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date: 16 October 2019

(p. 559) Index

(p. 559) Index

A-B dichotomy measure, 160–61
acceptability, of evidence-supported treatments, 294
clinician, 295–96
treatment fidelity link, 295
ACCESS intervention program, for domestic violence, 391
accountability, of therapists, 123
accountable care organizations (ACOs), ACA model, 131
accurate mirroring, 253–54
acquired immunity. See adaptive immunity
ACTION Treatment Program, for youth depression, 363–64
active listening, 252–53
active medication, placebo effect compared to, 413–18
acute inflammation, 82
acute stress, 80–81
adaptation, 70, 186
attachment and, 25
crossover interactions, 28
interpersonal relationships and physical health, 26
psychopathology and symptoms, 26–28
adaptation, in evidence-supported treatments
approaches to, 300–301
clinical decision making, 296
clinician training, 297–98
common process variables, 296
cultural adaptations, 302–3
cultural fit, 298–99
matching treatments to clients, 299
modular approach, 301–2
setting resources, 299–300
transdiagnostic approach, 300–301
adaptive (acquired) immunity, 77
adherence, for EBTs fidelity, 280, 291, 294
adherence flexibility, 294
adjustment
attachment and, 25
interpersonal relationships and physical health, 26
psychopathology and symptoms, 26–28
Adolescent Alliance Building Scale (AABS), 105t, 107–8
Adolescent Community Reinforcement Approach (A-CRA), 130
Adolescent Coping with Depression Course (CWDA), 364–65
adolescents. See also youth therapy
depression of African American, 67
EBPs for, 316–17
family and social context for treatment of, 348–65
mental and substance use disorders, 310
psychotherapy treatment deterioration rate, 183
SFP for, 314
adoption, of evidence-supported treatments, 296–300
adult attachment
anxiety dimension of, 208–10
avoidance dimension, 208–10, 215, 221, 222
in counseling and psychotherapy, 206–32
dimensional model of attachment, 208
dismissing-avoidance, 209, 210
fearful-avoidant, 209, 211
insecure, 209
mental health and, 209–10
preoccupied, 208, 211–12
secure, 208, 210
Adult Attachment Interview (AAI), 211t, 215, 216t, 217t, 218t, 219t
Adult Attachment Projective Picture System (AAP), 246
Adult Attachment Prototype Rating (AAPR), 229t
Adult Attachment Scale (AAS), 212t, 213t, 217t
adults
career counseling with, 372–96
TA of couples, 242, 244, 246–48, 250
therapist characteristics with, 117–31
Adult Temperament Questionnaire (ATQ), 17
ADVANCE program, of IY-PT, 340, 341
adverse event (AE)
placebo and, 412–13
of therapists, 6
advocacy
ACA Code of Ethics on, 70
self-, 71
Affordable Care Act, system of reimbursement under, 130
African Americans, 60, 65–66, 185, 303, 309, 327–28, 395, 472. See also People of Color; Women of Color
female racism experiences, 58
infant mortality, 68
SES and depression for, 67
agency
EBTs implementation in, 280, 286
organizational climate and culture of, 281
Agency for Healthcare Policy and Research (AHCPR), 290
alexithymia, as intra-psychic trait, 195, 196
allelic associations, 19
alliance. See therapeutic alliance
Alliance Building Behavior Scale (ABBS), 105t, 107
allostatic load theory, 80
α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptor (AMPAR), 431–32
Alzheimer’s disease (AD), PET for, 520, 521f
American Association for the Advancement of Science, 4
American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association, 62
American Counseling Association (ACA)
Code of Ethics of, 70
model for ACOs, 131
(p. 560) American Medical Association (AMA)
on healthcare equality, 68
on multicultural bias, 69
American Mental Health Counseling Association (AMHCA), 69
American Psychological Association (APA)
on cultural bias, 68
ESR Task Force, 164, 165
evidence-supported treatments task forces, 290
Guidelines for Psychological Practice with Girls and Women, 373
Guidelines for the Practice of Telepsychology, 395
Implementation Science within, 4
on multicultural bias, 69
Promotion and Dissemination of Psychological Procedures task force, 274
Society of Clinical Psychology, 158, 161
Task Force, 119, 158–59, 161, 274, 275
amygdala, 427–29, 432–34, 437
fMRI study, 530–31
Anger Expression Scale (AES), 228t
anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), 415, 421
depression role, 410
effortful control and, 18
in neuroimaging techniques, 408–10, 534
placebo and, 408–9
self-regulation and, 44
antibodies, 77–78
antidepressants (ADs), 436–37
antigens, 77–78
antiretroviral therapy (ART), 64
anxiety, 67, 86
adult insecure attachment and, 209
CBT for, 188, 191–92
dimensions of, 208–10
as intrusive, 147, 149, 150
maternal, 50
perceived homophobia influence on, 65
sensitivity, 195
therapist attachment and, 216
transdiagnostic approaches for, 300–301
Aptitude Treatment Interaction (ATI) research designs, 167
Aron, Arthur, 14
Aron, Elaine, 14
Asians, 66, 68, 186, 309, 327, 328
Asians/Pacific Islanders, 65, 185, 472
Assessment of Patient Personality Characteristics, 63
Assessment of Positive Regard, 63
Assessment questions (AQ)
in TA, 244, 249
in TA-A, 246
in TA-C, 245
assessments
of behavioral inhibition, 16
in Gaza War case studies, 148–49
infant reactivity, 15–16
quantitative, 453–55
Strange Situation tool, 207
TA intervention sessions, 262–63
temperament, 31–32
therapist practice interference and, 126–27
Association for Psychological Science, 4
attachment
adaptation and adjustment in infancy, 25
Mutual Regulation Model and, 48
parent-child relationship, 334
in same-sex couples, 220
Strange Situation assessment tool, 207
attachment, in adult counseling and psychotherapy
adult attachment, 208–10
attachment theory overview, 206–10
couple counseling, 220–26, 225t
future research and clinical implications, 232
individual counseling, 210–20
Attachment History Questionnaire (AHQ), 213t
Attachment Injury Measure (AIM), 225t
attachment resolution injury model, within EFT, 224
Attachment Scales Questionnaire (ASQ), 227t
Attachment Styles Questionnaire (ASQ), 228t
attachment theory, of Bowlby, 197, 323–24
avoidant, 208–10, 211, 215, 221, 222
from birth to death, 209
disorganized attachment, 208, 209
insecure attachment, 207, 209–10
overview, 206–10
secure attachment, 207–10, 211, 221, 230
secure base role, 10, 206, 207–8
attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), 32, 276t, 310, 326, 340
attitudinal barriers, for EBTs implementation, 282
autoimmune disease, 77
avoidance dimension, of adult attachment, 208–10
CBT and, 215
commitment and, 222
partner self-disclosure and, 221
psychotherapy outcome and, 215
sexual dissatisfaction with partner and, 222
avoidant attachment, 208–10, 211, 215, 221, 222
Bandura, Albert, 324, 377
Barlow, David, 274
Bartholomew Attachment Rating, 216t
Baseline Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC), 416
BASIC program, of IY-PT, 340, 341
Baum, Andrew, 80
Baumrind, Diana, 335
B-cells, in immune system, 77–78
Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), 120, 219t, 228t, 229t, 452
behavioral health disorders, 309–10
behavioral inhibition, 16, 18, 21–22
behavioral intervention technologies (BITs), 395
Behavior Assessment System for Children (BASC), 339
behaviors, 451
client attachment and, 210, 211t
in couple counseling, 220–23
in group counseling, 226, 230
in individual counseling attachment, 210
to reduce inflammation, 89–90
Bell Object Relations and Reality Testing Inventory (BORRTI), 212t
Bielefeld Partnership Expectations Questionnaire (BFPE), 229t
Big Five personality factors, 12
Big Five Questionnaires
-Children, 17
NEO-I and NEO-PI-R, 17, 25
Binge Eating Disorder (BED), 227t, 228t, 229t, 230–31
biomedical model, 5–6
biopsychosocial treatment approach, 5, 548–49, 552, 556
defined, 547
necessity of, 550–51
nonspecific treatment factors, 553–54
obstacles, 555
relational interventions, 553
treatment evaluations, 554–55
(p. 561) bipolar disorder, immune system functioning and, 87
BOLD time series, in fMRIs, 527, 529f
bond and risk component, in therapeutic alliance, 101
borderline personality disorder, 194
DBT and, 216t
TFP and, 216t
Boundaryless Model, 377, 382–83
Bowen, Murray, 322–23
Bowlby, John, 206, 207, 323–24, 360
Boyce, W. Thomas, 26
brain. See also neuroimaging techniques
ACC, 18, 44, 408–10, 415, 421, 534
attachment-based couple therapy influence on, 224–25
of children, 320
cortisol and, 20
lower and higher order systems, 44
PFC, 18, 44, 408–9
Breakthrough Series Collaborative, of IHI, 283
Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI), on general psychiatric symptomatology, 149
Brigham Young University Provo campus, CAPS at, 470, 472
Bronfenbrenner, Uri, 323
Brown, Earl C., 241
burnout, 136, 139
Byrd, James, Jr., 57
California Evidence-Based Clearing House for Child Welfare, 275
California Psychotherapy Alliance Scales (CAPLAS-G), 227t, 228t, 459
Campbell, J. P., 386
cannabinoids, 434–35
Cannon, Walter, 79
Career and Occupational Mobility and Embeddedness Model, 377, 383
career counseling, with adults, 372–96
BITs for, 395
client characteristics, 383–86
conclusions, 396
for corrections and ex-offenders, 390–91
criteria, 386–87
culture in, 373–76
current trends in, 389–94
for domestic violence survivors, 390
in educational settings, 391–92
evolution and theory, 376–77
future directions, 394–95
gender and, 373
for LGBT population, 374–75
in life transitions, 394–95
Minnesota Point of View, 376–77
outcomes and process components, 386–89
P-E fit and, 375, 376, 377
process components, 387–88
for severe mental illness, 391
for unemployed, 389–90
career counseling client characteristics
diagnosis, attitudes, expectations, 383–84
personal counseling and, 385–86
personality, 384–85
career counseling interventions
executive and career coaching, 393
IG, 394
relational interventions, 392–93
SBCC, 392
career decision making theories
Boundaryless Model, 377, 382–83
Career and Occupational Mobility and Embeddedness Model, 377, 383
Holland Theory of Vocational Types and Career Choice, 377–79
Kaleidoscope Career Model, 377, 383
Life-Span Life-Space Theory, 381
Protean Career Model, 377, 382–83
Career Development Assessment and Counseling Model (C-DAC), 381
Career Development Inventory, of Super, 381
career transition models, 382–83
caregiving environment, 221–22
self-regulation and, 45–46, 50
in youth therapy, 98
The Case of Cholesterol in the Era of Statins study, 67
cellular immunity, 78
Center for Collegiate Mental Health (CCMH), on client change, 128
Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression Scale (CES-D), 228
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)
on family interventions, 326
on flu vaccination, 67
change
CCAPS on client, 128
in client attachment, 214–16, 216t
of client over time, 128–29
in DE model, 465–96
in group counseling, 231–32
over time, 128–29
psychotherapy factors contributing to, 158
quantitative assessment sensitivity to, 455
in times and places of work, 148
youth therapy mechanisms of, 102
change, shape of
between-case improvement trajectories, 468
cause of change compared to, 468–69
DE model and, 465–96
OQ-45 on, 453, 468, 469f, 477–80, 478f, 479f, 480t, 481f, 510
RCI for, 467
RCSD for, 467, 478, 479f, 483–84, 484t
RCSI for, 467, 477, 478, 479f, 483, 484t
within-case change trajectories, 467, 468
Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL), 339
child-directed interaction (CDI) phase, of PCIT, 338
Child Involvement Rating Scale (CIRS), 105t, 109
child maltreatment
Environmental Risk Longitudinal Study on, 321
self-regulation influenced by, 46
SFP for, 311
child psychotherapy, treatment deterioration rates, 183
children
behavior problems, 46
CBT for, 324
cooperation of, 25
NIDA on brains of, 320
nurturing parents influence on, 321
resilience in, 6, 48–50
(p. 562) resilience prevention and treatment, 6, 309–29
temperament of, 12–13
vertical and horizontal control for, 317
Children’s Behavior Questionnaire, on temperament, 14, 25
Child’s Game, in SFP, 316, 325
chronic inflammation, 82
chronic stress, 80–81
circular questioning, 255–56
classism, 61, 374
client, 165–66. See also interpersonal traits; intra-psychic traits
change over time, 128–29
characteristics, 293
comprehension, 102
depressive disorder and, 184, 185
EBTs implementation barriers of, 282
EBTs implementation for, 279
involvement, 105t, 108–9, 459
matching treatments to, 299
racism and, 69–70
symptom severity, 127–28, 193
therapist different perspectives of measurement and, 7
client attachment, psychotherapy outcome and
changing attachments, 215–16, 216t
changing symptoms and, 214–15
client attachment, therapy relationship and
behaviors and, 210, 211t
real relationship and, 214
therapeutic alliance and, 210–14, 212 [link] –213 [link]
transference and, 213, 214
Client Attachment to Therapist Scale (CATS), 212t
client characteristics
in career counseling, 383–86
conclusions, 198–99
demographic variables, 184–86, 198
expectancies, 187–92
intra-psychic traits, 194–96
mental health variables, 192–94
placebo response and, 415–16
treatment outcome correlations, 184
client comprehension, 1–2, 102
client involvement
therapeutic interventions and, 108
in youth therapy, 102, 105t
client outcomes, treatment fidelity relationship with, 294
client ratings
self-, 453
of therapeutic alliance, 458–60
of treatment goals, 456
of treatment outcomes, 457–59
client-therapist agreement
on client problems, 455–56
therapeutic alliance and, 459–60
client-therapist matching, 157–78, 554
A-B dichotomy measure, 160–61
beyond common factors, 164–65
cultural considerations of, 177
social psychology model, 160–61
summary, 178
two principle-driven models of, 165–71
clinical decision making, in evidence-supported treatment adaptations, 296
Clinical Outcome in Routine Evaluation-Outcome Measure (CORE-OM), 121, 124, 467
Clinical Outcome in Routine Evaluation (CORE) system, 453
clinician, 59, 415. See also therapists
attitudes toward evidence-supported treatments, 295–96
characteristics, 293
client expectations about, 192
evidence-supported treatment training, 297–98
Clinician-Administered Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Scale (CAPS-SX17), 416
coercive parent-child interactions, 335–36
cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), 32, 198
ACTION Treatment Program, 363–64
adult avoidance attachment and, 215
for anxiety, 188, 191
for children, 324
for depression, 194
in group therapy, 499–500
for insomnia, 190
for OCD, 499
for panic disorder, 119
placebo effect and, 419–20
for social anxiety, 191–92
temperament and, 29
for youth depression, 360, 362–63
as youth therapy, 104, 107–11
cognitive bias awareness, for therapist effects, 124–25
cognitive-processing therapy (CPT), for PTSD, 119, 122, 129
cognitive reframing, 319
cognitive therapy (CT), for depression, 184, 186
cohesion, group member attachment and, 230–31
Collaborative/Therapeutic Assessment (C/TA) paradigm, 6, 251–65, 553
empirical support for, 250–52
history of, 241–43
process for, 243–44
structure, 244–50
College Counseling Assessment of Psychological Symptoms (CCAPS), on client change, 128
common factors (CF) interventions, 161
client-therapist matching beyond, 164–65
in evidence-supported treatment adaptations, 296
Common Factor Theorists, 160, 164
communal disaster, 146, 147, 150, 152–53
Community-Based Learning Collaborative (CBLC), 284–85
Community Change Team (CCT), of CBLC, 284, 285
Community Readiness Model, on HIV-AIDS health concerns, 70
Community Reinforcement Approach (CRA), 325
community settings, EBTs cost in, 277
comorbid personality disorder, 194
compassion fatigue, 136, 138, 139
COMPASS-PC assessment system, 467
competence, for EBTs fidelity, 280, 291
Comprehensive Soldier and Family Fitness program, 312
conduct disorder (CD), 340, 348–49
conduct problems
family context, 350–51
neighborhoods role, 349–50
peer relationships influence on, 351–52
role of family and social context for, 349–51
schools role, 350
treatment of, 351–59
conduct problems treatment
Coping Power program, 352–55
Life Skills Training, 356
MST, 355
MTFC program, 355–56
social cognitive model, 352–53
confrontation strategies, for racial discrimination, 58
Coping Cat Protocol Adherence Checklist- Modified (CCPAC-M), 105t, 109
Coping Power program, 352
dissemination studies, 354–55
effectiveness studies, 354
efficacy study, 353–54
family and social context, 353
Coping Strategy Questionnaire, 227t
coping style
examination of efficacy of, 70
internalizers or externalizers, 195
as intra-psychic trait, 195, 196
principles, 166, 170, 175–76
reactance, 195, 196
Core Battery Conference, on client change, 128
co-regulatory process, of parent-infant, 50
EEG on, 45
(p. 563) Mutual Regulation Model and, 46–48
self-regulation and, 43, 45, 46–48
corrections and ex-offenders, career counseling for, 390–91
corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH), 83, 88–89
PTSD and, 84
cortisol, 20
cost of caring, secondary traumatic stress and, 137
Counseling and Psychological Services (CAPS), at Brigham Young University Provo campus, 470. 472
counseling psychology, 5, 376
counter-transference
distancing/avoidance, 139
group member attachment and, 231
identification, 139
couple counseling
effectiveness of, 503–4
EFT for, 223–25, 225t
therapeutic alliance in, 504–5
couple counseling, attachment and, 225t, 226
couple therapy outcome, 224–25
moderating effect of attachment, 223–24
partner interactions and behaviors, 220–23
Couples Therapy Alliance Scale, 225t
C-reactive protein (CRP), as inflammation marker, 82, 83, 87
critical race theories, 55
cross-cultural temperament research, 22, 25
culture-gene coevolutionary theory, 24
fMRI research and, 24
heritability and, 23
individualism-collectivism cultures, 24
psychobiological approach, 23
crossover interactions, adaptation and, 28
cultural adaptations
of evidence-supported treatments, 302–3
for high-risk children’s resilience, 327–28
cultural bias, APA on mental health misdiagnosis, 68
cultural competence, 177
cultural fit, in evidence-supported treatment adaptation, 298–99
culturally adapted treatments, 186
culture
in career counseling, 373–76
gender-related expectations for temperament, 22
self-regulation and, 50
culture-gene coevolutionary theory, 24
cytokines, 77, 88
depression and, 83–84
DA. See dopamine
D-Cycloserine (DCS), 429
fear memory extinction, 430–31
DE. See dose-effect
deep brain stimulation (DBS) study, by DTI, 533–34
Defense of Marriage Act (DOMA), 56
deliberate practice, for therapist effects
RAPIDPractice survey, 124
therapy drift, 124
delinquency, 326
youth depression influenced by, 359
demographic variables, of clients, 184–86, 198
culturally adapted treatment, 186
as process-outcome relations moderator, 187
as treatment effects moderator, 186
depression. See also major depressive disorder; youth depression
ACC role in, 410
adult insecure attachment and, 209
of African American adolescents, 67
age of client and, 184, 185
CBT for, 194
CRH and, 83
CT for, 184, 186
cytokines and, 83–84
HPA axis dysregulation, 83, 84
immune system dysregulation and, 82–84
insecure attachment relationship with, 209
maternal, 49
NK cell suppression, T-cells, CRP and, 83
parent influence on, 358
perceived homophobia influence on, 65
placebo response in, 409–10, 413–14
symptom severity, 193
Depression Index (DEPI), in Rorschach test, 254–55
determinism, 319
developmental hierarchical-integrative perspective, for self-regulation, 44–45
Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM), 453
III history, 118–19
on MDD, 82–83
Dialectical Behavior Therapy (DBT), 130, 216t
differential effectiveness, of therapists, 121–22
differentiation, for EBTs fidelity, 280
diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), 516, 532, 533f, 534f
DBS study, 533–34
HARDI and, 535
dimensional model of attachment, 208
direct exposure, in shared traumatic exposure, 148–49
disabilities, career counseling and, 375–76
discrimination, 57, 58
disease prevention, SES and, 67
disintegration, of self, 243
dismissing-avoidance attachment, of adults, 209, 210
disorganized attachment, 208, 209
distal minority stress processes, 56
distancing/avoidance, in counter-transference, 139
Distillation and Matching Method, 301–2
domestic violence, 390, 391
dopamine (DA), 435–36
dopamine receptor gene (DRD4), 19
dosage, treatment fidelity and, 292
dose-effect (DE) model
change in, 465–96, 483–84
clients, 472
conclusion, 493–95
doses defined, 474
GEI compared to, 468–69, 471f, 472t
improvement defined, 466–67
probit analysis, 466
SEM in, 485–93, 486f, 487f, 489t, 490f
sessions as doses, 466
session treatment length, 474, 475f, 476t
shape of change and, 465–96
shape of treatment, 474, 476–77
symptom change, 477–83
symptom score trajectories, 473f
treatment setting, 470, 471
within-case change trajectories, 467
dose-response relationship, 470f
double exposure
changes in times and places of work feature, 148
features of, 147–48
immersion in professional role feature, 147–48
intrusive anxiety feature, 147, 149, 150
(p. 564) lapses in empathy feature, 147, 149
role expansion feature, 148
Dusseldorf Therapeutic Factors Questionnaire (DTFQ), 229t
Dyadic Adjustment Scale (DAS), 225t
Early Childhood Behavior Questionnaire, 25
Eating Disorder Examination (EDE), 229t
eating disorders, transdiagnostic approaches for, 301
Eating Disorders Inventory (EDI), 227t, 228t
educational settings, career counseling in, 391–92
effectiveness, 274f. See also therapist effectiveness
Coping Power program studies on, 354
of couple counseling, 503–4
of EBTs, 276–78
of family therapy, 501–3
of group counseling, 499–501
of high-risk children’s resilience interventions, 311–13, 324–26
of psychotherapy, 466
effect size (ES), 500
efficacy
Coping Power program study on, 353–54
of placebo effects, 411
RCT for, 337, 338
self-, 410
of treatment, 548–49
efficacy, of EBTs, 274f
APA Task Force on, 275
clinical training for, 298
criteria for, 274, 275, 275t
of PMTO, 337–38
RCT for, 337, 338
effortful control, 16, 20, 27
flexibility and volition-driven nature of, 25
PFC and ACC regions of brain and, 18
prenatal substance exposure and, 49
ego strength, as intra-psychic trait, 195
electroencephalogram (EEG) measurement techniques, 21, 515, 516, 535–40, 536f, 537f, 538f, 539f
on parent-child co-regulatory process, 45
placebo and, 409–10
embodied discrimination, in sexism, 62
emotional attunement, 257–58
emotional experience, TA mentalizing of, 264
emotional expression modulation, in TA model, 262–64
emotionally focused treatment (EFT)
attachment resolution injury model within, 224
for couple counseling, 223–25, 225t
emotion regulation, 44
capacity techniques, 260–62
parental facilitation of, 319
empathy
of female therapists, 138
lapses in, 147, 149
secondary traumatic stress and, 137
secure attachment and, 221
therapist attachment anxiety and, 216
Empirically Supported Relationship (ESR) Task Force, of APA, 164, 165
empirically supported treatments (ESTs), 119, 273
managed care systems push toward, 158
movements to define list of, 159
TAU effects, 164
therapists delivery of, 122
treatment fidelity and, 163
empowered-resistance coping strategies, for racism, 58
environmental influences
on resilience, 317
on SPS, 28
on temperament, 18
Environmental Risk Longitudinal Study on child maltreatment, 321
epigenetic and neuropsychological approaches, to resilience, 319–20
Gene x Environment interactions, 321–22
epigenetic drugs, 438
episode-based payment structure, 130
ethnoviolence, 57
etiological theories, SEM use by, 314–15
event related potential (ERP) responses, 46
evidence-based family interventions, 328
evidence-based practice (EBP), 273–74
for adolescents, 316–17
for prevention, 311
for youth depression, 360–61
for youth therapy, 98
evidence-based principles (EBPs), 169
evidence-based treatments (EBTs), 6, 273–86
conclusions and future directions, 285–86
defined, 273–76
effectiveness of, 276–78
efficacy of, 274–75, 294f, 298, 337–38
examples of, 276t
implementation of, 278–86
mental health practitioner and, 279–80, 285–86
TAU efforts compared to, 277–78
training and consultation, 280–81
treatment development process, 274f
treatment fidelity achievement and measurement, 280–81, 291–92, 294, 300
for youth therapy, 98
evidence-based treatments frameworks
CBLC, 284–85
MAP system, 282–83
QICs, 283–84
evidence-supported treatments
acceptability of, 294–96
adaptation in, 296–303
adoption versus adaptation of, 296–300
AHCPR and, 290
APA task forces for, 290
cultural adaptations, 302–3
evolution of, 289–90
fidelity in, 290–94, 299
modular approach, 301–2
transdiagnostic approach, 299–301
for trauma, 426–38
treatment manuals for, 296
evolutionary basis, of SPS, 15
excess attributable risk (EAR), racism and, 59–60
executive coaching, 393
expectancies, of clients
about clinician, 192
goal theory and, 188
manipulation of, 191–92
negative outcomes and, 188
as predictors of posttreatment outcomes, 187–88
as process-outcome relations moderator, 191
self-verification theory, 190
as treatment effects moderator, 189–90
expectation theory, 410
Experiences in Close Relationships Scale (ECRS), 213t, 219t, 225t, 229t
Experiencing Scale (ES), 225t
exposure
direct, 148–49
indirect, 149
(p. 565) prenatal substance, 49
treatment fidelity and, 291–92
exposure therapy, 100
for trauma treatment, 426
expressive psychodynamic therapy, males and, 186
externalizer coping style, 195
external obstacles, for physical and mental health treatment, 68–69
extinction, of fear, 428, 428f, 434
extinction memory, 432f
extinction therapy, pharmacological adjuncts to, 429–36
extinction training, 427, 427f
Eyberg, Sheila, 324, 325
family and social context
for child and adolescent treatment, 348–65
for conduct problems, 349–51
in Coping Power program, 353
for youth depression, 357–60
family interventions
CDC on, 326
evidence-based, 328
for high-risk children’s resilience, 324, 328
Family Relationship Enhancement Treatment, 325
family relations improvement, for resilience, 315–16
family stress models, 335
Family Systems Theory, of Bowen, 322–23
family therapy
effectiveness of, 501–3
MFT in, 501
therapeutic alliance in, 504–5
family treatment theories
Bowen Family Systems Theory, 322–23
Bowlby attachment theory, 197, 206–10, 323–24
Bronfenbrenner Social Ecology Model, 323
Minuchin Structural Family Therapy, 323
fearful-avoidant attachment, of adults, 209, 211
fear memory, 426–27, 427f, 428f
fear memory extinction
DCS and, 430–31
GABAR and, 433–34
feedback
ROM system of, 129, 131
between science and practice, 278–79
self-reinforcing, 410
fee-for-service reimbursement structure, 130
females
African American racism experiences, 58
secondary traumatic stress transmission to therapists, 138
supportive psychodynamic therapy and, 186
temperament and, 22
feminist theories, 55
Fidelity of Implementation Rating System (FIMP), of PMTO, 338
Finn, Stephen, 242
Fischer, Constance, 241–42
flexibility, treatment fidelity with, 300
fluoxetine, 437
flu vaccination, CDC on, 67
Food and Drug Administration, U.S. (FDA), RCT methodology use, 159
Frankl, Viktor, 312
frequency, treatment fidelity and, 291–92
Freud, Sigmund, 450
functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), 21, 516, 527–32, 528f, 530f
BOLD time series in, 527, 529f
cross-cultural temperament research and, 24
GABA-ergic signaling, 432–34
gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor (GABAR), 432
fear memory extinction, 433–34
Garmezy, Norman, 312
Gaza War case studies, on shared traumatic reality, 150
BSI, IES, Secondary Trauma Scale, and Post-traumatic Growth Inventory assessments in, 149
direct exposure assessment, 148–49
indirect exposure assessment, 149
gender
career counseling and, 373
client psychotherapy outcome and, 185
healthcare bias and, 68
PTSD and, 85
therapeutic alliance and, 507
gender differences
Negative Emotionality factor, 27–28
secondary traumatic stress and, 138, 142
in temperament, 22–23
general adaptation syndrome, 70
generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), 67, 301
generalized social anxiety disorder (GSAD), 86
genetic influence
on individual differences, 552–53
on temperament, 19
Gene x Environment interactions, 321–22
GI Bill, 373
Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF), 215, 453
Global Assessment Scale (GAS), 216t
global competence, 101
glucocorticoids (GCs), 434
and depression, 84
and immune system dysregulation, 88
and posttraumatic stress disorder, 85
treatment possibilities, 88–89
glutamatergic signaling
AMPAR, 431–32
DA receptors, 435–36
epigenetic drugs, 438
GCs, 434
NMDAR, 429, 430–31
goal theory, 188
good-enough improvement (GEI) model
conclusions on, 493–95
DE compared to, 467–68, 471f, 472t
SEM in, 485–93, 486f, 487f, 489t, 490f
goodness-of-fit, 29–30
in child and parent relationship, 13
in lifestyle choices, 33
Grau’s Attachment Questionnaire (GAQ), 229t
Gray, Jeffrey, 12
Great Depression, 372
Group Climate Questionnaire (GCQ), 227t, 228t
group counseling
effectiveness of, 499–501
GSC, 499
member alliance in, 230–31
self-disclosures in, 226, 230
therapeutic alliance in, 504–5
group counseling, attachment and
changing dyadic attachment and symptoms, 231–32
changing group attachments, 232
group therapy outcome, 228 [link] –229 [link] , 231–32
group therapy process, 227 [link] –228 [link] , 230–31
member attachments and, 226, 230–31
Group Counseling Helpful Impacts Scale, 508
Group Psychodynamic Interpersonal Psychotherapy (GPIP), 228t, 229t
guided self-change (GSC), in group therapy, 499
Guidelines for Psychological Practice with Girls and Women, of APA, 373
Guidelines for the Practice of Telepsychology, of APA, 395
Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, 410
Hanf, Constance, 324, 325
Harm Avoidance (HA) temperament dimension, 32
Hawthorne effect, 421n1
placebo effect and, 411
health. See also mental health
inflammation reduction and, 89–90
racism impact on, 57, 59, 60–61
sexism influence on, 62–63
sociocultural factors impact on, 55
healthcare
AMA on equality in, 68
gender bias in, 68
racism and, 60–61
sexism implications on, 62
time constraints for, 69
health professionals, social justice commitment, 71
Helms, J.E., 56, 57
helpful events, in therapy, 507–9
Helping Alliance Questionnaire (HAQ), 218t, 219t, 459
Helping the Non-compliant Child, 311
heritability, 23
hierarchical linear models (HLM), 185
high angular resolution diffusion imaging (HARDI), 535
Highly Sensitive Person (HSP) Scale, 14–15, 28
HIV-AIDS, 60, 63
Community Readiness Model on health concerns for, 70
depression and, 83
internalized homophobia and, 64
racism and, 60
SES and, 67
WOC sexism experiences, 63
Hobfoll, Stevan, 80
Holland, John, 377–79
homeostatic process models, 317–18
homophobia, 55
anxiety and depression influenced by, 65
internalized, 63–65
mental health and substance use, 63–64
in military, 65
POC and, 65
psychological distress, 66
religious affiliation and, 66
sequential mediation model, 64
SES and, 66
sexual minority stress and, 64–65
social discrimination, 66
social-psychological resources for, 64
in workplace, 65
homotypic continuity, temperament and, 18
horizontal control, for children, 317
Howard, Kenneth, 466
How to Fail as a Therapist: 50 + Ways to Lose or Damage your Clients, 123
humoral immunity, for antibodies, 78
hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) cortical axis, 79, 87
depression and, 83, 84
inflammation relationship with, 82
hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) system, 20–21
“I Can Problem Solve” curriculum, 325
identification
counter-transference, 139
secondary traumatic stress and, 139–40
IL-6. See interleukin-6
immune system, 76
adaptive immunity, 77
autoimmune disease, 77
B-cells in, 77–78
cytokines in, 77, 83–84, 88
defenses, 77
humoral and cellular immunity, 78
inflammation common markers, 82
inflammation in, 77
natural immunity, 77
NK cells, 77, 83, 85
normal flora in, 77
immune system functioning, mental health and, 76–90
bipolar disorder, 87
clinical implications, 87–88
depression and, 82–84
future directions, 90
health consequences, 87–88
immune system overview, 76–78
OCD, GSAD and, 86
PNI field on, 79
PTSD and, 84–86, 88, 89
schizophrenia, 86
stress, 81–82
treatment possibilities and, 88–90
Impact of Events Scale (IES), on PTSD symptomatology, 149
impairment level principle, of systematic treatment selection, 169–71
implementation, of EBTs, 278
at agency level, 280, 286
at client level, 279
frameworks for, 282–85
at mental health practitioner level, 279–80
implementation of EBTs, barriers to
attitudinal barriers, 282
client barriers, 282
organizational barriers, 281
resource barriers, 281–82
Implementation Science, within APA, 4
incentive. See therapist incentive
Incredible Years (IY), 356–57
Incredible Years Parent Training (IY-PT), BASIC and ADVANCE programs of, 340, 341
indicated prevention
Helping the Non-compliant Child, 311
IOM definition of, 310, 311
indigenous wisdom, resilience and, 313
indirect exposure, in shared traumatic reality, 149
individual case level, neuroimaging techniques and, 6
individual counseling
career counseling and, 385–86
therapeutic alliance and, 506–7, 511
individual counseling, attachment and
client attachment and behaviors, 210
between therapist and client, 214–16, 218–20, 219t
therapist as secure base, 210
therapy-client relationship in, 210–14, 212 [link] –213 [link]
individual differences
genetic and epigenetic influences, 552–53
in personality and temperament, 551–52
resilience and social relationships, 553
individualism-collectivism cultures, 24
infant. See also co-regulatory process, of parent-infant
attachment and, 206–7
cross-cultural temperament research on, 22–23, 25
intimate partner violence exposure and, 46
Lab-TAB for, 16
(p. 567) LBW and temperament of, 29
maternal psychopathology influence on, 49–50
mortality, 60, 68
prenatal substance exposure, 49
reactivity assessment, 15–16
self-regulation, 25, 44, 45
SPS, 15
temperament-based intervention efforts with, 30
temperament development, 17–18, 20–21
Infant Behavior Questionnaire, 25
Infant Health and Development Program (IHDP), temperament and, 29
infective hypothesis, schizophrenia and, 86
inflammation
acute and chronic, 82
common markers of, 82
health behaviors to reduce, 89–90
HPA axis dysregulation relationship with, 82
IL-6 and CRP, 82, 83, 87
in immune system, 77
negative impact on physical and mental health, 81–82
information giving (IG), in career counseling, 394
innate immunity. See natural immunity
insecure attachment, 207
anxiety and depression relationship with, 209
mental health and, 209–10
“INSIGHTS into Children’s Temperament” program, 30–31
insomnia, CBT for, 190
Institute for Healthcare Improvement (IHI), Breakthrough Series Collaborative of, 283
Institute of Medicine (IOM)
indicated prevention, 310, 311
on ROM for Veterans with PTSD and VA treatment, 126
selective prevention, 310, 311
Spectrum of Mental Health Disorders, 310–11
universal prevention, 310–11
integrationist movement, from 2000 to present
manualized therapies, 163–64
RCTs and, 162–63
integrative/eclectic therapies, history from 1930-1990s, 159–62
intensity, treatment fidelity and, 292
interdisciplinary knowledge base, 4
interleukin-6 (IL-6), as inflammation marker, 82
internalized homophobia
HIV-positive individuals and, 64
mental health struggles and, 63–64
parental rejection influence on, 65
social action theory and, 64
internalizer coping style, 195
internal obstacles, for physical and mental health, 68–69
interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT), 197, 198, 360
NIMH study of, 194
placebo and, 419–20
interpersonal psychotherapy for adolescents (IPT-A), 360–62
Interpersonal Relationship Resolution Scale (IRRS), 225t
interpersonal traits, of clients
baseline interpersonal functioning, 197
as predictors of posttreatment outcomes, 197
as process-outcome relations moderator, 198
social support, 197
as treatment effects moderator, 197–98
working alliance and, 198
interpretive psychodynamic therapy, 197
intersectionality, feminist and critical race theories, 55
interview-based methodologies, in temperament measurement, 15
intra-psychic traits, of clients, 194
alexithymia, 195, 196
anxiety sensitivity, 195
coping style, 195, 196
ego strength, 195
locus of control, 195, 196
motivation, 195, 196
perfectionism, 195–96
as predictors of posttreatment outcomes, 195–96
as process-outcome relations moderator, 196
reactance, 195, 196
self-help and, 140
as treatment effects moderator, 196
INTREX Introject Questionnaire, 217t
intrusive anxiety, as double exposure feature, 147, 149, 150
Inventory of Countertransference Behavior (ICB), 217t
Inventory of Interpersonal Problems (IIP), 217t, 218t, 228t, 229t
iterative process, between science and practice, 278
Kagan, Jerome, 14
Kaleidoscope Career Model, 377, 383
Keinan-Kon, Naama, 147
Kiesler, Donald, 118
Killian, Lewis, 146–47, 152
kinship degree, maternal-child mutuality and, 46
Kogen, Kate, 324
Kohut, Heinz, 243, 253
Kopta, Mark, 466
Kretsch, Meier, 147
Krouse, Merton, 466
Kuhn, Thomas, 118
Laboratory Temperament Assessment Battery (Lab-TAB), 16
Latino/a, 58–59, 60, 65–66, 185, 186, 327, 394, 472
Lauterbur, Paul, 520
Lazarus, Richard, 80
Technical Eclecticism of, 160
Learning Collaborative model, of NCTSN, 283, 284
lesbian, gay, bisexual, or transgender (LGBT) population, and mental health, 63–66
career counseling for, 374–75
psychotherapy outcomes and, 185, 186
Safe Schools Coalitions program for, 70
levels of information model, within TA, 249
Life Orientation Test-Revised (LOT-R), 417
Life Skills Training, 356
Life-Span Life-Space Theory, of Super, 381
lifestyle choices, goodness-of-fit in, 33
life transitions, career counseling for, 394–95
limited-domain competence, 101
locus of control, as intra-psychic trait, 195, 196
low birthweight (LBW), temperament, 29
lymphocytes, T-helper cells and, 77, 78
magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), 515, 516, 520–27, 522f, 523f, 524f, 527f, 528f, 529f, 530f
VBM and, 524–26
magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS), 516
magnetoencephalography (MEG), 515, 516, 535–38, 536f, 537f, 538f, 539f, 540f
pitfalls and caveats, 539–40
promises, 540
(p. 568) maintenance treatment (MT), of PCIT, 340
major depressive disorder (MDD), 82
MEG of, 540f
PET study, 518–19, 520f
PNI research on, 83
USDHHS on, 83
VBM for, 524–26
making meaning
self-actualization for, 142
in self-care, 141–42
males
expressive psychodynamic therapy and, 186
temperament and, 22
managed care systems, ESTs pushed by, 158
Managing and Adapting Practice (MAP) system, 282, 302
Treatment Planner, 283
Mansfield, Peter, 520
Man’s Search for Meaning (Frankl), 312
manualized therapies, 119, 163–64, 166
marriage and family therapy (MFT), 501
Mason, John Wayne, 79
maternal-child mutuality, kinship degree or child behavior problems and, 46
maternal-infant interactive processes, premature birth and, 48–49
maternal psychopathology, 49–50
Matthew Shepard and James Byrd, Jr. Hate Crimes Prevention Act, 57
McEwen, Bruce, 79–80
McMahon, Robert, 324–25
Mead, Margaret, 22
measurement
A-B dichotomy, 160–61
of change over time, 128–29
client and therapist different perspectives of, 7
of EBTs treatment fidelity, 280–81, 291–92, 294, 300
EEG techniques of, 21, 45, 409–10, 515, 516, 535–40, 536f, 537f, 538f, 539f
quantitative assessment outcome questions, 454–55
of therapeutic alliance, 458–59
youth therapy issues of, 112
medication
nonpharmacological treatments interactions with, 6
placebo compared to active, 413–18
SSRIs, 437, 549
Meehl, Paul, 125, 548
memory consolidation, 431, 434, 435
mental disorders. See also anxiety; depression; posttraumatic stress disorder
ADHD, 32, 276t, 310, 326, 340
of adolescents, 310
bipolar disorder, 87
borderline personality disorder, 194, 216t
career counseling for, 391
DSM on, 118
eating disorders, 301
GAD, 67, 301
GSAD, 86
mood disorders, 300–301
NAMI on, 309
OCD, 86, 301, 499, 549
panic disorder, 119
placebo effect and, 413–14
schizophrenia, 86, 412f
substance abuse and, 310
WHO on, 309
mental health
APA on cultural bias for misdiagnosis of, 68
EBTs and, 279–80, 285–86
homophobia impact on, 64
immune system functioning and, 76–90
inflammation negative effect on, 81–82
insecure attachment and, 209–10
internalized homophobia and, 63–64
treatment, 68–70
Mental Health Surveillance Study (MHSS), of SAMHSA, 309–10
mental health variables, of clients, 192
borderline personality disorder, 194
comorbid personality disorder, 194
as predictors of posttreatment outcomes, 193–94
problem chronicity and mental health history, 193
as process-outcome relations moderator, 194
symptom severity, 193
as treatment effects moderator, 194
mentalization-based treatments, 264
military
homophobia in, 65
sexism in, 62
Miller, Scott, 124
Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI), 160, 251, 253–54
Minnesota Point of View, for career counseling, 376–77
minority stress
assumptions for, 56
distal processes, 56
physical and mental health treatment, 70
prejudice, 56–58, 61
proximal processes, 56
social support for reduction of effects of, 70, 89
stigma, 56
Minuchin, Salvador, 323
modular approach, for evidence-supported treatment adaptation
Distillation and Matching Method, 301–2
MAP model, 302
MATCH, 302
Modular Approach to Therapy for Children (MATCH), 302
molecular genetic studies
allelic associations and, 19
DRD4 and, 19
5-HTT and, 19
Montgomery-Ǻsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS), 413
mood disorders, transdiagnostic approaches for, 300–301
motivation, as intra-psychic trait, 195, 196
Multidimensional Treatment Foster Care (MTFC) program, 337, 355–56
multidisciplinary knowledge base, 4
multidisciplinary treatment approach, 547
on efficacy, 548–49
Multisystemic Therapy (MST), for conduct problems, 355
mutual regulation, risk and resilience factors
maternal psychopathology, 49–50
premature birth, 48–49
prenatal substance exposure, 49
Mutual Regulation Model, 46–48, 51
narratives, in TA, 243
National Alliance for the Mentally Ill (NAMI), on mental disorders, 309
National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS), on SES and health issues link, 66
(p. 569) National Child Traumatic Stress Network (NCTSN), Learning Collaborative model, 283, 284
National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH)
IPT study, 194
Psychosocial Research Branch, 119
RCT studies by, 158
TDCRP study, 194
National Institute of Mental Health Collaborative Depression Study, on initial symptom severity, 194
National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA), on children’s brains, 320
National Registry of Evidence-Based Programs and Practices (NREPP), 275, 335, 336
Native Americans, 185, 186, 313, 472
natural disaster, health disparities, SES and, 68
natural (innate) immunity, cytokines in, 77
natural killer (NK) cells, 77, 83
PTSD and, 85
Negative Emotionality, of temperament, 14
gender difference in, 27–28
negative outcomes
client expectancies for, 188
problem chronicity and mental health history, 193
Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale (NBAS), 15–16, 25
neurobiology, self-regulation, 43–45
neuroimaging techniques, 550
ACC in, 408–10, 534
DTI, 516, 532–35, 533f, 534f
EEG, 21, 515, 516, 535–40, 536f, 537f, 538f, 539f
fMRI, 21, 24, 516, 527–32, 528f, 529f, 530f
future promise of, 541–42
HARDI, 535
individual case level theory building, 6
MEG, 515, 516, 535–40, 536f, 537f, 538f, 539f, 540f
MRI, 515, 516, 520–27, 522f, 523f, 524f, 525f, 527f, 528f, 529f, 530f
MRS, 516
PET, 515, 516–20, 517f, 518f, 519f, 520f, 521f
placebo and, 408, 419–20
statistical and methodological pitfalls, 540
theory building and, 6
neuronal plasticity, 428, 435, 437–38
neuroplasticity, 552
neuropsychology, impact on resilience, 319–22
Neuroticism-Extroversion-Openness Inventory (NEO-I), 17, 25
Neuroticism-Extroversion-Openness Personality Inventory-Revised (NEO-PI-R), 17, 25
New York Academy of Sciences, 4
New York Longitudinal Study (NYLS)
on children’s temperament, 12–13, 30
Early Adult Questionnaire, 17
N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors (NMDAR), 429, 430–31
nocebo, placebo compared to, 411–12
nonpharmacological treatments, medication interactions with, 6
norepinephrine-ergic (NA), 436–37
normal flora, in immune system, 77
normalization, secondary traumatic stress and, 139–40
North American Society for Psychotherapy Research (NASPR), 164
nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), 520–21
obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), 301, 549
CBT for, 499
immune system functioning and, 86
Occupational Health Psychology, 395
open-ended questions, 173
oppositional defiance disorder (ODD), 348–49
PCIT and, 340
OPTIONS intervention, for male prison inmates, 391
organizational barriers, for EBTs implementation, 281
organizational characteristics, for treatment fidelity, 292–93
organizational climate and culture, of agency, 281
Orienting Sensitivity factor, of temperament, 14
Orlinsky, David, 466
Outcome Questionnaire-30 (OQ-30), 120–21
Outcome Questionnaire-45 (OQ-45), 453, 468, 469f, 477–80, 478f, 479f, 480t, 481f, 510
outcomes. See also negative outcomes; posttreatment outcomes; process-outcome relations; psychotherapy outcomes; treatment outcomes
career counseling, 386–89
DSM focus on psychotherapy research, 119
of positive alliance and comorbid personality disorder, 194
therapist evaluation for improving, 126–29
for youth therapy, 102–3
panic disorder, CBT for, 119
paradigms, in psychotherapy research, 118
parental rejection, internalized homophobia impacted by, 65
parent-child interaction
coercive, 335–36
for self-regulation, 43, 46–48, 50
for temperament, 29–30
Parent-Child Interaction Therapy (PCIT), of Eyberg, 25–26, 324, 325
CDI phase, 338
MT and, 340
PDI phase, 338–39
parent-directed interaction (PDI) phase, of PCIT, 338–39
parenting, 334
conceptual frameworks for, 335–36
interventions for improvement of, 336–42
styles and practices, 335
training programs future directions, 342–43
youth depression influenced by, 358
parenting interventions
IY-PT, 340–41
NREPP on, 336
PMTO, 337–38, 343
Triple P, 311, 341–42
parent intervention, for child and youth functioning enhancement, 6
Parent Management Training-Oregon (PMTO) Model, 343
efficacy trials, 337–38
FIMP of, 338
(p. 570) parent-report instruments, 16–17
parents
emotion regulation facilitation by, 319
nurturing by, 321
Parents Who Care intervention, 328
partner attachment, couple interactions and behaviors, 220–23
pathological demand avoidance (PDA), 301
pathological shame, 258–59
PATHS program, 317
pathway or causal mediational process models, for resilience
family relations improvement, 315–16
PATHS program, 317
Social Ecology Model of Adolescent Vulnerability to Substance Abuse, 314–15, 315f
patient. See client
Patient-Therapist Adult Attachment Interview (PT-AAI), 216t
Patterson, Gerald, 324
Pavlov, Ivan, 12
pay-for-performance, as therapist incentive, 130
Pearlman, L. A., 139
peer relationships
conduct problems influenced by, 351–52
youth depression influenced by, 358–59
People of Color (POC), 56. See also African Americans
homophobia for, 65
racism impact on, 58
perfectionism, of client
as intra-psychic trait, 195–96
working alliance and, 196
Perry, Nicole, 45–46
personality, 11–34
Big Five factors for, 12
in career counseling, 384–85
defined, 11
individual differences in, 551–52
physical health relationship to, 26
placebo response and, 416–17
Person Career Theory (PCT), 379
Person-Environment-Correspondence (P-E-C) Theory of Counseling, 380–81
person-environment fit (P-E fit)
career counseling and, 375, 376, 377
phobias, systematic desensitization for, 290
physical health, 68–70
inflammation negative impact on, 81–82
relationships and, 26
Picture Frustration Study (PFS), 263
placebo, in psychological treatment, 6, 549–50
ACC and, 408–9
client characteristics, 415–16
client-practitioner relationship and, 418
clinician-generated effects, 415
conclusions and future directions, 420–21
in depression, 409–10
EEG on, 409–10
introduction, 407–9
neuroimaging techniques and, 408, 419–20
nocebo compared to, 411–12
PFC and, 408–9
in psychotherapy research, 418–20
placebo analgesia (PA), 408
placebo effect, in psychological research and treatment, 6, 549–50
active medication compared to, 413–18
CBT and, 419–20
efficacy of, 411
Hawthorne effect and, 411
mental disorders and, 413–14
psychosocial context and expectancy, 410–13
in schizophrenia, 412f
placebo response
in depression, 409–10, 413–14
personality characteristics and, 416–17
resilience and, 416
Plan-Do-Study-Act (PDSA) cycles, 283
Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS), 89, 411, 414
positive psychology, 325
on resilience, 312, 313
positron emission tomography (PET), 515–17, 517f, 518f, 519f
for AD, 520, 521f
MDD study, 518–19, 520f
pitfalls and caveats, 519–20
promises of, 520
Post-Session Resolution Questionnaire (PSRQ), 225t
posttraumatic growth, 149
The Post-traumatic Growth Inventory, for post-traumatic growth assessment, 149
posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), 81
CPT for, 119, 122, 129
CRH, HPA and, 84
IES for symptomatology assessment, 149
immune system dysregulation and, 84–86, 88, 89
NK cell activity, 85
PE for, 119, 128
present-centered therapy for, 119
ROM for VA treatment for, 126
secondary traumatic stress symptomology, 136, 138
posttreatment outcomes
expectancies of clients and, 187–88
interpersonal traits of clients and, 197
intra-psychic traits of clients and, 195–96
mental health variables of clients and, 193–94
poverty, 66
practice-research networks (PRNs), for therapist evaluations, 126–27
prefrontal cortex (PFC)
effortful control and, 18
placebo and, 408–9
self-regulation and, 44
prejudice, 56
premature birth, 44
risk and resilience, 48–49
prenatal substance exposure
effortful control and, 49
risk and resilience, 49
of tobacco, 49
preoccupied attachment, of adults, 208
therapeutic alliance and, 211–12
Preparation for Marriage (PREP-M), 228t
present-centered therapy (PCT), for PTSD, 119
prevention and treatment, for high-risk children’s resilience, 6, 309
digital technology for, 328, 329
effective interventions for, 311–13
emotional and behavioral self-control, 316–17
epigenetic and neuropsychological approaches, 319–22
evidence-based family interventions principles, 328
family-centered treatment interventions, 324
family-focused approaches, 326
family interventions core essential components, 326
family relations improvement, 315–16
future directions of, 328–29
gender adaptations for girls, 327
homeostatic process models, 317–18
(p. 571) IOM Treatment Spectrum categories, 310–11
pathway or causal mediational process models, 314–17, 315f
search for effective, 324–26
theories of family treatment, 322–24
Transactional Framework of Resilience, 318–19
probability units (probit) analysis, 466
process-outcome relations
demographic variables of clients and, 187
expectancies of clients and, 191
interpersonal traits of client and, 198
intra-psychic traits of clients and, 196
mental health variables of clients and, 194
professional role, immersion in, 147–48
Project Bringing Evidence-Supported Treatments (Project BEST), 285
CBLC development by, 284
projective identification, secondary traumatic stress and, 137–38
prolonged exposure (PE), for PTSD, 119, 128, 261
Promotion and Dissemination of Psychological Procedures Task Force (APA Task Force), 119, 158–59, 161, 274, 275
Protean Career Model, 377, 382–83
proximal minority stress processes, 56
psychobiological model, of temperament, 13, 23
Children’s Behavior Questionnaire, 14
psychoeducation, in TA model, 259–60
psychological distress
homophobia and, 66
sexism and, 62
psychological health, racism impact on, 58
psychological research and treatment, placebo effect in, 6, 406–21, 549–50
psychometrics, 455
psychoneuroimmunology (PNI), 79, 550
and MDD, 83
Psychonomic Society, 4
psychopathology
maternal, 49–50
self-regulation and, 43
symptoms and, 26–28
temperament and, 28–29
psychophysiological research, 20
psychosocial context, for placebo, 410
Psychosocial Research Branch, of NIMH, 119
psychotherapy, 30, 466
factors contributing to change, 158
temperament and, 28–29
temperament concepts used in, 31
for therapist secondary traumatic stress, 141
psychotherapy outcomes
adult avoidance attachment and, 215
attributed to therapists, 120
client attachment and, 214–16, 216t
for client race and ethnicity, 185, 186
of client SES, 185–86
CORE-OM use in study on, 121
depression symptom severity and, 193
differential effectiveness of therapists, 121–22
gender of client and, 185
in individual counseling, 214–16, 218–20, 219t
LGBT clients and, 185, 186
OQ-30 use in study on, 120–21
therapists delivery of ESTs, 122
psychotherapy research
DSM focus on outcomes of, 119
ESTs for, 119
history of, 118
methodological limitations, 158
paradigms in, 118
placebo in, 418–20
RCT in, 119, 159
on therapist effects, 117–18
uniformity myths of, 118
qualitative outcome research, 454
Quality Improvement Collaboratives (QICs), 284
Breakthrough Series Collaborative, of IHI, 283
NCTSN and, 283
PDSA cycles, 283
TF-CBT, 283, 285
Quality of Life Interview (QOLI), 219t
quality of object relations (QOR), 197
quality training and supervision, 4
quantitative assessments, 453
outcome measurement questions, 454–55
practical utility, 455
psychometrics, 455
sensitivity to change and concurrent validity, 455
quantitative genetic studies, 19
quantitative studies, on therapists’ shared traumatic reality, 148–50
race and ethnicity
career counseling and, 373–74
mental health misdiagnosis and, 68
psychotherapy outcome and, 185, 186
SES intersectionality with, 67
race-based traumatic stress, 57–58, 61
A Race is a Nice Thing to Have (Helms), 56
racial identity status, 58
racism, 55
African American female’s experiences, 58
client empowerment, 69–70
of clinician, 59
defined, 56
discrimination, 57
EAR and, 59–60
empowered-resistance coping strategies, 58
ethnoviolence and, 57
healthcare and, 60–61
health impacted by, 57, 59, 60–61
HIV-AIDS and, 60
infant mortality and, 60
of POC, 58
psychological health impacted by, 58
race-based traumatic stress, 56–58, 61
of Whites, 56
racism-related stress, 56–58, 61
Rahim Organizational Conflict Inventory-II (ROCI-II), 223
randomized controlled trial (RCT), 119, 274, 283, 301, 549
for efficacy, 337, 338
FDA use of methodology of, 159
guidelines, 158
inclusion criteria for, 162
integrationist movement and, 162–63
NIMH studies by, 158
research methodology, 158–59
Raphael, Beverley, 147, 152
reactance, as intra-psychic trait, 195, 196
reactive attachment disorder (RAD), 316, 324
reactivity, 13
infant assessment for, 15–16
real relationship, client attachment and, 214
reflection, 174
Reflective Functioning (RF) Coding Scale, 216t
Regulatory Capacity and Effortful Control, of temperament, 14
relational interventions, in career counseling, 392–93
relational treatments, 553
Relationship Questionnaire (RQ), 213t, 217t
(p. 572) relationships
building secure, 256–64
between client outcomes and treatment fidelity, 294
between depression and insecure attachment, 209
dose-response, 470f
higher order treatment goals and, 452–53
between inflammation and HPA cortical axis, 82
parent-child attachment and, 334
parent-child goodness-of-fit, 13
physical health and, 26
placebo and client-practitioner, 418
real, 214
resilience and social, 553
between SES and suicide, 68
between temperament and physical health, 25
trusting, 69
Relationship Scales Questionnaire (RSQ), 212t, 213t, 217t, 227t, 228t, 229t
Relationship Trust Scale (RTS), 225t
reliable and clinically significant deterioration (RCSD), 467, 468, 479f, 483–84, 484t
reliable and clinically significant improvement (RCSI), 467, 477, 478, 479f, 483, 484t
reliable change index (RCI), 467
religious affiliation, homophobia and, 66
research. See also psychotherapy research
cross-cultural temperament, 22–25
on MDD, 83
methodology evolution, 158–59
placebo effect in, 6, 406–21, 549–50
psychophysiological, 20
qualitative outcome, 454
resilience, 314–17, 315f
stakeholders and, 4–5
resilience
characteristics, 313, 318
in children, 6, 48–50
Comprehensive Soldier and Family Fitness program, 312
defined, 311–12
effective prevention approaches, 322
environment influence on, 317
evolution of study of, 313
factors identification, 313–14
of high-risk children, 6, 309–29
indigenous wisdom and, 313
placebo response and, 416
positive psychology on, 312, 313
Ready and Resilient Campaign, 312
research, 314–17, 315f
for secondary traumatic stress, 139
theory, 329
transactional framework of, 318–19
using prevention and treatment interventions, 309–10
resilience factors, identification of
positive psychology and, 313
SEM on, 314
resistance principle, of systematic treatment selection, 165–66, 170–71, 174–75
resource barriers, for EBTs implementation, 281–82
resources
setting of, 299–300
stakeholders critical evaluation of, 4–5
Respiratory Sinus Arrhythmia (RSA), 20
Retrospective Analysis of Psychotherapists’ Involvement in Deliberate Practice (RAPIDPractice), 124
risk factors, mutual regulation and, 48–50
Rogers, Carl, 253, 451, 458, 466
role expansion, as double exposure feature, 148
role induction (RI), pretherapy, 192
Rorschach test, 246, 253–54, 261, 262–63
DEPI in, 254–55
Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES), 228t
routine outcome monitoring (ROM), 117–18, 126, 554
feedback systems for, 129, 131
incentives role, 130–31
ineffective therapists and, 129–30
therapist evaluation, 126–29
Saakvitne, K. W., 139
Safe Schools Coalitions program, for LGBT youth, 70
same-sex couples, attachment in, 220
scaffolding, 254–55
schizophrenia
immune system dysregulation and, 86
infective hypothesis, 86
placebo effect in, 412f
Schmideberg, Milta, 146–47
science-practice schism, 3–4
Secondary Trauma Scale, for secondary traumatization symptoms, 149
secondary traumatic stress (STS), 143
building resilience and management of, 139
burnout, 136, 139
compassion fatigue, 136, 138, 139
cost of caring and, 137
empathy and, 137
gender differences, 138, 142
normalization and identification, 139–40
projective identification and, 137–38
PTSD symptomatology, 136, 138
Secondary Trauma Scale for assessment of, 149
secondary traumatization or, 136–39, 551
Self-care and, 141–42, 551
supervision for, 140–41
therapist effectiveness and, 138–39
in therapist’s personal life, 141
vicarious traumatization, 136, 139
secure attachment, 207, 209
in adults, 208, 210
empathy and, 221
group self-disclosure and, 230
partner self-disclosure and, 221
therapeutic alliance and, 211
secure base role, in attachment, 206, 207–8, 210
Security Scale, 227t
selective prevention
IOM definition of, 310, 311
SES and, 311
SFP, 311
self-actualization, for making meaning, 142
self-advocacy, 71
self-care, 6, 551
making meaning in, 141–42
normalization and, 139–40
psychotherapy as form of, 141
for secondary traumatic stress, 139
self-concept, 26
self-determination theory (SDT), 390–91, 392
self-disclosure, in group counseling, 226, 230
self-efficacy, 410
self-help
intra-psychic space protection, 140
for secondary traumatic stress, 139
(p. 573) self-regulation, in early development, 13, 42–51
brain lower and higher order systems, 44
caregiving environment importance, 45–46
child maltreatment influence on, 46
in cultural context, 50
developmental hierarchical-integrative perspective, 44–45
EEG on, 45
Mutual Regulation Model, 46–48, 51
neurobiological perspectives on, 43–45
parent-child co-regulatory processes, 43, 46–48, 50
practice implications, 50–51
psychopathology and, 43
self-reinforcing feedback, 410
self-report instruments, 31
ATQ, 17
NYLS Early Adult Questionnaire, 17
self-verification theory, 190, 243, 246, 249
Selye, Hans, 79
Sensory Processing Sensitivity (SPS), 14, 21, 33
environment interaction with, 28
evolutionary basis of, 15
infants and, 15
research version, 31–32
sequential mediation model, 64
serotonin-selective reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), 549
fluoxetine, 437
serotonin transporter gene (5-HTT), 19
Session Evaluation Questionnaire (SEQ), 219t
sexism, 55
healthcare implications, 52
health influenced by, 62–63
military and, 62
psychological distress and, 62
sexual risk behaviors from, 61–62
workplace dynamics, 62
sexual minority stress, homophobia and, 64–65
sexual orientation and identity, in career counseling, 374–75
sexual risk behaviors, from sexism, 61–62
shared traumatic reality, of therapists
case studies, 150–52
case studies discussion, 153
features of, 147
Gaza War and Israeli social workers case study, 148–52
quantitative studies on, 148–50
Schmideberg and Killian on, 146–47
summary, 152–53
working in, 146–48
siloing, within psychology, 4, 552
single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), 515, 516–17, 517f, 519–20
Skinner, B. F., 324
social action theory, internalized homophobia and, 64
Social and Occupational Functioning Assessment Scale (SOFAS), 453
social anxiety, CBT for, 191–92
social class, career counseling and, 374
Social Cognitive Career Theory (SCCT), 377, 381–82, 390–91, 394
social cognitive model, for conduct problems, 352–53
social discrimination, homophobia and, 66
Social Ecology Model, of Bronfenbrenner, 323
Social Ecology Model of Adolescent Vulnerability to Substance Abuse, 314–15, 315f, 316
Social Group Attachment Scale (SGAS), 229t
social interaction learning (SIL) model
coercive parent-child interaction and, 335–36
positive parenting, 336
social justice, health professions commitment to, 71
Social Provision Scale (SPS), 217t
social-psychological resources, for homophobia, 64
social psychology model, 160–61
Social Relations Model (SRM), 459–60
social support, 197
for minority stress reduction, 70, 89
social validity, treatment acceptability and, 294
Society for the Exploration of Psychotherapy Integration (SEPI), 161
Society of Clinical Psychology, of APA, 158, 161
sociocultural contexts and stressors, 72
health impacted by, 55
homophobia, 55, 63–66
implications, 68–71
introduction, 55–56
racism, 55, 56–61
SES, 66–68
sexism, 55, 61–63
socioeconomic status (SES), 55
African Americans and, 67
disease prevention and, 67
GAD incidence, 67
health issues linked with, 66
HIV-Aids and, 67
natural disaster health disparities, 68
poverty defined, 66
psychotherapy outcomes and, 185–86
race and ethnicity intersection with, 67
selective prevention and, 311
suicide relationship with, 68
South Carolina Trauma Practice Initiative (SCTPI), 285
Spectrum of Mental Health Disorders, of IOM, 310–11
stakeholders, critical research and resources evaluation for, 4–5
standardized testing and collaborative techniques, in TA, 246–47
State Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), 417
stigma, 56
Strange Situation assessment tool, for attachment, 207
Strelau, Jan, 12
Strengthening Families Program (SFP)
adolescent version, 314
Child’s Game in, 316, 325
for substance abuse and child maltreatment, 311
strengths based career counseling (SBCC), 392
stress. See also secondary traumatic stress
acute and chronic, 80–81
allostatic load theory, 80
immune system effects from, 81–82
minority, 56–58, 61, 70, 89
racism-related, 56–58, 61
Selye, and general adaptation syndrome, 70
Selye on HPA axis activation, 79
SNS activation, 79
stressful experiences, temperament influenced by, 20–21
Structural Analysis of Social Behavior (SASB), 225t
structural equation modeling (SEM)
in DE and GEI models, 485–93, 486f, 487f, 489t, 490f
etiological theories use of, 314–15
Structural Family Therapy, of Minuchin, 323
STS-Clinician Rating Form (STS-CRF), 168–69
substance abuse, 326
of adolescents, 310
homophobia impact on, 63–64
mental disorders and, 310
prenatal exposure to, 49
SFP for, 311
treatment deterioration rates, 183
youth depression influenced by, 359
Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA)
MHSS of, 309–10
NREPP of, 275, 335, 336
suicide, SES relationship with, 68
Sullivan, Harry Stack, 360
summarization, 173
Super, Donald, 381
supervision, for secondary traumatic stress, 140–41
supportive psychodynamic therapy, 197
females and, 186
Surgency, of temperament, 14, 27
sympathetic nervous system (SNS), stress activation of, 79
Symptom Checklist-90-Revised (SCL-90-R), 216t, 218t, 229t
systematic desensitization, for phobias, 290
systematic treatment selection (STS), 157
ATI research designs, 167
clinical formulation of, 171–77
coping style principles, 166, 170, 175–76
example of, 167–71
impairment level principle, 169–71
principles of change and treatment strategies, 169–71
resistance principle, 165–66, 170–71, 174–75
STS-Clinician Rating Form, 168
Target complaints (TC), 219t
Technical Eclecticism, of Lazarus, 160
Tell-Me-A-Story narrative test (TEMAS), 246
temperament
assessment for therapy contexts, 31–32
-based intervention efforts, 30
behavioral inhibition and, 18
biological correlates of, 19–22
CBT and, 29
child cooperation and, 25
of client and therapist, 32–33
cross-cultural research, 22–25
defined, 11
development of, 17–18
environmental influences on, 18
externalizing- and internalizing-type symptoms, 26–27
future directions of applications for, 33–34
gender differences in, 22–23
goodness-of-fit lifestyle choices and, 33
HA dimension of, 32
history and conceptual definitions of, 12–15
homotypic continuity and, 18
measurement, 15–17
Negative Emotionality factor, 14
Orienting Sensitivity factor, 14
parent-child interactions and, 29–30
personality, adaptation, adjustment, 25–26
personality-based school prevention program, 31
psychotherapy and, 28–31
reactivity, 13, 15–16, 195, 196
Regulatory Capacity and Effortful Control factor, 14
relationships and physical health, 25
self-regulation, 13
Surgency factor, 14
temperament, history and conceptual definitions of
goodness-of-fit, 13
Gray on behavioral activation differences, 12
Kagan on behavioral inhibition, 14
NYLS on children’s temperament, 12–13, 30
Pavlov and, 12
properties of traits of, 13
psychobiological model of, 13
Strelau and, 12
Vindician typology on, 12
temperament biological correlates, 22
cortisol and, 20
EEG measurement techniques, 21
fMRI and, 21
genetic influence, 19
HPA system, 20–21
molecular genetic studies, 19
psychophysiological research, 20
quantitative genetic studies, 19
RSA and, 20
stressful experiences and, 20–21
Tridimensional Personality Questionnaire, 19
temperament measurement
behavioral inhibition assessment, 16
Big Five questionnaires, 17
childhood-oriented instruments, 17
on effortful control, 16
interview-based methodologies, 15
laboratory observation techniques, 15
Lab-TAB, 16
NBAS, 15
parent-report instruments, 15, 16–17
self-report instruments, 15, 17, 31
Terkel, Studs, 372
T-helper cells, 77, 78, 83
Thematic Apperception Test (TAT), 246, 261
theory building, neuroimaging techniques and, 6
Theory of Career Intervention and Change (TCIC), Person Career Theory in, 379
Theory of Vocational Types and Career Choice (Holland’s Theory), 377–79, 378f
Theory of Work Adjustment (TWA), 379, 394
P-E-C and, 380–81
therapeutic alliance, 104, 110, 189, 194, 504–7. See also working alliance
bond and risk component, 101
client attachment and, 210–14, 212 [link] –213 [link]
client-therapist agreement and ratings on, 459–60
in couple, family, group counseling, 504–5
criteria for, 123–24
in individual counseling, 506–7, 511
measures of, 458–59
shared variance in ratings for, 459
therapeutic interventions and, 104, 105t, 107–8
therapist competence and, 105t, 109
for therapist effects, 123–24
in youth therapy, 6, 97, 101, 103, 105t, 110, 506
Therapeutic Alliance Scale for Children (TASC), 105t, 107, 108
Therapeutic Assessment (TA)
(p. 575) with adult couples, 242, 244, 246–48, 250
building secure relationship, 256–64
emotional attunement, 257–58
emotional experience mentalized, 264
emotional expression modulation, 262–64
emotion regulation capacity techniques, 260–62
empirical support for, 250–51
Finn and, 242
flow chart of, 245f
levels of information model within, 249
narratives in, 243
pathological shame modulated, 258–59
psychoeducation, 259–60
self-verification and disintegration in, 243
Therapeutic Assessment, for families with adolescents (TA-A), 242, 243–44
AQ in, 246
assessment intervention sessions, 248
empirical support for, 251–52
oral summary and assessment findings presented, 249–50
standardized testing, 247
Therapeutic Assessment, for families with children (TA-C), 242, 243–44
AQ in, 245
assessment intervention sessions, 248
empirical support for, 251–52
oral summary and assessment findings presented, 249, 250
standardized testing, 247
Therapeutic Assessment, in career counseling, 393–94
Therapeutic Assessment, skills and techniques
accurate mirroring, 253–54
active listening, 252–53
circular questioning, 255–56
scaffolding, 254–55
Therapeutic Assessment, with adult couples, 242, 244, 246
assessment intervention sessions, 248
oral summary and assessment findings presented, 250
standardized testing, 247
Therapeutic Assessment structure
AQ collection, 244–46, 249
assessment intervention sessio