Abstract and Keywords
A large proportion of humans experienced a traumatic event in their lifetime, with more than 10% developing posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), panic disorder, phobias, and other fear/anxiety disorders. The neural circuitry of fear responses is highly conserved in humans as well as rodents, and this allows for translational research using animal models of fear. Fear/anxiety disorders in humans are most efficiently treated by exposure-based psychotherapy (i.e., cognitive behavioral therapy; CBT), the main aspects of which are closely modeled by extinction training in Pavlovian fear conditioning and extinction paradigms in rodents. To improve the efficacy of psychotherapy, pharmacological agents potent for enhancing learning and memory consolidation processing should be developed to combine with exposure-based therapy. The purpose of these adjunctive pharmacological agents is to promote fear memory erasure and the consolidation of extinction memories, thus providing a combined treatment of increased effectiveness. This review discusses established pharmacological adjuncts to behavioral therapeutic interventions for fear/anxiety disorders. The mechanisms of action of these adjuncts, as well as the evidence for and against the pharmacological treatment strategies and their limitations are discussed.
Keywords: Cognitive behavioral therapy, fear memory, extinction, memory consolidation, PTSD, neuronal plasticity, glutamate, NMDA receptor, AMPA receptor, GABA receptor, antidepressants, amygdala, prefrontal cortex
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