(p. 464) Appendix
(p. 464) Appendix
This appendix contains an annotated list of resources pertaining to international psychological ethics and ethics codes that will be of interest and use to readers of the Oxford International Handbook of Psychological Ethics. The list includes an online information clearinghouse; interdisciplinary centers on ethics; international psychology organizations with web links to national and regional codes of ethics; books, CD-ROMS, and special issues of journals; and major ethics journals in psychology.
Therapy, Ethics, Malpractice, Forensics, Critical Thinking (and a few other topics)
This psychology site provides free access to a variety of resources, such as:
• over 100 ethics codes and practice standards for assessment, therapy, counseling, and forensic practice developed by professional organizations (e.g., psychologists, psychiatrists, social workers, marriage and family counselors)
• ethics in psychology: 7 essentials
• 8 bogus apologies: ethics, critical thinking, and language
• 21 cognitive strategies to justify any unethical behavior
• informed consent: professional standards, sample forms, and key references
• links to resources on boundary issues in psychotherapy: widely used guides, statistics, trends, research, and resources
• over 300 citations of articles, books, and chapters on the controversy over psychologists and physicians participating in detainee interrogations
Interdisciplinary Ethics Centers
Interdisciplinary Ethics Centers
Ethics Center, Department of Applied Ethics, University of Jena (Germany)
The Department of Applied Ethics deals with ethical research and education in key areas of modern societies such as medicine, biology, economics, technology, and sports. The Ethics Center Jena, which is directed by the Chair of Applied Ethics, is responsible for the ethical scholarship in the Faculty of Social and Behavioral Sciences. The Ethics Center, founded in 2002, promotes and coordinates interdisciplinary research and teaching on ethical discussions and conflicts pertinent to issues in Germany and internationally. The Center is located and directed at the offices of the Department of Applied Ethics and focuses on Bioethics/Medical Ethics, Business Ethics, Media Ethics, Sports Ethics, and Ethics in Technology.
Ethics Center Jena
Jena 07743, Germany
Tel: +49 (0)3641 / 945 800
(p. 465) Fax: +49 (0)3641 / 945 802
The Oxford Uehiro Center for Practical Ethics (United Kingdom)
The Oxford Uehiro Center for Practical Ethics was established in 2002 with the support of the Uehiro Foundation on Ethics and Education in Japan. It is an integral part of the Faculty of Philosophy at Oxford University. The Center has a threefold mission: research, teaching, and public debate. Its focus is the ethical issues that arise in everyday life and which are related to the changes in society, particularly those related to technological advancement. The Center researches a broad range of topics in practical ethics and moral philosophy, with core areas of expertise in bioethics, medical ethics, neuroethics, just war theory and terrorism, business ethics, and international justice. The Center's research program is interdisciplinary and includes medicine, law, politics, international relations, and religious studies departments, both within Oxford and internationally.
Oxford Uehiro Center for Practical Ethics
Littlegate House, Suite 8
St. Ebbes Street Oxford OX1 1PT, UK
Tel: +44 (0)1865 / 286 888
Fax: +44(0)1865 / 286 886
The Kennedy Institute of Ethics (United States)
Founded at Georgetown University in 1971, the Kennedy Institute of Ethics's faculty have expertise in such issues as healthcare reform, death and dying, clinical research ethics, abortion, and environmental ethics. The Institute is committed to a civil dialogue on the pressing questions of the day in a climate of intellectual openness and lively discourse. The Kennedy Institute works in close collaboration with Georgetown's Department of Philosophy to support a variety of graduate degrees that allow advanced work in bioethics.
Joseph and Rose Kennedy Institute of Ethics
Healy Hall, 4th Floor
Washington, DC 20057, USA
Tel: +202 / 687–8099
Center for the Study of Ethics in the Professions, Illinois Institute of Technology (United States)
The Center for the Study of Ethics in the Professions (CSEP) was established in 1976 to promote research and teaching on practical moral problems in the professions. The first interdisciplinary center for ethics to focus on the professions, CSEP continues to be one of the nation's leading centers for practical and professional ethics. CSEP promotes innovative teaching. It generates professional ethics courses at IIT and assists faculty at other universities to prepare for teaching professional ethics and to develop courses and programs. The Codes of Ethics Online Collection consists of over 2,000 codes of ethics from professional organizations, businesses, government agencies, and religious and fraternal organizations. The collection includes a guide for using codes of ethics, resources for writing a code of ethics, and links to other collections of codes of ethics on the web.
Center for the Study of Ethics in the Professions at IIT
Hermann Hall, Room 204
241 S. Federal Street
Chicago, IL 60616, USA
Tel: +312 / 567–3017
Fax: +312 / 567–3016
International Psychology Organizations
(p. 466) International Psychology Organizations
International Union of Psychological Science
The ethics pages on the website of the International Union of Psychological Sciences (IUPsyS) contain the Universal Declaration of Ethical Principles for Psychologists, adopted by the IUsyS and International Association of Applied Psychology in 2008. It also contains papers describing the origins and development of the Declaration. The site also houses a compendium of ethics codes of national psychology associations in English and in the local language(s) intended for use by researchers, clinicians, instructors, policymakers, and organizations developing or revising their own codes of ethics. Finally, the IUPsyS ethics page has links to declarations of ethical principles from diverse global organizations, such as the United Nations, Center of Global Ethics, and World Medical Association.
Interamerican Society of Psychology
The Interamerican Society of Psychology (SIP) has a web page devoted to ethics. The page contains links to the national ethics codes of many countries in the Western hemisphere, mainly those of Latin America. In addition, the page has links to the Universal Declaration of Ethical Principles for Psychologists, a set of ethical considerations to guide members of SIP that were adopted by SIP in 2008, and a list of ethics codes and practice guidelines for assessment, counseling and psychotherapy, and forensic practice. Finally, the site has links to a diverse set of related resources on ethics.
Secretario General / SIP
Universidad de Puerto Rico
Escuela Graduada de Trabajo Social
P.O. Box 23345
San Juan, Puerto Rico 00931–3345
Tel: 787 / 764–0000, ext. 5974, 7091
Fax: 787/ 763–4599
European Federation of Psychologists’ Associations
The European Federation of Psychologists’ Associations (EFPA) has web pages on ethics including the 2005 revision of the Meta-Code of Ethics. Downloads are available that cover such topics as recommended approaches for teaching ethics, engaging in forensic work and serving as an expert witness, and providing ethical services via the Internet. Additional guidelines are available for the evaluation, mediation, and correction of ethical complaints and misconduct. The site also includes information on conferences around Europe that focus on psychological ethics, along with recommended books and websites on ethics for European psychologists.
EFPA Head Office
Grasmarkt 105 / 18
Brussels B-1000, Belgium
Tel: +32 (2)503 / 4953
Fax: +32 (2)503 / 3067
Books, CD-Roms, Special Journal Issues
Books, CD-Roms, Special Journal Issues
Finkel, N. J., & Moghaddam, F. M. (Eds.). (2005). The psychology of rights and duties: Empirical contributions and normative commentaries. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
This cross-disciplinary book investigates how morality translates into action by presenting original psychological research on human rights and duties. One of the book's goals is to explore the general public's ideas (both in the United States and abroad) about rights versus duties so that legislative and policy changes
(p. 467) can be based on solid support, not assumptions. Two strategies are used to lead readers toward a better understanding of human rights and duties. Chapters by empirical researchers present findings on citizens’ commonsense understandings of rights and duties, whereas normative chapters by leading social theorists conceptualize rights and duties from many perspectives. By contrasting present-day life circumstances in many social spheres with the world of ideas, the editors expose the debate between what human rights and duties are and what they ought to be. This book may be particularly useful to psychology students and professors in courses on intergroup relations, social justice, psychology and law, ethnic relations and multiculturalism, cross-cultural and cultural psychology, and social psychology.
Goodman, R., & Roseman, M. J. (Eds.). (2009). Interrogations, forced feedings, and the role of health professionals: New perspectives on international human rights, humanitarian law, and ethics. Cambridge, MA: Human Rights Program, Harvard Law School.
The involvement of health professionals in human rights and humanitarian law violations has become a lively issue as a consequence of the U.S. prosecution of conflicts with al-Qaida, the Taliban, and Iraq. Health professionals, including MDs trained in psychiatry and PhDs trained in behavioral psychology, have reportedly advised and assisted in coercive interrogation. Such practices are not unique to the United States nor are they the most extreme forms of abuse in the world. The direct involvement of medical professionals in torture, covering up extrajudicial killings, and other extreme conduct is a phenomenon common to many societies and periods of national crisis. The widespread and repeated nature of this problem has led to the development of important legal and ethical codes on the subject. Those codes, however, are insufficient in many cases. A reexamination of international norms, as developed in human rights law, humanitarian law, and professional ethics can shed light on these issues. However, in addition to those instruments, the struggle to end such violations requires an understanding of human behavior and the role of formal and informal institutional pressures. In this volume, a wide range of prominent practitioners and scholars explore these issues. Their insights provide significant potential for reforming institutions to assist health professionals in maintaining their legal and ethical obligations in times of national crisis.
Koocher, G. P., & Keith-Spiegel, P. (2008). Ethics in psychology and the mental health professions: Standards and cases (3rd ed.). New York: Oxford University Press.
Now in an expanded edition, the revised volume considers many of the ethical questions and dilemmas that mental health professionals encounter in their everyday practice, research, and teaching. The book has been completely updated and is now also relevant for counselors, marriage and family therapists, social workers, and psychiatrists, and includes the ethics codes of those groups as appendices. Providing both a critical assessment and elucidation of key topics in the American Psychological Association's guidelines, this volume takes a practical approach to ethics and offers constructive means for both preventing problems as well as recognizing, approaching, and resolving ethical predicaments. This edition retains the key features which have contributed to its popularity, including hundreds of case studies that provide illustrative guidance on a wide variety of topics, including fee setting, advertising for clients, research ethics, sexual attraction, how to confront observed unethical conduct in others, and confidentiality.
Leach, M. M., & Leong, F. T. L. (Eds.). (2010). On international dimensions of psychological ethics [Special issue]. Ethics and Behavior, 2(3–4).
Psychological ethics has slowly become internationalized, though most psychologists in the United States are unfamiliar with the work and movements in international ethics. Recent national ethics code developments, work on international acceptance of ethical principles, and regional and international codes of ethics highlight this internationalism. The purpose of this special issue is to highlight both international developments and international considerations of psychological ethics. An introduction to the internationalization of psychological ethics is presented, followed by an overview of this special issue. The special issue introduces the reader to a few of the complexities of ethics when considered from an international perspective.
Lindsay, G., Koene, C., Ovreeide, H., & Lang, F. (2008). Ethics for European psychologists. Ashland, OH: Hogrefe and Huber.
(p. 468) European national psychology associations have adopted the European Meta-Code of Ethics developed by the European Federation of Psychologists, Associations (EFPA) as the basis for national codes, and thus for the standards applying to all psychologists in Europe. This book outlines and discusses the Meta-Code on the basis of practical examples and vignettes. The four ethical principles, Respect, Competence, Responsibility, and Integrity are covered in core chapters. Others give substance to underlying concepts, as well as practical advice and examples for ethical problem solving and for applications of the code. Practicing psychologists can learn how to put their daily practice on a sound ethical foundation and deal with challenging ethical dilemmas. This book is also relevant for teaching and training in both basic courses and advanced education. Further, it provides a basis for psychologists’ associations to develop codes and guidelines, monitor national practice, and evaluate ethical complaints, as well as for users of psychologists’ services to see what ethical standards they should expect.
Knapp, S. J., & VandeCreek, L. D. (2006). Practical ethics for psychologists: A positive approach. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
This book helps psychologists clarify what they value, consider how they should behave, and determine what constitutes proper professional conduct. The book is unique in stressing the importance of positive ethics; that is, ways in which psychologists can reach their highest ethical ideals, rather than just avoiding breaking rules. Using the 2002 ethics code of the American Psychological Association as a guide, the authors lay out a five-step model for resolving ethical dilemmas, illustrating the discussion with thumbnail sketches of both ethical and questionable behaviors. Throughout, they stress the importance of self-care, which involves self-regulation, emotional competence, and an understanding of the unique occupational challenges of being a psychologist. Readers will find guidance on dealing with ethically complex issues like competence, multiple relationships, informed consent, confidentiality (including confidentiality with life-endangering patients), fees and financial issues, public statements, and risk management. Individual chapters are devoted to special issues for psychologists working in forensics, teaching, assessment, therapy, and supervision and training.
Nagy, T. F. (2005). Ethics in plain English: An illustrative casebook for psychologists (2nd ed.). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
This volume is a practical and engaging resource that shows psychologists how to apply the principles of the ethics code of the American Psychological Association to the ethical dilemmas that they encounter in their daily lives. Each ethical standard is reproduced in its entirety. Then, it is translated into everyday language and is followed by a fictional case study that illustrates how the standard might be applied to a real-life situation. Examples of both problematic and exemplary behavior in diverse settings are provided. New to this edition are thought-provoking discussion questions after each case study, making the book even more useful for classroom use or self-study. The chapters cover general principles of ethical decision making as well as a broad range of issues relating to professional competence, human relations, privacy and confidentiality, advertising and other public statements, recordkeeping and fees, education and training, research and publication, assessment, and therapy.
Pimple, K. D. (Ed.). (2008). Research ethics. Aldershot, UK: Ashgate.
This volume includes more than 40 important articles on integrity and misconduct, biomedical research, the social and disciplinary contexts of science, research in the social sciences, the social responsibility of science and scientists, and other core issues in research ethics. An introduction by the editor places these articles in their historical and conceptual context. The volume provides a rich library of resources, ideas, and challenges in the ethics of research for scholars concerned with such issues.
Pope, K. S., & Vasquez, M. J. T. (2007). Ethics in psychotherapy and counseling: A practical guide (3rd ed.). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
Significant changes in the ethics codes both of the American Psychological Association and the Canadian Psychological Association, new legislation and case law, new research findings, and new practice guidelines are among the developments that led to this third edition. Although much of the material is new, this (p. 469) book's fundamental approach to ethics remains unchanged. The approach is grounded in several basic assumptions:
• Ethical awareness is a continuous, active process.
• Awareness of the ethical standards and codes is crucial to competence in the area of ethics, but standards and codes cannot take the place of an active, deliberative, and creative approach to fulfilling our ethical responsibilities.
• Awareness of the scientific and professional literature and evolving research and theory is crucial to competence in the area of ethics, but the claims and conclusions emerging in the literature can never be passively accepted and reflexively applied.
• Clinicians repeatedly encounter ethical dilemmas for which a clear ethical response is elusive. Clinicians must be prepared to actively examine these dilemmas as a normal and expected part of their work.
Wedding, D., & Stevens, M. J. (Eds.). (2009). Psychology: IUPsyS global resource (10th ed.). Hove, UK: Psychology Press.
The Ethics in Psychology section of the last edition of this annual CD-ROM includes essays and resources analyzing codes of ethics in psychology. Articles include published comparisons of the principles of national ethics codes, symposia papers on ethics delivered at international conferences (e.g., ethics and ethical decision making across national boundaries and cultures, the impact of political transitions on ethics codes), working drafts and progress reports leading to the adoption of the Universal Declaration of Ethical Principles of Psychologists, and the International Compilation of Human Subject Research Protections maintained by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.
Ethical Human Psychology and Psychiatry: An International Journal of Critical Inquiry
Ethical Human Psychology and Psychiatry is a peer-reviewed journal of the International Center for the Study of Psychiatry and Psychology that publishes original research reports, reviews, essays, book reviews, commentaries, and case reports examining the ramifications of the idea that emotional distress is due to an underlying organic disease that is best treated with pharmacological therapy. This view of human nature permeates virtually every area of our society, including medicine, business, law, education, politics, and the media. Thus, the journal welcomes submissions from a broad range of specialties. Over the past several years the journal has published articles about the ethics of medicating children, deficiencies in the biological theory of mental illness, the marketing tactics of the pharmaceutical companies, ethical problems with involuntary treatment, and the benefits of psychotherapy. Ethical Human Psychology and Psychiatry will continue its efforts in seeking to raise the level of scientific knowledge and ethical discourse, while empowering professionals who are unsullied by professional and economic interests.
The Journal of Ethics: An International Philosophical Review
The Journal of Ethics: An International Philosophical Review publishes articles on a wide range of topics in ethics, philosophically construed, including such areas as ethical theory and moral, social, political, and legal philosophy. Although the journal is primarily an organ of philosophical research, it publishes work on topics of concern to academics and professionals in a wide range of fields. The journal also seeks to publish the highest quality commentaries on works published in its pages.
Ethics and Behavior
Ethics and Behavior publishes articles on an array of topics pertaining to various moral issues and conduct. These topics may include, but are not restricted to, the exercise of social and ethical responsibility in human behavior, ethical dilemmas or professional misconduct in health and human-service delivery, the conduct of research involving human and animal participants, fraudulence in the management or reporting of scientific (p. 470) research, and public policy issues involving ethical problems. Perspectives are presented occasionally vis-à-vis essays describing challenging dilemmas in ethics and behavior.
Ethics and Education
Ethics and Education is a new international, peer-reviewed journal that aims to stimulate discussion and debate around the ethical dimensions of education. The journal addresses issues in both formal and informal education and upbringing, and includes within its scope relevant aspects of applied ethics, including:
• Medical ethics
• Management ethics
• Sex education
• Ethics of therapy and counseling
• Professional ethics
Ethics and Education welcomes all traditions and forms of ethical inquiry from a wide range of philosophical and religious perspectives. As well as appealing to those with a direct interest in ethics and education, the journal will be of interest to philosophers, education specialists, and policy makers.