of Ethics in Medical Research and, 12, 138
online, 168
political influence and, 153
qualitative research and, 271, 277
research and, 276–277
in research with forced migrants, 194
research with immigrants and, 193
social inequalities and, 153
in Soviet Union, 428
standards about, 49
standards incompatibility and, 49
from vulnerable populations, 276
Institutional Review Board (IRB), 150, 151–152, 154–155, 331
(p. 481) insurance, 173, 351
integrity, 4, 87–88
from 1st to 17th centuries, 8–9
in 18th and 19th centuries, 10–11
in APA Code, 151
in Canadian Code of Ethics for Psychologists, 15–16
before Common Era, 5
across cultures, 151
in early to mid-20th century, 14
as ethical principle, 120
in Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct, 44
in Europe, 352–355
image of psychology and, 50
internal legitimacy and, 62
in Mercado Común del Sur, 309
in Meta-Code of Ethics, 16, 23, 44, 84
in Mexico, 315
in relationships, 414
research, 155, 278
in South America, 16
in Universal Declaration of Ethical Principles for Psychologists, 17, 44, 50, 125, 151
intellectual disabilities, 416–417
intellectual property, 204
intentions
best, 63, 64
ethics of, 63–65
focus of, 64
Interamerican Society of Psychology, 127, 398
Interjurisdictional Practice Certificate (IPC), 322
International Association of Applied Psychology (IAAP), 16, 17, 24, 122, 150
adoption of Universal Declaration of Ethical Principles for Psychologists by, 113, 119–120
history of, 242–243
international ethics codes and, 25
test use and, 205
International Association of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 24
International Bill of Human Rights, 117, 118
International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF), 205
International Convention for the Protection of All Persons from Enforced Disappearance, 119
International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination, 119
International Convention on the Rights of All Migrant Workers and Members of their Families, 119
International Court of Justice, 118
International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, 117, 119
International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, 117, 119
International Guidelines on Test Use (ITC), 25
International Organization for Standardization (ISO), 20, 204, 205, 262–263
international research
census of, 158
collaborative, 157
disclosure in, 155
ethical dilemmas in, 151
ethical guidelines for, 150
exploitation in, 155
inducements for, 154
informed consent in, 152–153
institutional approval of, 151–152
ISPA ethics code and, 157–158
moral frameworks for, 156–158
over-generalization in, 156
recommendations, 156–158
reporting of, 155–156
Universal Declaration of Ethical Principles for Psychologists and, 150–151
International School Psychology Association (ISPA), 25, 157–158, 248
International Society for Research on Internet Interventions, 172
International Test Commission (ITC), 23–24, 25, 135
cross-cultural test-taking and, 155
guidelines for technology in testing, 217
Guidelines for Test Adaptation, 206
testing companies and, 212
test use and, 205–207
International Union of Psychological Science (IUPsyS), 16, 17, 122, 150, 248, 283, 294–295
Ad Hoc Joint Committee of, 151
adoption of Universal Declaration of Ethical Principles for Psychologists by, 113, 119–120
“Codes of Ethics of National Psychological Organizations,” 283
HDI and, 377–378
increased membership in, 376
international ethics codes and, 24–25
test use and, 205
Internet, 77, 345, 356. See also online counseling; web-based interventions
APA Code and, 171
distance education programs and, 215
emerging challenges in, 455
experience, 166
informed consent and, 165
plagiarism and, 261
psychotherapy, 127
research participants and, 164
searches, 211–212
security, 165
testing security tools, 225–226
tests, guidelines on, 206–207
Turkey and, 448
usage, 160
Internet Testing with Online Proctoring, 216
interpreters, 196
interrogations, 232, 356
complaints about, 234–235
law and, 235
Obama and, 387
torture versus, 232–233
training, 236
intertexuality, 260, 261
interventions. See also web-based interventions
availability of, after research, 277–278
competence in, 48
cultural flexibility in, 196
dynamic nature of, 47
effect of research on, 51
eHealth and, 161
evaluating outcomes of, 185
for forced migrants, 196
indigenous, 182, 183–186
innovative, 456–457
ritual community, 183
termination of, 354
treatment acceptability, 184
treatment design, 184–185
Inuit people, 179, 386
Iran, 108, 121, 384–385
Ireland, 16, 291
Islam, 119, 246
Islamiyah, Jemaah, 388
ISPA Code of Ethics, 248
Israel, 108
Israeli Psychological Association (IPA), 108
Italy, 339, 344, 346–347
J
James, Larry, 234–235
James, William, 245
Japan, 179
Jing Qicheng, 376
Joint Commission on Testing Practices, 135, 210
(p. 482) Jonason, Kim, 78
Journal of Business Ethics, 243, 260
Junta Examinadora de Psicólogos de Puerto Rico (JEPPR), 317, 317
justice, 44, 99–100, 151, 273. See also social justice
K
Kant, Immanuel, 246
karma, 245
Kazdin, Alan, 237
Keju System, 218
Kenya Association of Professional Counselors, 104
Kenyan Medical Research Institute (KEMRI), 153
Kenya Psychological Association, 104
Keyser, David J., 212
Khatami, Mohammad, 384
kidnapping, 397, 397–398
Koene, Casper, 79, 83–84
Kohlberg, Lawrence, 256
Kriado, Celia, 398
Kristeva, Julietta, 261
L
Lang, Fredi, 79, 83–84
language
of dominance, 29–30
equivalence, 137
ethics code development and, 453
of ethics codes, 330–331
gender bias in, 310, 315
of human rights, 293–294
indigenous, 178
interpreters and, 196
research with immigrants and, 193–194
respect and, 347
of translated ethics codes, 390
Latin America, 308–309
law, 60–61. See also civil law; statutory regulations
in Argentina, 309, 396, 398
in Australia, 358
changing, 61
in Colombia, 312
compliance with, 289–290, 290
conflicts in ethics codes, 288
criminal, 92
culturally conflicting, 36
customary international, 119
definition of, 58
eHealth and, 169
ethical dilemmas and, 60–61
ethical discourses about, 61
ethics and, 5, 58–61
ethics codes and, 19–20
ethics codes versus, 340
ethics versus, 322–323
in Europe, 338
human rights in, 115
informed consent and, 137–138
intellectual property and, 204
interrogation and, 235
in Latin America, 309
legitimacy of, 60
in Mexico, 313–314
as preventative measure, 61
professional ethics and, 58–59
provincial, 399
psychological associations and, 58–59
psychological associations versus, 137–138
in Puerto Rico, 317, 317
references to, in ethics codes, 285
regulatory reach of, 340
self-protection and, 60
sexual harassment and, 262
in South America, 309
in Soviet Union, 427
specificity of, 59
testing piracy and, 229
test use and, 204
in transitioning countries, 375–376
unethical behavior and, 81
legal obligations
ethics codes and, 288
records and, 59–60
legal restrictions
in Canada, 323
ethical dilemmas of, 35–36
ethics of procedure and, 69
sector ethics and, 57
Liber Regius (Haly Abbas), 6
Licenciatura, 310, 313
licensing
in Argentina, 105–106, 309, 310
in Belgium, 340
boards, 322, 325
in Brazil, 106, 311
in Canada, 110
in China, 104
in Czech Republic, 339–340
in Denmark, 339
eHealth, 169
in Estonia, 340
in Europe, 106, 338–340
EuroPsy and, 24
in Germany, 339
government involvement with, 106
high-stakes testing for, 217–218
incidence of unethical complaints and, 98–99
in India, 105
in Israel, 108
in Italy, 339
in Malta, 340
in Mexico, 110, 313–314, 316
in Netherlands, 339
New Zealand, 109
in Poland, 106–107
in Puerto Rico, 317
in South Africa, 104
in Spain, 107
state-specific, 322–323
in Sweden, 339
transfer of, 322
in Turkey, 107–108, 447
in UK, 339
in US, 322
Lindsay, Geoff, 79, 83–84
literature, 466–469
in Australia, 368–369
on civil law, 291–292
for cultural diversity training, 192
on ethical decision-making guidelines, 416
moral philosophy and, 55
in New Zealand, 369
W/O Psychology, 258
López, Mauricio, 397
L'Orde des Psychologues du Quebec, 324
Lunt, Ingrid, 340
Luxembourg, 347
Lysenko, Trofim, 427
M
Maddox, Teddy, 212
Magna Carta, 115, 115
Maimonides, Moses, 6
Malik, Charles Habib, 117
Malta, 340
Malvinas War, 399
Mandela, Nelson, 385
Maori, 175
Christianity and, 176
effects of colonization on, 178
genealogy and, 177
indigenous psychology and, 366–367
NSCBI and, 409
NZ Code and, 366–367, 405, 415
perspective, in NZ Code, 410–413
racism towards, 179, 407–408
spiritual beliefs, 183
Treaty of Waitangi and, 366
Maori and Psychology Research Unity (MPRU), 180–181
Mao Zedong, 21, 383
Marcos, Ferdinand, 388
Marcuse, Herbert, 243
Maria Estela Martínez de Perón, 394
mark-and-review, 224
market liberalization, 419
Marxism, 426
Masía, Juan, 246
McCabe, Don, 218–219
McCain amendment, 235–236
mediation, 93–95, 345, 460
arbitration versus, 95
availability of, 98
dramatis personae and, 99
research and, 461
Medical Code of Ethics of the American Medical Association, 9–10
(p. 483) competent caring for well-being in, 10
integrity in, 10–11
respect for dignity in, 10
responsibility to society in, 11
Medical Ethics (Percival), 9–10
medicine, 3, 98
Menegetti, Antonio, 432
mental health
assumptions, 183
of Australian Aborigines, 365
for immigrants, 195
services, 195–197
Mental Measurement Yearbooks (Geisinger), 212
Mercado Común del Sur, 309, 400
Meta-Code of Ethics, 16, 16, 23–24, 122, 134, 248, 338, 345–346, 389
BPS compliance, 79
competence in, 45, 84
complementary nature of, 150
creation of, 83–84
cultural dependencies and, 43
development of, 452
ethical complaints and, 91
ethical decision-making and, 75, 84–85
ethical principles and, 76
ethics code development and, 341–342
gaps in, 151
Germany and, 383
inclusiveness of, 77
integrity in, 84
Internet and, 77
limits of confidentiality in, 348
national ethics codes and, 44
persons indirectly affected in, 71–72
pragmatism and, 245
principle categories in, 44
professional knowledge in, 47
regional test standards and, 208
resolving ethical dilemmas and, 87
respect for dignity in, 84
responsibility in, 84, 350
Russian ethics code and, 439
self-determination in, 349
structure of, 345–346
style of, 76
Turkey and, 447–448
methods
canonization of, 47
civil law in ethics codes, 283–286
freedom to choose, 46
for indigenous peoples, 176
new, 86
obligation to practice within, 86
obsolete, 46
questioning of, 46
scientific validity of, 274
as social control, 180
transparency of, 283
unscientific, 437
Mexican Psychological Society, 110
Mexican Revolution, 117
Mexico, 16, 110, 313–316
Middle East, 108
Mid-Island Tribal Council on Vancouver Island, 181
migration, 77–78, 195
Mi'kmaq First Nation Communities of Nova Scotia, 181
Milgram, Stanley, 54, 55, 268
military, 233–234, 233–234
Mill, John Stuart, 245, 255–256
mirror-neurons, 54
Mohawk Nation, 184
monarchies, 384
moral authority, 263
moral awareness, 54
moral frameworks, 113
common, 125
connectedness to, 114
for international research, 156–158
moral judgment, 203
moral philosophy, 54–56, 66
moral principals, 38
moral questions, 54
moral rights, 114, 292. See also human rights
morals, 53, 54
moral sensitivity, 203
moral standards, 203
moral testing, 53
“mosaic” scenario, 29
multicultural competencies, 31, 33
multiculturalism, 29, 386
multiple relationships, 34, 84
conflicts of interest and, 88
personal ethics and, 56
Third Faces and, 71
in Universal Declaration of Ethical Principles for Psychologists, 125
Munsterberg, Hugo, 242
Murray, Henry A., 245
N
National Association for Graduate Research and Study in Psychology (Brazil), 106
National Association of Social Workers (NASW), 171
National Commission of People Disappearance, 397
National Congress of American Indians, 181
National Council on Measurement in Education, 135
national security, 77, 387
National Standing Committee on Bicultural Issues (NSCBI), 406, 408
accreditation and, 410
Bicultural Commitment and, 410
ethics code revision and, 411
Maori and, 409
structure of, 409
Netherlands, 339, 346
Netherlands Institute of Psychologists (NIP), 43, 43
Anatomically Detailed Dolls and, 46
assessment procedures and, 47–48
deontological complaints and, 252
ethical complaints and, 344
ethical violations and, 91
self-protection in, 50
sexual intimidation and, 46
New Zealand, 16, 109–110, 365–367
clients’ rights in, 407–408
colonialism in, 407–408
ethics code revision, 411
ethics training in, 412
independence of, 406
indigenous cultures in, 367, 370
literature in, 369
political system, 406–408
professional associations of, 410–411
racism in, 407–408
social justice in, 32
survey of psychologists in, 412–413
Treaty of Waitangi, 175
New Zealand College of Clinical Psychologists (NZCCP), 410–411
New Zealand Psychological Society (NZPsS), 109–110
Bicultural Commitment and, 410
biculturalism and, 408
Ethical Issues Committee, 410
NZ Code and, 405
procedural requirements of, 409
structure of, 409
New Zealand Psychologists Board, 109, 369, 410–411
Nikora, Linda Waimarie, 408
non-governmental organizations (NGOs), 104, 341
nonmaleficence, 44, 120, 151, 273
norms, 61, 92
North America, 29, 110, 175
Norway, 24, 344
Nuremberg Code of Ethics in Medical Research, 11, 11–12, 22, 120–121, 202
common standards and, 138
competence in, 13–14
doing no harm in, 13
informed consent in, 12
research ethics and, 267–268
responsibility to society in, 14
Nuremberg Trials, 14, 116, 120–121
(p. 484) O
Obama, Barack, 237, 386–387, 387
Olsen, Brad, 236
omniculturalism, 29, 39
O'Neil, Bill, 359–360
O*NET database, 244
online counseling, 161–162. See also eHealth
in Australia, 370
communication and, 163
convenience and, 163
crisis intervention for, 168
emerging challenges in, 455–456
meta-analyses of, 164
records, 166
ontopsychology, 432
An Orthodox Manual of Surgery (Chen), 6–7
Other
best interests of, 60
commitment to, 63
dispositions towards, 56
personal ethics and, 56
prioritizing of, 64
proximity to, 70
øvreeide, Haldor, 79, 83–84
Oxford Handbook of Chinese Psychology (Bond, ed.), 328
P
paratexuality, 261
peer consultations, 80, 82, 87–88
peer review, 272
Pennsylvania State University World Campus, 215, 217
Percival, Thomas, 9–10
Perosio, Beatriz, 397–398
Peru, 316–317
Peters, Wilhelm, 444
Pettifor, Jean, 412
Philippines, 376, 388
A Physician's Ethical Duties, 9
Pinochet, Augusto, 381
plagiarism, 145–146
as common standard theme, 140
in Europe, 353
inclusion rate of, 147
Internet and, 261
isolating, 261
sanctions, 261
test, 204
W/O Psychology and, 260–261
Poland, 106–107
Polish Psychological Association (PPA), 106–107
political freedom, 391
indices, 377
national development and, 378–380
research on, 391
political systems
New Zealand, 406–408
in Russia, 430, 433–434
in Soviet Union, 425–426
stable, 376
political transitions, 375, 376–380
forms of, 380–389
social justice and, 391
sustainable ethics codes in, 401
Pontificia Universidade Católica do Rio de Janeiro, 311
post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), 154, 195, 236
power
awareness of, 157
dialogic ethics and, 72
hierarchies, 157
inequalities, 85, 85, 152, 179–180, 186
over research participants, 153–154
professional relationships and, 85
pragmatism, 245, 263
prescriptions, 49
principles, 20, 203–204
based on values, 134–135
categories of, 43–44
combined with standards, 136
common, 135
cultural interpretation of, 136–137
domains of practice versus, 77–78
enforcement of, 134
in ethical decision-making, 79–80
ethical standards versus, 44
in NZ Code, 366, 414
standards and, 76–77
universal, 65
privacy, 348. See also confidentiality
problem-solving, 243
procedures, 68–70. See also disciplinary procedures
appeals, 43
limits of, 45, 86, 349–350
relativity of, 69
process, 84–85, 452–453
productivity, utility versus, 68
professional associations, 19. See also psychological associations
in Argentina, 396
in Australia, 359–361
authoritative status of, 459
in Canada, 324
in Chinese societies, 330–331
confidentiality and, 253
ethics committees versus, 342–343
in Europe, 341–342
evaluation tasks and, 257
impact on test development and use of, 208–209
loyalty to, 245
of New Zealand, 410–411
for W/O Psychology, 253
professional boundaries, 34, 34–35
Professional Code of Ethics of Peruvian Psychologists, 316–317
professional codes
appearance of competence within, 47
professional experience in, 48
standards of conduct and, 51
professional limitations, recognition of, 87–88, 352–353
professional relationships, 85,
professions, 11
expectations from, 19
psychology as, 395–396
responsibility of, 57–58
social legitimacy of, 57
Protection of Personal and Property Rights Act, 417
Protocol of the Framework Agreement of Ethical Principles for the Professional Practice of Psychology in the Mercosur and Associated Countries, 16, 26, 122, 400
proximity
to dialogue, 70–71
ethics of, 70–72
globalization and, 114
to Other, 70
PsychINFO, 212, 377
psychological associations, xxiv, 19. See also professional associations
in Africa, 103
in Argentina, 399
binding power of, 91
in Brazil, 311
in Canada, 110–111
civil law and, 294
in Colombia, 312
in Europe, 341
expulsion from, 92, 98
international, 466
in Latin America, 308–309
law and, 58–59
law versus, 137–138
mediation and, 94
membership rates, 98
in Mexico, 314
in Peru, 316
in South America, 308–309
strong, 345
support for, 341
terminating membership from, 92, 98
Psychological Ethics and National Security (PENS) Task Force, 234–235, 387–388
Psychological Practices Act, 358
Psychological Society of South Africa (PSSA), 104
Universal Declaration of Ethical Principles for Psychologists and, 127
psychological treatment
access to, 163–164
expanded access to, 162
(p. 485) for indigenous cultures, 179–180
political influence on, 180
psychologist-client relationship, 31
bias, in ethics codes, 248–249
cross-cultural, 32
cultural relationship between, 176
ethics of utility and, 68
financial arrangements in, 353–354
in Russian ethics code, 435, 435–436
termination of, 352
psychologists
autonomy of, 87
awareness of ethics codes by, 96
business, 243
consulting, 243
cooperation with disciplinary procedures of, 98
cross-jurisdictional mobility of, 323
definition of, 233
GNP and, 376
legal obligations of, 59–60
management, 243
membership rates of, 98
in military, 233–234
misattribution of utility by, 68
occupational health, 243
qualifications of, 353
ratio of, 377, 378
RxP for, 321–322
scope of, 322
sexual abuse by, 58–59
surveys of, in New Zealand, 412–413
as testing professionals, 220–222
Psychologists Committee of Mercosur and Associated Countries, 400
Psychologist's Law (Romania), 381
Psychologist Statute (Taiwan), 329, 329–330
psychology. See also specific psychology subfields
applied, 74, 242–243, 244
clinical, 60, 76, 248, 388
confidence in, 50
curtailment of, 396–399
deontological codes in, 247–248
early regulation of, 121
forensic, 105, 232, 248
growth of, 247, 376, 452
history of, 200
image of, 50
legalization of, in Argentina, 399–401
legal status of, in Canada, 323
legal status of, in Chinese societies, 329–330
legal status of, in Europe, 338–341
legal status of, in Oceania, 358–359
legal status of, in US, 321–323
in modern Russia, 434
national development and, 378–380
occupational, 243
organizational, 218, 249
as profession, 395–396
recognition of, in Argentina, 398
regulation of, 457–460
re-organization of, in Russia, 425
responsibility to, 350
in Russia, 1990s, 430–431
as science, 395
in Soviet Union, 426
in Turkey, 445–446
values in, 375
work, 243
Psychology Board of Australia, 364
Psychology Society of Buenos Aires, 395
psychometricians, 220–222
psycho-technics, 242
psychotherapy
in Argentina, 396
confidentiality and, 253
Ethical Practice Model and, 253
internet-based, 127
learning and, 185
as social control, 233
public
code of ethics as coat-of-arms and, 49–50
competence in interventions and, 48
education, 203
trust, 203
publications, 469–470
ratio of, 379, 379
in Russian ethics code, 436
in Soviet Union, 428–429
Puerto Rico, 317–318
al-Qaeda, 233–234, 386, 388
Q
Qaujimanituqangit Principles, 386
qualitative research, 271
doing no harm and, 275–276
informed consent and, 271, 277
participant selection for, 275
proposals, 271–272
protocols, 271
RECs and, 271
reviewing, 272
quality control audits, 272
quantitative methodologies, 194
Quebec, 385–386
Qur'an, 115, 246
R
racism, 179, 407–408, 408
rape, 36
Raven, Bertram, 398
Rawls, John, 47–48
Recommendations on Evaluative and Corrective Actions in Case of Complaints about Unethical Conduct, 342
records
access to, 348
client access to, 50, 50–51
copy of, 50–51
eHealth, 166
electronic, 370
honesty in, 353
legal obligations and, 59–60
online counseling, 166
storage, in W/O Psychology, 254
web-based interventions, 166
reflection, 80–81, 83, 91
refugees, 77, 190–191. See also forced migrants
registration
in Australia, 358–359
boards, 359, 362
in Hong Kong, 329, 333–334
national, 370
regulation
indicative versus functional, 459
of research, 460
self versus institutional, 458–459
Regulation for the Management of Mental Tests, 22
regulatory bodies, 31
in Canada, 323
in Denmark, 340
developing, 459–460
ethics codes and, 75
measuring competence by, 33
professional associations versus, 324
regulatory bodies versus, 324
in Spain, 340
in US, 322
religion. See also specific religions
migration and, 77–78
moral philosophy and, 55
research. See also international research; qualitative research
accountability in, 151
in Argentina, 310
biomedical, 270
in Brazil, 312
collaborative partnership and, 273–274
community concerns after, 277
confidentiality of proposal for, 147
conflicts of interest in, 278
COP and, 356
criticism of, 50
cross-cultural, 148, 150–151
cultural perspectives on, 157
deception in, 154
democratic representation of study community and, 273–274
to determine common standards, 138
diverse methods of, 194
on economic freedom, 391
effect of, on interventions, 51
elements of ethical, 273–278
to eliminate discrimination, 157
emerging challenges in, 460–461
enhanced data collection for, 164
ethical, 357
ethical dilemmas and, 248
ethical framework for, 273
ethical oversight in, 79
(p. 486) Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct and, 151
ethical review of, 146
of ethics, 315, 326, 356, 368–369
falsified, 278
favorable risk-benefit determination in, 275–276
with forced migrants, 194–195
as framework for ethics codes, 126
growth of, 147
guidelines for indigenous, 186
with immigrants, 192–194
indigenous psychology, 180–181, 186
informed consent and, 276–277
integrity, 278
intervention availability after, 277–278
IRB and, 331
limitations, 148
mediation and, 461
methods studying ethics codes, 139–140
mixed-methods, 185
monitoring of, 270
participants, 153–154
in Peru, 316
on political freedom, 391
practices, 151
regulation of, 460
reporting of, 155–156
scientific standards for, 146
scientific validity of, 274
scientists, 243
in Soviet Union, 427, 428–429
treatment outcome, 185–186
in Turkey, 445
US influence on, 157
verification of, 147
research ethics
as common standards, 138–139
development of, 267–269
in Russia, 431–432, 436
Research Ethics Committees (RECs), 268, 269
capacity of, 272
ethics training of, 278
independent, 276
limitations of, 270–271
priorities of, 270
qualitative research and, 271
risk-benefit determination and, 275
turnaround time of, 270
research participants
children as, 154
community-based, 194
confidentiality of, 277
from developing countries, 275
discrimination of, 277
ethical criteria for, 248
in Europe, 352
fair selection of, 275
inducements for, 154, 275
informed consent and, 271
Internet and, 164
IRB and, 331
potential exploitation of, 275
respect for, 277–278
rights of, 270
right to withdraw for, 277
research proposals, 460–461
deviations from, 270–271
qualitative, 271–272
rejected, 270
Resnick, Robert, 236
respect
in Europe, 347
general, 85–86
between psychologists, 347
for research participants, 277–278
in structure of Universal Declaration of Ethical Principles for Psychologists, 124
for study communities, 277–278
test use and, 205
respect for dignity, 4, 44, 85–86
from 1st to 17th centuries, 7
in 18th and 19th centuries, 10
in APA Code, 151
in Canadian Code of Ethics for Psychologists, 15–16
before Common Era, 5
across cultures, 33, 151
in early to mid-20th century, 12–13
ethical dilemmas of, 33–34
as ethical principle, 120
in ethical research, 273
in Europe, 347–349
IRBs and, 152
in Mercado Común del Sur, 309
in Meta-Code of Ethics, 16, 23, 44, 84
in Mexico, 315
in NZ Code, 414
in South America, 16, 400
in Universal Declaration of Ethical Principles for Psychologists, 17, 44, 124–125, 151
responsibility, 87
in APA Code, 151
collective, 177
to community, 415
context of, 85
dependency and, 85
in Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct, 44
in Europe, 350–352
extended, 87, 352
general, 87
in Meta-Code of Ethics, 16, 23, 44, 84, 350
in Mexico, 315
of professions, 57–58
to psychology, 350
in relationships, 71–72
social, 247, 263
for testing security, 216
in test use, 206
in Universal Declaration of Ethical Principles for Psychologists, 44
responsibility to society, 4
from 1st to 17th centuries, 9
in 18th and 19th centuries, 11
in Canadian Code of Ethics for Psychologists, 15–16
before Common Era, 5–6
across cultures, 151
in early to mid-20th century, 14–15
in Ethical Standards of Psychologists, 14–15
in German ethics code, 346
in Mexico, 315
in Nuremberg Code of Ethics in Medical Research, 14
in NZ Code, 414
research participants and, 153–154
social justice versus, 32
in South America, 16
in Universal Declaration of Ethical Principles for Psychologists, 17, 125, 151
responsible caring, 15–16, 120, 414
rights. See also human rights
analysis of, 81
animal, 140, 146, 147, 331, 351–352
civil, 43, 61, 114, 117
of clients, 407–408
cultural, 117
economic, 117
of indigenous cultures, 405
moral, 292
natural, 116
political, 377
of research participants, 270
social, 117
solidarity, 117
of vulnerable populations, 416–417
right to withdraw, 146
as common standard theme, 140
inclusion rate of, 147
for research participants, 277
risk-benefit determination, 270, 275–276
risks
eHealth, 165
ethical decision-making and, 80
ethical oversight and, 79
ethics review and, 269–270
online assessments and, 166, 168
Ritchie, James, 408
role conflicts, 354–355
Romania, 380–381
Roosevelt, Eleanor, 116, 117
Rosenzweig, Mark, 376
Royal Society of London, 246
rules. See also procedures
acceptability of, 47
bending of, 31
binding power of, 47
constituent, 44–45
indigenous cultures and, 177
interpretation of, 43
judicial, 47
(p. 487) with moral standards, 203
standards as, 44
tactical, 44–45, 48
rules-compliance, 31, 38
Rules of Conduct Pertaining Specifically to Psychology, 385, 390
Russia, 424
in 1990s, 430–433
ethics code of, 434–436, 436–439
immigration in, 190
modern, 433–436
re-organization of psychology in, 425
Russian Psychological Society, 342–343, 425, 434, 434–436, 439
Russian Revolution, 117
S
Saddam Hussein, 387
sanctions, 92–93, 203
atonement versus, 94
in Brazil, 311
in Europe, 342
HKPS and, 333
in Mexico, 315
plagiarism, 261
power to impose, 98, 138
in Puerto Rico, 317
in Taiwan, 332
types of, 99
vignettes on, 99
Sati, Mustafa, 443
Sayyaf, Abu, 388
Scandinavian Code, 24
Schachter, Stanley, 245
science, 46
moral philosophy and, 54
psychological, 46, 138–139, 395
reliance on, 47
standards, 140, 146
universal truths and, 65
scientific evidence
ethics of procedure and, 69
professional insights versus, 47
in treatment outcome research, 185
of utility, 67–68
scientific method, 46
self-determination, 117, 120, 181, 349
self-interest orientation, 256
self-protection, 60, 66, 82
Serbia, 347
Seventeen Rules of Enjuin, 6
sexual abuse, by psychologists, 58–59
sexual behavior, 261–262
sexual harassment, 261–262
sexual intimidation, 46
sexuality, 261
sexual orientation, 261
sexual relations, 57, 262, 354
Seymour, Fred, 406
Sherif, Muzaffer, 444
Sleep Healthy Using the Internet (SHUTi), 163–164
Sloan Consortium, 217
Slovenia, 348
Smith, Alfredo, 398
social contracts, 19, 283
social control, 180, 233
social exclusion, 394
social inequality, 117, 152, 153
socialism, 55, 382
social justice, 32
economic transitions and, 391
ethical dilemmas in, 36–37
as ethical principle, 120
globalization and, 39, 114
human rights and, 130
language of, 130
market liberalization and, 419
in NZ Code, 414
political transitions and, 391
in South African ethics code, 385
social responsibility, 32, 247, 263, 309, 310–311
social services, 195, 195
society. See also responsibility to society
ethics codes and, 282–283
open, 376
welfare of, 32
Society for Advancement of Management (SAM), 253
Society for Human Resources Management (SHRM), 253
Socopi, 313
Soldz, Stephen, 236
South Africa, 104, 178, 385
South America, 16, 29, 105, 308–309
dictatorships in, 394
human rights in, 32
respect for dignity in, 400
social exclusion in, 394
Soviet Union, 424, 425–429
break-up of, 439
economic system of, 425–426
ethical standards in, 426–427
lack of ethics committees in, 427–428
law in, 427
political system of, 425–426
psychology in, 426
research in, 427, 428–429
Spain, 107
Catholic Church and, 246
confidentiality in, 348
ethics code of, 347
ethics committees in, 344
regulatory bodies in, 340
Spanish Psychological Association, 107, 247, 251
spiritual beliefs, 37, 183, 183, 409–410
stakeholders, 49, 51, 273–274
standards, 12, 20, 203–204. See also common standards; ethical standards
analysis of, 140
categories of, 43–44, 140
combined with principles, 136
comparisons of, 137
of competence, 42–43
of conduct, 51, 135
cultural differences among, 138
cultural interpretation of, 136–137
education, in Argentina, 400–401
enforcement of, 134
guidelines versus, 20
HPC and, 78–79, 79–80
incompatibility with informed consent of, 49
about informed consent, 49
infringements of, 91
intent of, 148
maintenance of, 91
moral, 203
need for, xix–xx
positive, 76
principles versus, 44
promotion of high, 351
recognition, 135
scientific, 140, 146, 147
testing, 207–208
test use, 138
in Universal Declaration of Ethical Principles for Psychologists, 126–127
universal versus common, 136–137
W/O Psychology, 262–263
Standards for Educational and Psychological Testing, 21, 202, 209, 210
statutory regulations, 78–79, 165, 458–459, 460. See also law
stereotypes, 156, 186
students
exploitation of, 355
extended responsibility to, 352
privacy of, 348
as research participants, 153–154
supervision of, 43
suicide, 99, 181
Sulaiman, Rajah, 388
Survival, Evasion, Resistance and Escape Program (SERE), 233
sustainability, 176–177, 419
Sweden, 24, 339, 344
Sweetland, Richard C., 212
Switzerland, 343, 346
T
Tahsin, Hoca, 443
Taiwan Counseling Psychology Association (TWCPA), 332
technology, 39
cheating, 216–217
cultural identity and, 127–128
(p. 488) ethical criteria for, 248
ethics code development and, 139
moral philosophy and, 55
test development and, 224
testing and, 215–217
test security and, 217
telepsychology, 77, 455–456
Ten Commandments, 115, 203, 245–246
terrorism, 32, 39, 356, 386
in Philippines, 388
state, 398–399
Test Critiques (Keyser and Sweetland), 212
test development, 20–21, 200–201
budgeting, 224, 228
components of, 201
ethics codes for, 202
Federal Council of Psychology (Brazil) and, 208
history of, 201
impact of professional associations on, 208–209
ITC and, 25
with known security threats, 227
national ethics codes and, 21
standards, 207
Standards for Educational and Psychological Testing and, 209
technology and, 224
testing
adaptations, 25, 206
availability, 20–21, 201, 201
bad, 222
certification, 217
companies, 212
computerized, 216
emerging challenges in, 455
ethics codes affecting, 205–207
guidelines, 206–207, 209–211, 221
high-stakes, 217–218
information sources, 211–212
intellectual property and, 204
international, 215
Internet searches and, 211–212
under known security threats, 222–223
on-demand, 216, 224
online, 216
online proctoring, 227
outdated, 223–224, 227–228
pencil-and-paper, 223
plagiarism of, 204
pre-employment, 216, 225–226
professionals, 220–222
in Russian ethics code, 436, 438
standards, national, 207–208
standards, regional, 207–208
technology and, 215–217
translating, 204
unproctored, 216, 219
unsecure, 222
W/O Psychology, 262–263
testing piracy, 218
braindump sites and, 222–223, 226–227
dealing with, 228–229
improper response to, 224–225
law and, 229
prevalence of, 218–219
types of, 221
testing security, 216, 219–220
awareness of, 225
budgeting, 224, 228
ethical dilemmas with, 222–225
Internet tools for, 225–226
known threats to, 222–223, 226–227
for outdated testing, 227–228
plans, 228
recommendations, 226
responsibility for, 225
solutions, 225–229
specific threats to, 219–220
technology and, 217
threats, 218–220
Tests: A Comprehensive Reference for Assessment in Psychology, Education, and Business (Maddox), 212
Tests in Print (Geisinger), 212
test use, 20–21, 200–201
acceptability and, 49
children and, 202
clinical, 205
components of, 201
confidentiality and, 205
cross-cultural, 155
cultural factors in, 156
Dutch Institute of Psychology and, 209
ethics codes for, 202
good practices in, 25, 206
guidelines, 206
history of, 201–202
IAAP and, 205
impact of professional associations on, 208–209
indigenous cultures and, 185
international, 201
international law and, 204
ITC and, 25, 205–207
IUPsyS and, 205
Meta-Code of Ethics and, 23–24
national ethics codes and, 21
patterns, 201
respect and, 205
responsibility in, 206
similarities in APA and CPS codes and, 22
social, 205
standards, 138, 207
Standards for Educational and Psychological Testing and, 209
Universal Declaration of Ethical Principles for Psychologists and, 205
in World War II, 202
Te Whare Tapa Whâ model, 183
theocracies, 384
Third Faces, 62, 67, 71
third party interests, 348
Thomas, David, 408
thought experiments, 47
Torres Strait Islanders, 364
torture
in Argentina, 397
COP and, 351
at Guantanamo Bay, 236, 387
interrogation versus, 232–233
PENS report and, 387
PTSD and, 236
Toulmin, Stephen, 245
Toward a Universal Declaration of a Global Ethic (Centre for Global Ethics), 31, 39
traditional healing, 30, 30
training. See also ethics training
in Argentina, 395
cultural awareness, 176
of cultural diversity, 192
eHealth, 167
EuroPsy and, 340–341
human rights, 235
interrogation, 236
organizational, 257
for social services for immigrants, 195
translations
of ethics codes, 148, 390
research with immigrants and, 193–194
of tests, 204
of UDHR, 118
transparency
in advertising, 353
confidentiality versus, 49
of methods, 283
Treaty of Waitangi, 175, 180–181, 366, 406, 422–423
growing awareness of, 418
influence of, on NZ Code, 414–415
negotiations, 413
nurses and, 407
NZ Code and, 366–367, 405, 412
tribunals, 96, 97
Trilateral Forum on Professional Psychology, 314
trust
earning, of indigenous cultures, 182
ethics codes and, 19
mutual, 71
proximity to dialogue and, 70–71
public, 203
Tunc, Mustafa Sekip, 444
Turhan, Mumtaz, 444
Turing, Alan, 261
Turkey, 107–108, 121
education in, 445
ethics code in, 446–448
ethics committees in, 344
ethics developments in, 448
psychology in, 445–446
(p. 489) research in, 445
women in, 446
Turkish Psychological Association (TPA), 107–108, 282, 445–446
Turkish War of Independence, 444
Tuskegee syphilis study, 268
Two Plus Four Treaty, 382
U
undocumented people, 191
unethical behavior
best intentions and, 63, 64
interests in, 92
law and, 81
legal, 61
prevalence of, 458
unlawful behavior versus, 258
W/O Psychology and, 257
United Kingdom (UK)
ethics committees in, 343
immigration and, 77
licensing in, 339
statutory regulations in, 78–79
United Nations (UN), 31, 39, 113
adoption of UDHR and, 116–117
charter of, 118
Commission on Human Rights, 116
Convention Against Torture, 233–234
founding of, 116
Principles of Medical Ethics, 235
Refugee Convention, 191
United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child (UNCROC), 417
United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples, 418
United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), 117
United Nations High Commission on Refugees (UNHCR), 190–191
United States (US), 21
credentialing in, 321
cross-cultural research and, 150–151
cultural conditions in, 22
current ethics research in, 326
Declaration of Independence, 115
ethical guidelines for international research and, 150
ethics codes, 325
ethics committees in, 324–325
ethics training in, 325–326
free market economy in, 247
immigration and, 77, 190
influence on research of, 157
legal status of psychology in, 321–323
licensing in, 322
professional associations in, 323–324
Puerto Rico and, 317
refugees in, 191
regulatory bodies in, 322
specific rules versus human values in, 31
statutory regulations in, 78
Universal Declaration of Ethical Principles for Psychologists and, 325
United States Embassy Beijing on Human Research Subject Protection, 153
Universal Declaration of Ethical Principles for Psychologists, 17, 31, 150, 151, 246, 248, 390
adoption of, 113, 119–120, 122–123
APS and, 361–362
aspirational nature of, 134, 151
authority for, 129
Canadian Code of Ethics for Psychologists and, 325
common moral framework and, 125
compared to ethics before Common Era, 5–6
competent caring for well-being in, 151
content of, 123–125
development of, 4, 454
dictatorships and, 402
empirical basis of, 125
ethical dilemmas and, 39
ethical principles in, 76
gaps in, 151
historical context for, 120–122
human rights and, 292
inclusiveness of, 77, 148
integrity in, 50, 151
international ethics codes and, 24–25
international research and, 150–151
minimizing bias and, 156
moral-framework format and, 16
national codes of ethics and, 319
new applications for, 127
principles categories in, 44
promotion of, 127
Psychologists Committee of Mercosur and Associated Countries and, 400
purpose of, 120
regional developments and, 355
respect for dignity in, 151
responsibility to society in, 151
significance of, 125–127
social justice in, 32
standards in, 126–127
structure of, 123–125
target of, 129
UDHR versus, 128–129
US and, 325
Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR), 31, 113
adoption of, 116–117
authority for, 129
concept of human rights in, 114–115
content of, 117–118
as customary international law, 119
drafting of, 116–117
first generation human rights and, 117
historical context for, 115–116
Islam and, 119
moral rights and, 292
purpose of, 114
ratification of, 115
reasons for rejecting, 130
significance of, 118–119
structure of, 117–118
target of, 129
translations of, 118
Universal Declaration of Ethical Principles for Psychologists versus, 128–129
universal declarations, 114, 119–120
universalism, 130, 269
Universidad Autónoma de México, 313
unlawful behavior, 258
utilitarianism, 244–245
utility
ethics of, 66–68
measuring, 67
misattribution of, 68
productivity versus, 68
scientific evidence of, 67–68
V
values
analysis of, 81
common, 135
common standards and, 137
cultural restrictions on, 135
emotionally-based sensitivity for, 56–57
ethics of utility and, 68
formulation versus practice, 58
good reasons approach and, 245
indigenous, 178
individualist versus collectivist, 38
moral discourse and, 53
moral philosophy and, 55
practical implications of, 414
principles based on, 134–135
professional ethics and, 57
in psychology, 375
rules bending and, 31
threats to, 436
universal, 29
Vasak, Karel, 117
Vedas, 115
verification, 140, 147, 147, 167
Veterans Administration hospitals, 202
vignettes, 28, 97, 245
of competence ethical dilemmas, 33
of ethical dilemmas, 32–33
(p. 490) of legal restrictions ethical dilemmas, 35–36
limitations of, 40
of professional boundaries ethical dilemmas, 34–35
of respect for dignity ethical dilemmas, 33–34
on sanctions, 99
sharing, 83
of social justice ethical dilemmas, 36–37
of status of women ethical dilemmas, 35
of underlying tensions, 37
violence
among children, 37
across cultures, 38
in indigenous cultures, 181
regional, 108
against women, 35
virtues, 20, 203–204
von Hartmann, Eduard, 242
vulnerable populations, 276, 416, 416–417
W
Waitangi Tribunal, 180, 406–407
war, 32
Washington Post, 235
waterboarding, 236
Webb, Olive, 417
web-based interventions, 161. See also eHealth
communication and, 163
convenience and, 163
crisis intervention for, 168
e-mail and, 162–163
emerging challenges in, 455–456
geographic isolation and, 162
meta-analyses of, 164
records, 166
Welch, Bryant, 236
welfare
of others, 120
of society, 120, 125
Wellcome Trust, 153
West-East terminology, 29–30
West Germany, 382
Wittgenstein, Ludwig, 255
women
oppression of, 38
promotion for equality of, 157
status of, 35
in Turkey, 446
violence against, 35
Work and Organizational Psychology (W/O Psychology), 243
casebooks, 250
codes of conduct, 250
confidentiality and, 251, 252–254
deontological codes and, 248–249
deontological complaints in, 252
ethics code loyalties in, 250
ethics in, 250–252
lack of ethical literature in, 249
literature, 258
multifaced profile of, 257–259
normative versus descriptive ethics and, 255–257
personnel decisions and, 254
plagiarism and, 260–261
professional associations for, 253
protocols, 262–263
record storage and, 254
standards, 262–263
tasks, 257
testing, 262–263
unethical behavior and, 257
working conditions, 347
Working Party, 406, 411
working tools, 75
World Health Organization (WHO), 205, 377
World Intellectual Property Organization, 204
World Medical Association (WMA), 121, 268
World Psychiatric Association, 30
World Trade Organization, 204
worldviews, 38, 40, 176, 182
World War I, 201–202
World War II, 11–12, 116
atrocities, 116, 120–121
test use in, 202
written consent, 150
Wundt, Wilhelm, 426
Y
Yerkes, Robert, 201–202
Z
Zimbardo, Phil, 54, 235, 268