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date: 24 June 2019

Abstract and Keywords

This chapter provides an overview of theory and research addressing temperament and personality, particularly as these are relevant to clinical applications. Our review begins with a brief history of influential frameworks and foundational constructs, including aspects they share in common and others engendering disagreement. Measurement approaches, development of temperament/personality, the biological underpinnings, and studies addressing cross-cultural and gender differences, are also noted in this review. The chapter concludes with problems in adaptation associated with temperament, focusing on ameliorating those difficulties through clinical applications of temperament and personality constructs with children and adults. Importantly, a developmental, empirically focused perspective informed this chapter, and as a result, this work includes references to developmental periods from early childhood to adulthood, emphasizing approaches that have received empirical support.

Keywords: temperament, personality, clinical applications, developmental, cross-cultural, gender differences

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