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date: 10 December 2019

(p. 525) Index

(p. 525) Index

A
abortion, violent crime rates and, 220
Abrahamism, 459
accidental deaths, in cultures of honor, 226
accidental homicide-suicide, 121
Achebe, Chinua, 420
Ache peoples, 164
homicide rates for, 396
acquaintance rape, 174
Action-Control theory, 275
Act of Union, 223
Adam Bede (Eliot), 422
adolescents. See also bullying, among adolescents; intersexual bullying, in sexual relationships; intrasexual bullying; young male syndrome
neural development for, 245–246
religious belief transmission for, 245–246
religious terrorism among, 246
rites of passage for, 246
suicide attempts by, for leverage of parental investment, 138
adolescent limited offenders, in young male syndrome, 181
adoption studies, for suicide, 136
adrenarche, for males, 162
Aeneid (Virgil), 420
Aeschylus, 417
affective aggression, 42
as hostile, 42
Africa, religious terrorism in, 458
African wild dogs, coalitional aggressive behaviors among, 45
age
child maltreatment by, 93
female aggression by, 205, 205–206
filicide by, 93
in sibling conflict theory, 112
suicide by, 133
aggression. See also anger; fear; female aggression; impulsivity; male-male competition, violence and homicide from; male warrior hypothesis; sexual aggression
as advantageous strategy, 198–199
affective, 42
child development and, 403–405
coalitional, in males, 367
definition of, 23, 42, 254
emotional role in, 200–201
evolutionary biology of, 154, 198–200
evolutionary psychology of, 200–204
in frustration-aggression hypothesis, for animal cruelty, 256
by gender, 156, 200–201, 200–204, 375
indirect, among females, 12–13, 156
instrumental, 42
as lexical concept, 479
in male dominance hierarchies, reinforcement of, 313–314
in male-male competition, 153
maternal, 206–207, 207, 212
parental investment and, 198
regional differences in, for U.S. males, 226–228
relational, among females, 12–13, 156
sexual selection hypothesis for, in males, 513–514
in social learning theory, 309
spousal, 156
in strain theory, 124
stream analogy for, 124
violence aggression, 484
aggression, animal models of, 42–46. See also coalitional aggression, in animal models; dyadic aggression, in animal models
costs and benefit assessment in, 43–44
infanticide in, 44
lethal, 45, 44–46, 55
from reproductive access, 43
RHP and, 43
for social status, 43
for territorial access, 43
agricultural societies, early
afterlife for, 440
armed combat in, 441
China, 440
emigration from, 441
Jewish Diaspora during, 441
religion in, 440–442
religious intolerance in, 441
socioeconomic conditions for, 440–441
warfare in, 441–442
Air Force, U.S., 383
alcohol use, IPV and, 66
Alexander, Richard, 313
All the Pretty Horses (McCarthy), 415
altruism
genetic basis for, 139
in human-animal bond, 261
in hunter-gatherer societies, 281
altruistic suicide, 133
as evolutionary response, 139–140
American Exceptionalism, 443
American Indian Wars, 333
American Psycho (Ellis), 415
An American Tragedy (Dreiser), 424–425
America Right or Wrong (Lieven), 474
The Ancient Contract, 261–262
domestication history for animals and, 261–262
anger
aggression and, 201–202
animal cruelty as result of, 256–257
approach motivations and, 201
confidence triggers from, 201
confrontation triggers from, 201
in IPV, 66
neural pathways for, 202
provocation conditions for, 201
sympathetic nervous system activity during, 202
(p. 526) animal abuse. See also human-animal bonds; humane treatment of animals
definition of, 255
evolutionary history of, 255
future research study for, 265
religion and, 255
as social phenomenon, 264
animal cruelty. See also human-animal bonds; humane treatment of animals
abuser typology, 263
as adaptive expression, 256–258
from anger, 256–257
biological factors for, 263
companion status of animal and, 256
compartmentalization and, 263
competing theories for, 263–264
as control strategy, 257
as cruel play, among children, 256
cultural factors for, 263
definition of, 255
as deliberate deviance, 259, 264
desensitization thesis for, 264
dissociation as part of, 260–261
environmental conditions for, 256–257
evolutionary history of, 255
as expression of predatory instincts, 258–259
from family status of animal, 260
food production and, 255
from frustration, 256–257
frustration-aggression hypothesis for, 256
future research study for, 265
in hunter-gatherer societies, 260
hunting success and, 258
incidence rates for, as self-reported, 255
as inhibition failure, 259–260
language basis for, 259
life stage and, 263
after loss of family status, for animal, 259–260
as masculine motivation, among males, 257–258
naturalistic fallacy and, 263
psychiatric foundations for, 263
religion and, 255
from rival status, 260
social acceptability of, 263
as social phenomenon, 264
strain theory for, 264
suffering as reward value, 258–259
toward cats, 260
after utility of animal, 259
animals, violence in. See violence, in animals
anomic suicide, 133–134
anomie, in strain theory, 124
Antigone (Sophocles), 419
Antilocapra americana. See pronghorn antelope
anti-Semitism, Christianity and, 456
in Catholicism, 458
antisocial behavior
intersexual bullying and, 279
sexual offending and, 182
violence as, 23
Antony and Cleopatra (Shakespeare), 417
anxiety, child development and, 401–402
as facultative response, 402
genetic basis for, 401–402
during Holocaust, as trauma bundle, 402
apes. See also specific species
infanticide among, 35
intersexual NLV among, 29
intrasexual competition among, 158
intrasexual NLV among, 29
LV among, 30–33
NLV among, 29–30
approach motivations, anger and, 201
Aquila verreauxi. See black eagles, siblicide among
Arab-Israeli War, 84
Arafat, Yasir, 493
archaeology, for warfare, 326–334. See also North America, wars in; Santa Barbara Channel area, warfare record in; Southwestern U.S., warfare record in
benefits and limitations of, 326
environmental exposure in, 327
future research study for, 335–336
paleoclimate data in, 330, 331–332, 334
paleopathology for, development of, 335–336
population profiles in, 327
during prehistory period, 341
reconstruction of war, 326–327
resource conflict data in, 334–335, 335
settlement data in, 326, 328, 330, 332–333
skeletal injury in, 326–327
through weaponry assessment, 326–327
Arctocephalus galapagooensis. See Galapagos fur seals, siblicide among
Armed Conflict Dataset (ACD), 354
armed forces, sexual integration of. See also cohesion, in combat groups
aggression, by gender, 375
combat motivation, by gender, 378–379
common assumptions for exclusion, 373
contemporary approaches to, 372–373
cowardice and, public perceptions of, 378
empathy responses, by gender, 375–376
fear responses, by gender, 375
future research study for, 387–388
group dynamics in, 379–381
leadership issues in, 385–386, 386
male bonding and, 379
male distrust, 386–387
MWH for, 379–380
as national policy, 373
nurturance responses, by gender, 375–376
pain tolerance levels, by gender, 374
physical endurance as factor in, 374
physical sex differences and, 373–374
psychological sex differences and, 374–376
risk-taking, by gender, 374–375, 376–377
self-selection in, by females, 374
sex difference studies for, underestimation of, 376–377
standards adjustments in, for females, 374
strength as factor in, 374
Arnold, Matthew, 421
art. See cave art
al-Assad, Bashar, 507
atheism
global increase in, 443
Nazism as, 436
in Soviet Union, 442
after World War I, 435–436
Atheists, 442
Atta, Muhammad, 237
Austen, Jane, 417, 417
avoidance, fear and, 201
The Awakening (Chopin), 420
Azzam, Abdullah Yusuf, 247
B
baboons, intrasexual competition among, 158
the Baha'i, 319
“Ballad of Reading Gaol” (Wilde), 424
Balzac, Honoré de, 423
Bamforth, Douglas, 334
band of brothers, 379. See also male bonding
Barbary macaques, 157–158
Barber, Brian, 245
Barchester Towers (Trollope), 417
Barry Lyndon (Thackeray), 415
Be'eri, Dan, 239
Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 180
behavioral freezing, 202
Beisner, E. Calvin, 473
Beloved (Morrison), 422
Belsky, Steinberg, and Draper (BSD) theory, 397–398, 398–399
Berman, Paul, 236–237
La Bête Humaine (Zola), 423
Betzig, Laura, 313
biastophilia, 174, 186
the Bible
control of females as purpose of, 83
female infidelity in, punishment for, 78
good versus evildoers in, 82
Israelite behavior in, 82
law of divorce in, 79–80, 80, 79–80
law of jealousy in, 80, 80–81
literature influenced by, 417
(p. 527) male solidarity reinforced under, 82–83
mass murder of non-virginal woman in, 81–82
Midianites in, 81–82
Old Testament, 459
patrilineal societies’ use of, female sexual repression and, 79
stoning in, 77–78
violence, as proactive approach in, 77
virginity in marriage, for females, 78–79
Bierce, Ambrose, 427
Billy Budd (Melville), 427
Bin Laden, Osama, 238, 247
biological philosophy, 346
Biophilia Hypothesis, 260
birth order
fratricide and, among males, 114–115
siblicide and, 113–114
in sibling conflict theory, 107
suicide attempts and, 139
birth sex ratios, by gender, 317
infanticide and, 317
Bison Horn Maria of India, 112–113
bistrategic controllers, 274–275
black eagles, siblicide among, 110
black-legged kittwakes, siblicide among, 109
Blanc, Steven, 331
Bleak House (Dickens), 427
“Blood-Burning Moon” (Toomer), 423
Blood Meridian (McCarthy), 416
blue footed boobies, siblicide among, 108, 110
“Blue Laws,” 453–454
Boas, Franz, 347
bonobos
community social structure for, 32
intrasexual competition among, 159
LV in, 34
Born to Rebel (Sulloway), 113
brain imaging techniques, for MWH research, 298–299
Brave New World (Huxley), 421
broken window effect, 221
The Brothers Karamazov (Dostoevsky), 418, 422
Browne, Thomas, 132
Browning, Robert, 423
Bryan, William Jennings, 436
Buddhism, 456
bullying, among adolescents. See also intersexual bullying, in sexual relationships; intrasexual bullying; psychopathy, bullying and
as aberrant behavior, misconceptions about, 284
Action-Control theory for, 275
as adaptive behavior, 270–271, 283
adaptive social outcomes from, 273–274
by bully-victims, 274, 275–276
in Child Behavior Checklist, 271
classroom context for, 275
cultural differences in, historical data for, 283
in cultures of honor, 225
definition of, 270
formal schooling and, development of, 282–283
future research study for, 283–284
as heritable trait, 271
as heterogeneous behavior, 275
historical data for, 281–283
in hunter-gatherer societies, 279–281
incidence rates for, 270
intervention implications for, 283–284
moderators for, 274–276
in modern society, 271–276
of out groups, 273, 275
pathological perspectives on, 275
personality traits for, 276
psychopathy and, 281–282
resource control theory and, 271, 274–275
sex of victim and, 275
twin studies for, 271
bullying, by adults, 284
by parents, 284
bully-victims, 274, 275–276
burdensomeness, suicide and, 141, 147
contributions to others, self-perception of, 145
illness and, 144–145
interaction studies for, 142–145
KRP and, 142
maternal age and, 143–144
self-harm ideation and, 143
self-perceptions of, 141, 141–142
self-preservation motivations and, 145
social bonding and, 144
Burgess, Anthony, 415
Burmese Days (Orwell), 420
byproduct behaviors
from rape, 177, 178–179
from sexual homicide, 187
for sexual offenders, 190
byproduct hypothesis. See slip-up hypothesis, for uxoricide
C
Campbell, Anne, 303
Can American Survive? (Hagee), 474
cannibalism, 332
The Canterbury Tales (Chaucer), 423
capitalism
late marriage as influence on, 315–316
under moral-creator socioeconomic hypothesis, 436–437
Carrie (King), 426
“The Cask of Amontillado” (Poe), 426–427
Catch-22 (Heller), 418
Cather, Willa, 420, 423
Catholic Church
anti-Semitism in, 458
just wars for, 456–457
organized crime and, 458
support of Nazism in, 458
cats, animal cruelty toward, 260
cattle egrets, siblicide among, 110
The Causes of Rape (Lalumière/Harris/Quinsey/Rice), 180
Cavan, Ruth, 120
cave art, 342
Cavia aperea f. porcellus. See guinea pigs, sibling competition among
Cervus elaphus. See red deer
Chaney, Christian James, 457
chastity belts, 78. See also virginity, for women, in Bible
Chaucer, Geoffrey, 423
cheater strategies, 182
Child Abuse Potential inventory, 98–99
Child Behavior Checklist, 271
child development, violence and war and. See also adolescents; aggression; children; puberty
ancestral conditions and, 395–397
anxiety and, 401–402, 402
BSD theory for, 397–398, 398–399
depression and, 402–403
emotional security hypothesis for, 400
exposure to violence and, 393
exposure to war and, 393–394
future research study for, 406
during Holocaust, 400
inclusive fitness theory for, 394
insecure attachment in, 400–401, 399–401
LHT for, 395, 397–399
MHT in, 394
pair bonding and, 405–406
parenting and, 405–406
phenotypic inertia and, 400–401
plasticity of, 397–399
PTSD and, 394
puberty, timing of, 405–406
sexual behavior and, 405–406
time preference analysis for, 405–406
child homicide-suicide, 122. See also filicide; infanticide, among humans
evolutionary perspectives on, 126–127
in extended suicide, 122
genetic relatedness and, 122, 127
mental illness and, 122, 127
methods of, 122
by older parents, 122
reproductive fitness of offspring and, 127
as revenge, 122
(p. 528) child maltreatment. See also filicide
actuarial risk assessments for, 99
age factors for, 93
animal research for, 93
Child Abuse Potential inventory for, 98–99
dissociation as result of, 101
epigenetics and, 100
externalizing characteristics after, 92, 97–100
familicide and, 94
future research study for, 100–101
genetic studies for, 93
inclusive fitness theory and, 92
internalizing characteristics of, 92, 97–100
intervention strategies for, 98–99, 101
LHT and, 91, 96
longitudinal studies for, 93
marital disharmony and, 97
mental illness and, 97
molestation, 174
parental investment theory and, 91, 92, 96
parental solicitude and, 96–97
personal traits and, 97–100
resilience after, 100–101
risk assessment for, 98–99
sexual interference as, 174
sexual selection hypothesis for, 94, 94–95, 97
social learning bias and, 92
socioeconomic stressors for, 93
as spiteful strategy, 99–100
suicidal thinking and behaviors from, 137
therapeutic strategies for, 99
training and behavioral programs for, 99
withdrawn behaviors after, 92–93
child molestation, 174
children
animal cruelty by, as cruel play, 256, 256
genetic relatedness of, IPV and, 68
modeling of violence in, from parents, 310
parental conflict with, 414
in sibling conflict theory, 112
chimpanzees
boundary patrols by, 47
coalitional aggression among, 294
coalitional violence among, for resources, 8–9
coalition-building among males, 32–33
community social structure for, 32, 47
in comparative primatology, 342–344
core-area-competition hypothesis for, 53
female-female violence among, 53–54
ICEs among, 25
under imbalance-of-power hypothesis, for violent behaviors, 47
infanticide by, 31, 52, 52–53, 51–53, 53–54
intercommunity LV among, 31–32, 47, 46–48
intracommunity infanticide, 52
intrasexual competition among, 50–51, 158–159
male dominance hierarchies in, 306
male-female violence among, 50–51
male-male violence among, 48–50
non-transferring females, 51
patterns of violence among, 46–47
predation among, infanticide as, 52
reproductive access for, violence between males and, 49
ritualized fighting among, 25
sexual coercion among, between males and females, 51, 52–53
sexual selection by, infanticide as, 52
territorial security by, violence from, 47
transferring females, 51
violence in, 46–54
China
early religion in, 440
as world power, 443
Chopin, Kate, 420
Christianity, 456–457. See also Catholic Church
anti-Semitism and, 456
defeat of Communism by, 461
pacifist sects within, 457
Christocommunism, 461
Civil War, U.S., in literature, 429
civil wars, 353. See also intrastate armed conflicts
Clarissa (Richardson), 427
Clark, William, 372
claustration, 78
A Clockwork Orange (Burgess), 415
coalitional aggression, in animal models, 44–46
among African wild dogs, 45
among chimpanzees, 294
under game theory, 47–48
intergroup competition and, 45
among red colobus monkeys, 45
among spider monkeys, 45
among spotted hyenas, 45, 45–46
among wolves, 45
coalitional aggression, in males. See also male warrior hypothesis
in parasite-stress model of sociality, 367
coalitional lethal violence, among mammals, 28
coalitional violence, in animals, 8
among chimpanzees, 8–9
coalition-building
among human males, 32–33
among male chimpanzees, 32–33
coalition formation, in human tribalism, 291–292
coercive controllers, 274–275
coercive intersexual bullying, 277–279
bullies and, 278
as cuckoldry risk management, 278
by females, 278–279
relationship duration with, 277–278
sexual conflict theory and, 278
cognitive model, for suicidal thinking and behaviors, 134
cohabitation, IPV and, 68
Cohen, Zvi, 236
cohesion, in combat groups, 381–385
attributes of effective soldiers, 385
benefits of, 381–382
emotional bonds and, 381
hazing practices and, 383–384
hypermasculinity and, 383
loyalty and, 381
moral factors for, 381
as performance enabling, 382
psychological homogeneity in, 381
sexual integration and, 382–383
studies on, 382
trust and, 384, 383–385
in urban warfare, 382
in U.S. Air Force, 383
Cold War, 443
collectivism, 352
data methodology for, 356
ethnocentrism and, 362
in intrastate armed conflicts, 353
psychology of, 362–363
pursuit of conflict and, 363
colobus monkeys, intragroup antagonism among, 26
combat motivation
cowardice label and, 378
by gender, 378–379
personnel selection and, 378
Communism, Christianity's defeat of, 461
comparative primatology, 342–344
compartmentalization, animal cruelty and, 263
competition. See also male-male competition
definition of, 478–479
competitively disadvantaged males, 181–182
biological foundations for, 182
future research study for, 182
under micro-mate deprivation hypothesis, 181
neurological correlates for, 182
complementary socioeconomic security hypothesis, 438
complex hunter-gatherer societies, 341
concord, as lexical concept, 481–482
condition-dependence, in parasite-stress model of sociality, 364
confidence triggers, from anger, 201
conflict resolution
definition of, 478
IPV as influence on, 308
(p. 529) confluence model of sexual aggression, 179–180
correlates in, lack of, 180
early development of, 179
evolutionary perspectives in, 179
feminist theory, 179–180
limitations of, 179–180
male hostility in, 179
confrontation triggers, from anger, 201
Conrad, Joseph, 415, 419, 420, 421, 426
Contemporary Pathogen Severity Index, 355, 355–356
Global Peace Index and, 365
cooperative breeders, humans as, 199–200
core-area-competition hypothesis, female chimpanzees and, 53
corporate-consumer hypothesis, for religiosity, 453–454
coups, political, 353
data methodology for, 354
results predictions for, 359
Cousin Bette (Balzac), 423
cowardice, 378
Cowden, Jonathan, 319
Creamer, Winifred, 332
crime, violence and. See also rape
in U.S., statistics for, 3
Crime and Punishment (Dostoevsky), 418, 424
Croatian War of Independence, 165
Crocula crocuta. See spotted hyenas
Crow Creek site, 334, 334
cruel play, among children, with animals, 256, 256
cuckoldry, 13. See also paternity uncertainty, for males; reproduction, in humans
coercive intersexual bullying and, as risk management strategy, 278
cuckoldry risk hypothesis, 183–184, 184, 184
evolutionary considerations of, 64
FIPC and, 70–71
karo-kari and, 63
male-male competition and, 160
male responses to, 64
monitoring behaviors and, 65
post-detection behaviors, for males, 65–66
protective guarding behaviors against, 65–66
psychological insults as prevention strategy, 65
psychological mechanisms for reduction of, 65–66
punishment for, IPV as, 67
sexual jealousy as, among males, 65
in Talmud, 79
cuckoldry risk hypothesis, 183–184
female infidelity in, 184
tests for, 184
cultural violence, 309
patriarchy as foundation of, 309
culture. See also intercultural contact
animal cruelty and, typology for, 263
definitions of, 219
evolutionary effects of, 517
female aggression influenced by, 212
globalization as influence on, 218
low-level features of, 219
MWH influenced by, 294
rule of law and, 221, 221–222
violence and, 219
cultures of honor, violence in, 17
accidental deaths in, 226
aggressive defense of reputation in, 223
from bullying, 225
definition of, 223
depression rates in, 229
environmental conditions in, 230
field studies of, in U.S., 224–226
foundations of, 219–222
future research study for, 229–230
gender roles in, 223
gun control legislation in, 225
help-seeking behaviors in, 229
herding hypothesis for, 230
historical origins of, 222–223
intergenerational transmission of, 228–229
IPV in, 72, 225
lab studies of, in U.S., 226–228
legal permissiveness in, for homicide, 225
manhood in, 224, 223–224, 223–224
overview of, 218–219
pastoralism and, 230
patronymic naming in, 229
precarious manhood hypothesis for, 224, 223–224
realistic group conflict theory for, 220
regional differences in, 226–228
resource deprivation hypothesis and, 220, 220–221
restoration of reputation and, 221–222, 225
as retaliatory, 224–225, 225–226, 228
scarcity of resources in, 219–221
in school settings, 224–225
suicide rates in, 229
for terrorist acts, 225–226
among Ulster Scots, 222–223
Cummings, J., 473
Cummings, N., 473
cute factor, 262–263
D
Dacelo novaeguineae. See laughing kookaburras, siblicide among
Dagg, A.I., 474
Dante Alighieri, 417
Darwin, Charles. See also natural selection; sexual selection, in animals
evolutionary continuity for, 261
on evolutionary psychology, 4
Malthus as influence on, 508
on origins of human tribal nature, 291
Darwin and International Relations (Thayer), 307
date rape, 174
deCatanzaro, Denys, 140
Defoe, Daniel, 424
dehumanization, from ethnocentrism, 347
Deists, 442
DeLay, Tom, 473
deliberate deviance, animal cruelty as, 259, 264
deliberate self-harm (DSH), 138
Delphinidae. See dolphins
democracy. See also Western democracies, religiosity in
common assessment of, as political system, 311
in Islamic society, economic success from, 462
late marriage as influence on, 316
parasite-stress model of sociality and, 352, 356–357, 365–366
as response to patriarchy, 308
democratic peace theory, 316
De Palma, Brian, 415
depression
as adaptive value, 137–138
child development and, 402–403
in cultures of honor, 229
DSH and, 138
ethnic cleansing and, 403
low moods and, 138
suicidal thinking compared to, 135
suicide as byproduct, 137–138
de Rivera, Joseph, 478
desensitization thesis, 264
Deuteronomy, book of, virginity requirements in, 77–78
Deutsch, Morton, 477
developmentally disabled, sexual offending by, 186
pedophilia and, 186
dexamethasone suppression test (DST), 136
Dickens, Charles, 415, 420, 423, 424, 426, 427
Dipodomys spp. See kangaroo rats
direct aggression, among females, 272
direct sexual coercion, 188
dissociation, 101
animal cruelty and, 260–261
dolphins
infanticide by, 29
violence among, 28
domestic abuse. See intimate partner violence
domestication history, for animals, 261–262
domestic violence. See intimate partner violence
dominance hierarchies, female aggression within, 199. See also male dominance hierarchies
(p. 530) dominance hierarchies, male, in FEA, 306–307
domination and control hypothesis, 70
Dostoevsky, Fyodor, 418, 418, 422, 424
Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde (Stevenson), 415
The Dram Shop (Zola), 426
Dreiser, Theodore, 424–425
Durkheim, Emil, 235
dyadic aggression, in animal models, 44
among gelada, 44
among mandrills, 44
in red deer, 44
among yellow baboons, 44
E
Eagley, Alice, 302
early Hominids
cooperative social structures among, 34
LV among, 34–35, 40
NLV among, 34–35, 40
as peaceful, 33–34
primate methodology for, for assessment of violence, 40
violence in, 33–35
early humans
pair-bonding in social structures, 32
patrilineal society structures for, 32
educational settings. See schools
ego, in homicide-suicide, 125
egoistic suicide, 133
Einstein, Albert, 472
Eisenhower, Dwight, 472
elephant seals, 26–27
polygyny among, 157
Eliot, George, 422, 424
Ellis, Bret Easton, 415
embodied cognition, 494
emotions. See also affective aggression; anger; fear; frustration
aggression and, 200–201
function of, 65
low moods, 138
psychopathy and, 281–282
sexual jealousy as, among males, 65
emotional security hypothesis, 400
empathy bias, 263
empathy responses, by gender, 375–376
Empedocles on Etna (Arnold), 421
The End of the Age (Robertson), 473
epigenetics
for child maltreatment and filicide, 100
for suicidal thinking and behaviors, 136–137
equestrian hunter-gatherer societies, 341
error management theory, 384
An Essay on the Principle of Population (Malthus), 507, 521
essence, as concept, 345, 345–346
ethnic cleansing, 395
ancestral responses to, 396
depression and, 403
rape and, 403
ethnocentrism
collectivism and, 362
definition of, 347
dehumanization as result of, 347
as foundation for war, 347
parasite-stress model of sociality and, 351–352, 363
religious terrorism and, 361
Euripides, 420
European Homicide-Suicide Study (EHHS), 128
Evaristti, Marco, 259
evil
in literature, definition of, 415
wrong compared to, 82
evolutionarily stable strategy (ESS), 24–25
for sacred values, 248
evolutionary biology, 306
evolutionary consciousness, 506–507, 517–520
complicit behaviors and, 519
extended phenotypes and, 518
psychological inner struggle within, 520
evolutionary continuity
for Darwin, 261
in humane treatment of animals, 260–261
modern approaches to, 261
evolutionary game theory, 67
evolutionary marriage, 315
evolutionary peace project, 493–495
evolutionary psychology
of aggression, 200–204
behavioral justification through, as criticism, 4
Darwin on, 4
domain-specific information-processing mechanisms for, 4
environmental input and, 4
for fear, 4
fear stimuli in, 4
of female aggression, 200–204
future research applications in, 18–19
for gender behavior, 306
genetic determinism through, as criticism, 4–5
of male-male competition, 200–204
misconceptions about, 4–5
output predictions in, 4
overview of, 4
for peace, 19, 471–472
for religious terrorism, 249–250
stereotyping of, 475
as unifying approach to psychology, 4
violence against females and, male reproductive access and, 13
evolutionary theory
for aggression, 154, 198–200
for altruistic suicide, 139–140
for child homicide-suicide, 126–127
in confluence model of sexual aggression, 179
cultural effects on, 517
for female aggression, 198–200
for global conflict, 514–517
for homicide-suicide, 125–127
for intimate partner homicide-suicide, 126
for IPV, 64, 207–208
for male-male competition, violence and homicide from, 154, 154–156, 198–200
for paraphilias, 185
for paternity uncertainty, 64
for peace, 473–475
for psychology of law, 188
for psychopathic bullying, 282
for rape, costs and benefits of, 174–175
for religion, 235
for religious terrorism, 238, 249–250
for siblicide, 107
for social conflict, 514–517
structural patriarchy in, 311–312
suicidal thinking and behaviors and, 137
for suicide, as purposeful, 140–141, 141
for trust, in combat groups, 384
The Evolution of Human Sexuality (Symons), 174–175
exhibitionism, 174, 185
exhibitionistic suicides, 120
existential despair, in literature, 421
The Exploits of Prince Yamoto, 115
extended phenotype, 516–517
evolutionary consciousness and, 518
extended suicide, 122
F
facultative adaptation, 280
familial model, for suicidal thinking and behaviors, 134
familicide-suicide, 122–123. See also homicide-suicide; infanticide, among humans; intimate partner homicide-suicide; intimate partner violence; parricide; siblicide; uxoricide
economic demographics with, 123
from loss of control, 123
mental illness and, 123
methods for, 122–123
as murder by proxy, 123
as suicide by proxy, 123
(p. 531) families, violence within, 13–15. See also suicide
filicide, 14
kin selection theory and, 14
in literature, 422
between mothers and offspring, 14
parental investment theory and, 14
between siblings, 14
fantasy fiction, war in, 430
Far From the Madding Crowd (Hardy), 423
fascism, development of, 442–443
fast life history strategy, violence and, 16–17
Faulkner, William, 423
Fay Tolten site, 334
fear. See also impulsivity
avoidance triggers from, 201
behavioral freezing with, 202
evolutionary psychology for, 4
neural pathways for, 202
OT and, 210–211
provocation conditions for, 201
relationship establishment and, for females, 211
risk-taking and, among males, 203
sex differences in, 202–203, 211–212, 375
as survival response, 202
terrorism and, 234
females. See also armed forces, sexual integration of; female groups; female infidelity; feminism; violence, against females
aggressive behaviors by, 156, 200–201, 200–204, 375
chastity belts for, 78
coercive intersexual bullying by, 278–279
combat motivation for, 378–379
control of, as purpose of Bible, 83
empathy responses for, 375–376
facial masculinity in males for, 163
fear for, expressions of, 202–203, 211–212, 375
foot-binding of, 78
group attachment and, 380–381
group formation for, 380–381
heroic behavior by, 377
human nature for, 346
in hunter-gatherer societies, 303
impulsivity among, 203–204
infanticide by, in animals, 28
intergroup aggression among, 296, 298–299
intersexual bullying by, 277
intimate partner homicide-suicide by, 121
intrasexual bullying by, 272
intrasexual competition between, among humans, 12–13
late marriage for, 315
leadership issues for, of males, 385–386
legal protections for, in nation-states, 305, 305–306
in nomological theory of human nature, 346
nurturance responses for, 375–376
pain tolerance levels for, 374
in parental investment theory, 6
peace organizations under, 494
physical security of, in nation-states, 305, 305–306
rape and, U.S. statistics for, 3
relational aggression among, 12–13, 156
relationship establishment and, fear reduction in, 211
risk-taking by, 374–375, 376–377
sexual jealousy among, 65
siblicide by, 113
suicide by, 133
as symbol of peace, 372–373
valuation of, as offspring, 305
violence against intimate partners, 18–19
virginity for, in Bible, 77–78, 78–79
female aggression. See also anger; fear; impulsivity; indirect aggression, among females; monogamy; relational aggression, among females
as advantageous strategy, 198–199
age factors for, 205, 205–206
common stereotypes for, 197
costs of, 199
cultural influences on, 212
within dominance hierarchies, 199
evolutionary biology of, 198–200
evolutionary psychology of, 200–204
IPV and, 197, 207–211
legal ramifications of, 209
for male partners, 205
management of, 204–205
maternal, 206–207, 207, 212
OT influence on, 211
parental investment and, 198
as personal defense behavior, 205
physical, 205–206
relationship establishment and, fear reduction through, 211
for reproductive success, 198–199
resource competition and, 197, 198, 206
as self-defense behavior, inconsistency of, 209
sex ratios as influence on, 206
from sexual jealousy, 205, 208
social norms and, 209
target paradox for, in IPV, 210
female groups
formation of, 380–381
as hierarchy-averse, 380–381
ostracism in, 380
as talk-dependent, 380
female human nature, 346
female infidelity. See also cuckoldry; paternity uncertainty, for males
in the Bible, punishment for, 78
in cuckoldry risk hypothesis, 184
FIPC as response to, 71
indirect aggression and, 205
relational aggression and, 205
feminism
confluence model of sexual aggression and, 179–180
imagined kinship in, 249
nationalism and, conflicts with, 309
synthesized theory of rape and, 180
feminist evolutionary analysis (FEA), 302–306
evolutionary perspectives in, 304–305
gender ideology in, development of, 304
male dominance hierarchies in, 304
male-male alliances in, 303–304
parameters of, 302
patriarchy and, 302
patrilocality in, 303
reproductive control in, by males, 303
resource competition and, 304
feudal societies, siblicide in, 113
feuding, in prehistorical societies, 341
Fielding, Henry, 415
filicide, 14. See also infanticide, among humans
actuarial risk assessments for, 99
age factors for, 93
epigenetics and, 100
familicide and, 94
future research study for, 100–101
inclusive fitness theory and, 92
intervention strategies for, 98–99, 101
life history strategies and, 91, 96
in literature, 422
marital disharmony and, 97
maternal, 94–95
mental illness and, 97
by older adults, as homicide-suicide, 122
parental investment theory and, 91, 92, 96
parental solicitude and, 96–97
paternal, 93–94
perpetrators of, 93–97
sexual selection hypothesis for, 94, 94–95, 97
socioeconomic stressors for, 93
as spiteful strategy, 99–100
by stepparents, 95
Fitzgerald, F. Scott, 427
Flaubert, Gustave, 420, 422
food, access to, intrasexual competition for, between animals, 7–9
food amount hypothesis (FAH), 109
Football for Peace, 489
foot-binding, 78
(p. 532) forced in-pair copulation (FIPC), 70–71. See also partner rape
cuckoldry and, 70–71
female infidelity and, 71
rape as, 183–184
sexual jealousy and, among males, 70–71
sperm competition hypothesis for, 70–71
Ford, Ford Madox, 421
formal schooling, adolescent bullying and, 282–283
formative evolutionary environment (FEE), 302
Frankenstein (Shelley), 426
fratricide, 107
birth order and, among males, 114–115
in literature, 422
by males, 113
Frazer, James, 234–235
frotteurism, 174, 185
frustration
animal cruelty from, 256–257
in frustration-aggression hypothesis, for animal cruelty, 256
in stream analogy, 124–125
frustration-aggression hypothesis, for animal cruelty, 256
fundamentalism. See religious fundamentalism
G
Gadhafi, Moammar, 506
Galapagos fur seals, siblicide among, 111
Galsworthy, John, 421
Galtung, John, 308–309
on cultural violence, 309, 309
on structural violence, 308–309
game theory
coalitional aggression in animal models and, 47–48
evolutionary, for IPV, 67
uxoricide under, costs of, 69–70
Gaza War, 85
Gebusi tribe, 161
gelada, aggressive behaviors among, 44
gender. See also females; gender inequality; males
aggression by, 156, 200–201, 200–204, 375
birth sex ratios by, 317
combat motivation by, 378–379
in cultures of honor, 223
empathy responses by, 375–376
evolutionary psychology for, 306
fear and, aggression and, 202–203, 211–212, 375
group attachment and, 380–381
group formation and, 380–381
heroic behavior and, 377
as identity marker, 301–302
ideology, development of, 304
impulsivity and, 203–204
inequality, 305
intergroup aggression by, 296
intersexual bullying by, 277
intimate partner homicide-suicide and, 121
leadership issues and, 385–386
male surplus, from gender-based infanticide, 317–318
MWH and, study bias in, 294
in nation-states, treatment of, 302
in nomological theory of human nature, 346
nurturance responses by, 375–376
pain tolerance levels by, 374
parental investment theory by, 6
as primary formative fixed difference, 302
risk-taking by, 374–375, 376–377
sexual jealousy by, 208
siblicide by, 113
suicide by, 133
violence by, in animals, 6
war and, 15–16
gender equality, future enforcement of, 83
gender inequality, 305
cultural violence and, 309
structural violence and, 308–309
genetics
altruism and, 139
for anxiety, 401–402
bullying and, 271
child maltreatment and, studies for, 93
pleiotropy, 137
suicidal thinking and behaviors and, 135–136
genetic determinism
through evolutionary psychology, 4–5
suicide and, 135–136
genetic relatedness
child homicide-suicide and, 122, 127
IPV and, for children, 68
male-male competition and, 161
siblicide and, 114
gibbons
infanticide among, 30
LV among, 30
Gissing, George, 420
global conflict, as evolutionary process, 514–517
Global Infectious Disease and Epidemiology Network (GIDEON), 355
globalization
cultural conflict from, 236
culture influences of, 218
intercultural contact influenced by, 236
Global Peace Index, 355, 362
path analysis with, 357–358
pathogen severity and, 365
regression analysis with, 357
Goethe, Johann Wolfgang von, 132
The Golden Bough (Frazer), 234–235
Golding, William, 428
the good, in literature, 415
Goodall, Jane, 514
Goodman, Andrew, 457
“A Good Man Is Hard To Find” (O'Connor), 415
The Good Soldier (Ford), 421
Gopin, Marc, 249
gorillas
infanticide by, 31
intrasexual competition among, 158
LV among, 30–31
NLV among, 29–30
gossip, as indirect/relational aggression among females, 205, 273–274
Grand Gulch Caves, 331
The Grapes of Wrath (Steinbeck), 426
The Great Gatsby (Fitzgerald), 427
gross domestic product (GDP), 356, 357
group attachment, sex differences in, 380–381
group dynamics. See also cohesion, in combat groups; female groups; horizontal cohesion, in male bonding; in-group identification; intergroup aggression; male groups; out groups; vertical cohesion, in male bonding
in armed forces, 379–381
group attachment and, sex differences in, 380–381
group formation and, sex differences in, 380–381
MWH and, 379–380
under SSSM, 379
group formation, sex differences in, 380–381
guilt, in literature, 419
guinea pigs, sibling competition among, 108
Gulf War, 85, 247
gun control legislation, in cultures of honor, 225
H
Haas, Jonathan, 332
Hagee, John, 473, 474
Hajnal, John, 315
Hajnal-Hartman thesis, 314–316
democratic peace theory and, 316
evolutionary marriage and, modifications to, 315
late marriage in, 315–316, 315, 316
Hannagan, Rebecca, 303
Hardy, Thomas, 419, 421, 423, 426
Harris, G.T., 180
Hartman, Mary, 312, 315. See also Hajnal-Hartman thesis
hazing practices, in combat groups, 383–384
Heller, Joseph, 418
(p. 533) help-seeking behaviors, in cultures of honor, 229
Helsinki Birth Cohort, 405
herding hypothesis, 230
heroic behavior
gender and, 377
during Holocaust, 377
hierarchies. See also dominance hierarchies; male dominance hierarchies
in female groups, 380–381
higher-order theories of impulsivity, 203
“him or me” dilemma, 123
Hinduism, 456
Hippolytus (Euripides), 420
Hobbes, Thomas, 476
Hoffman, Bruce, 234
Holocaust
anxiety during, as trauma bundle, 402
child development during, 400
heroic behavior during, 377
Homer, 417, 422–423
homicide. See also male-male competition, violence and homicide from; sexual homicide; uxoricide
among Ache peoples, 396
as adaptive mechanism, 19
in cultures of honor, legal permissiveness for, 225
homicide-suicide compared to, 120
“hot-blooded,” 225
among Kung San peoples, 396
of non-virginal woman, in the Bible, 81–82
among Yanomamö peoples, 155, 396
homicide adaptation theory, 69, 72
homicide-suicide. See also intimate partner homicide-suicide; strain theory; stream analogy, for homicide-suicide
accidental, 121
classification system for, 120–121
declines in, 119
definition of, 118
demographics for, 120
ego in, 125
EHHS studies, 128
evolutionary perspectives on, 125–127
exhibitionistic suicides and, 120
fear of exposure and, 120
future research study for, 127–128
homicide compared to, 120
id in, 125
incidence rates for, 118–119, 118
in Japan, 119
mental illness and, 126
natural selection and, 125
nature of, 119–120
by older persons, 120
operational criteria for, 117–118, 119–120
parameters of, 117
as paranoia-based, 120
parricide and, 123
psychodynamic approach to, 125
psychological autopsy after, 128
reproductive fitness and, 125
social integration theory and, 125
stability of rates for, 119
suicide compared to, 120
superego in, 125, 125
as terrorist act, 120, 121
theoretical perspectives on, 123–127
theory-testing for, 127
in U.S., 119
Hominids. See early Hominids
honor killings, as IPV, 72
horizontal cohesion, in male bonding, 379
hostility, in confluence model of sexual aggression, 179
“hot-blooded” homicide, 225
The House of Mirth (Wharton), 420
Huckabee, Mike, 474
Huckleberry Finn (Twain), 427
human-animal bonds
altruism in, 261
as The Ancient Contract, 261–262
companionship benefits of, 261
domestication history for animals and, 261–262
empathy bias in, 263
evolutionary benefits of, 261–263
fitness benefits of, 261
pet-keeping, 262, 262–263
reciprocity in, 261, 261–262
humane treatment of animals, 260–261
Biophilia Hypothesis for, 260
as evolutionary continuity, 260–261
human nature, 344–346
biological philosophy and, 346
common characteristics as part of, 345, 346
essence as concept in, 345, 345–346
naturalness as concept in, 345
nomological theory of, 346,
parameters of, 348
human nature, war and, 346–348
biological traits for, 347
comparative primatology for, 342–344
ethnocentrism as foundation for, 347
evidence for, 348
nomological theory for, 346
as philosophical question, 339–340, 348
sexual dimorphism, 347–348
human sacrifice, in literature, 427–428
Hume, David, 348
hunter-gatherer societies
altruism through kin selection in, 281
animal cruelty in, 260
bullying among adolescents in, 279–281
childhood mortality in, 279–280
complex, 341
dominance establishment in, 280
equestrian, 341
facultative adaptation in, 280
female roles in, 303
indirect/relational aggression in, 280–281
intraspecific violence among, 440
mobility within, 280
patrilocality in, 303
religion in, 439–440
in Santa Barbara Channel area, 328
shamanism in, 439
socioeconomic conditions among, 439–440
tolerance setting for aggression in, 280
wars between, 340–341
hunting, animal cruelty and, 258
Hurston, Zora Neale, 423
Huxley, Aldous, 421
hypermasculinity, 383
hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, 136
I
id, in homicide-suicide, 125
Iliad (Homer), 417
imagined kinship, 249
in feminism, 249
in Islamic society, 249
through patriotism, 249
religion as, 249
imbalance-of-power hypothesis, for lethal violence, 28
among chimpanzees, 47, 47
immigration, intercultural contact and, 236
impulsivity
definition of, 203
higher-order theories of, 203
low-order theories of, 203
risk-taking and, among males, 203–204
sensation-seeking compared to, 203
sex differences in, 203–204
incest, 174, 186–187
avoidance of, as psychological adaptation, 186
kin detection deficiencies and, 187
pedophilia and, 186–187
as reproductive strategy, 187
“Incident at Owl Creek Bridge” (Bierce), 427
inclusive fitness theory, 92
for child development, 394
in contemporary environments, 145
direct tests of, 142
implications for, 146
interaction studies for, 142–145
limitations of, 145–146
in literature, 413
methodological limitations of, 146
for sibling competition, in animals, 108
(p. 534) sibling conflict theory and, 107
for suicide, 137, 140–141, 147
suicide intervention strategies as result of, 146
indirect aggression, among females, 12–13, 156, 205
through fidelity, 205
through gossip, 205, 273–274
in hunter-gatherer societies, 280–281
as intrasexual bullying, 272
through physical appearance, 205, 272
indirect sexual coercion, 188
individualism, 356, 362
infanticide, among humans
birth sex ratios and, 317
under Canadian Criminal Code, 94
in literature, 422
male coalition-building and, 33
male-male competition and, 161
male surplus as result of, 317–318
from mental disorders, 94
in sexual conflict theory, 188
by Yanomamö, 161
infanticide, in animals, 9
among apes, 35
among dolphins, 29
in female animals, 9, 28
by female chimpanzees, 53–54
by females, 28
among gibbons, 30
intracommunity, among chimpanzees, 52, 53–54
among languars, 28
as lethal aggression, 44
as LV, 28–29
by male chimpanzees, 31, 52, 51–53
by male gorillas, 31
as predation, 52
as reproductive strategy, 29
as sexual coercion, among male chimpanzees, 52–53
as sexual selection, by male chimpanzees, 52
sibling competition and, 109
by species males, 9, 29
infectious diseases, 367–368. See also pathogen exposure
Inferno (Dante), 417
infibulation, 78
infrahumanization, 296. See also ethnocentrism
Inglehart, Ronald, 311
in-group identification
religion and, 17–18
tribalism and, 292
war and, 16
inhibition failure, animal cruelty as, 259–260
insecure attachment, in child development, 399–401
emotional security hypothesis for, 400
intergenerational transmission of, 400–401
phenotypic inertia and, 400–401
instrumental aggression, 42
Insurance Egg Hypothesis, 109–110
intelligence quotient (IQ)
psychopathy and, 182–183
recidivism and, 183
intercommunity encounters (ICEs), 25
intercultural contact, 236–237
globalization's influence on, 236
hideous schizophrenia of, 236–237
immigration and, 236
stress systems as result of, 236
intergroup aggression, 292, 295–296. See also tribalism, among humans
for females, as research study, 298–299
future research implications for, 297–298
by gender, 296
interlocus sexual conflict, 188
international aid, factors for, 367
infectious diseases exposure, 367–368
intersexual bullying, in sexual relationships, 276–279. See also coercive intersexual bullying
antisocial behavior and, 279
in courtship, 277–278
definition of, 276–277
by gender, 277
pathways to, 279
private contexts for, 277
public contexts for, 277
sexual maturity and, 277
intersexual competition, in animals
among apes, as NLV, 29
among female chimpanzees, 50–51
sexual selection as, 5–6
intersexual competition, in humans. See also male-male competition, violence and homicide from
for reproductive access, 11–12
intersubjectivity, 494
intimate partner homicide-suicide, 121–122
common methods of, 121
as control mechanism, 126
dependence issues in, 126
evolutionary perspective for, 126
gender influences on, 121
mental illness and, 121–122
among older adults, 121
physical abuse history and, 121
as premeditated, 121
sexual jealousy as factor in, 122
socioeconomic stressors and, 121
intimate partner violence (IPV), 63–64, 66–71. See also cuckoldry; forced in-pair copulation; partner rape; paternity uncertainty, for males; punishment, IPV as; sexual coercion, IPV and; uxoricide
acts versus outcomes in, 209
alcohol use and, 66
anger in, 66
cohabitation as factor for, compared to marriage, 68
in cultures of honor, 72, 225
in evolutionary game theory, 67
evolutionary perspective for, 64, 207–208
female aggression and, 197, 207–211
female behavioral control and, 68
future research study for, 72, 212
honor killings as, 72
intrasexual competition and, 66
karo-kari, 63
male-male competition and, 161
male proprietariness and, 67–68
manifestations of, 68
minor versus severe acts of, 209–210
nation-state conflict resolution strategies and, influenced by, 308
nongenetic offspring as factor for, 68
paternity uncertainty and, 64–66
relationship counseling strategies for, 166
reproductive ability and, 72
sexual jealousy and, 66, 208
strategy of attack locations in, 72
victim demographics, 208
worldwide incidence rates for, 63
intimidation, by male chimpanzees, 51
intracommunity infanticide
by female chimpanzees, 53–54
by males chimpanzees, 52
intralocus sexual conflict, 188
intrasexual bullying, 271–273
for dating opportunities, 272, 273
as direct aggression, among females, 272
by females, 272
negative perceptions of, 273
resource control theory and, 271–272
for social acceptance, 272
intrasexual competition, between animals, 5–6
among apes, NLV in, 29
among Barbary macaques, 157–158
common behaviors in, 157
for food access, 7–9
among male primates, 157–159
reproductive access and, 7
severity of violence in, 7
intrasexual competition, between humans
for females, 12–13
IPV and, 66
for males, 11–12
for status, 12
intrasexual competition, in animals, 5–6
among apes, 158
among Barbary macaques, 157–158
among bonobos, 159
among chimpanzees, violence in, 50–51, 158–159
among Japanese macaques, 158
(p. 535) among male baboons, 158
among male orangutans, 158
among mountain gorillas, 158
intrastate armed conflicts, 352–353, 366
collectivism in, 353
data methodology of, 354
results predictions for, 358–359
xenophobic groups and, 352–353
intuitive theism, 243
Iraq War, 85
Islam, expansion of, 237
Islamic society
democratic secular governments in, 462
early development of, 237
imagined kinship in, 249
Muslim jihad and, 237, 237, 237
sharia in, 237
Israel, Two State Solution for, 85
J
Jackson, Shirley, 427–428
James, Henry, 420
James VI (King), 223
Japan. See also cultures of honor, violence in
homicide-suicide in, 119
Japanese macaques, 158
Jebel Sahaba cemetery, 10, 341
Jeffs, Warren, 516
Jewish Diaspora, 441
Jewish Underground, 236, 239
John Paul II (Pope), 458
Johnson, Gary, 249
Jonathan Wilde (Fielding), 415
Judah and Tamar, in the Bible, 78
Judaism
anti-Semitism, Christianity and, 456, 458
Jewish Diaspora, 441
Jude the Obscure (Hardy), 421
Julius Caesar (Shakespeare), 417, 425
just wars, 456–457
K
Kafka on the Shore (Murakami), 424
kangaroo rats, 26
karo-kari, 63
kashrut laws, 241
Kennewick Man, 327
Khar, Fahkra, 63
al-Khateeb, Hamza Ali, 507
kin detection deficiencies, incest and, 187
King, Stephen, 415, 422, 426
King Lear (Shakespeare), 422
King Solomon's Ring (Lorenz), 24
kin protection, male-male competition and, 159
kin reproductive potential (KRP), 142
kin selection theory, 14
self-destructive behavior under, 140–141
sibling conflict theory and, 107
suicide and, 140–141
Kony, Joseph, 458
Kook, Zvi Yehuda, 239
Korean War, 385
K-selected species, 164
Kubrick, Stanley, 415
Kung San peoples, 396
L
LaHaye, Tim, 474
Lalumière, M.L., 180
languars, infanticide among, 28
late marriage, 315–316
capitalism influenced by, 315–316
democracy influenced by, 316
evolutionary marriage compared to, 315
male control in, 315
laughing kookaburras, siblicide among, 110
lawlessness, broken window effect and, 221
law of divorce, in Bible, 79–80
alimony payments under, 79–80
causes under, for males, 80
law of jealousy, in Bible, 80
punishment under, 80–81
leadership issues, in armed forces
gender and, 385–386
stereotyping and, 386
type of, 386
Leahy, Michael, 372
Lebanon Wars, 85
legal execution, in literature, 427
Lehane, Dennis, 427
lethal aggression, in animal models, 44–46. See also coalitional aggression, in animal models; dyadic aggression, in animal models
future research study directions for, 55, 55
among primate social groups, 45
lethal violence (LV). See also homicide; infanticide, in animals
among apes, 30–33
among bonobos, lack of, 34
among chimpanzees, 31–32, 47, 46–48
coalitional, 28
among early Hominids, 34–35, 40
future research study for, 36
among gibbons, 30
among gorillas, 30–31
imbalance-of-power hypothesis for, 28
infanticide as, 28–29
among mammals, 27–28, 35
as natural behavior, 35
among social carnivores, 28
in stream analogy, 124
Leviathan (Hobbes), 476
Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE), 235, 246–247
Lieven, Anatol, 474
life history theory (LHT)
BSD theory and, 397–398
for child development, 395, 397–399
child maltreatment and, 91, 96
development period and, 162
fast life history strategy, violence and, 16–17
filicide and, 91, 96
for K-selected species, 164
male human development under, 162–164
male-male competition and, 161–165
parameters of, 162, 397
for religious terrorism, 242
reproductive tradeoffs, 162
for r-selected species, 164
socioeconomic factors in, 165
tradeoffs in, 397–398
trait organization in, 397
uncertainty responses in, 163–164, 164–165
for violence, 16–17
violent tendencies and, individual variations in, 164–165
war and, 165
literature, violence in. See also war, in literature
ancient Greek influences in, 417
in ancient literature, 10
biblical influences on, 417
from economic inequality, 426
emotional depiction of, 414
for ethnic/racial dominance, 426
evil in, 415
evolutionary perspectives on suicide in, 418–419
from existential despair, 421
against family members, 422
future research study for, 431–432
the good in, 415
from guilt, 419
as human sacrifice, 427–428
importance of, 416–418
inclusive fitness theories in, 413
interpretation in, 414
by legal execution, 427
between lovers, 423–424
meaning in, 414
from mental illness, 421
psychopathic cruelty in, 414–416
as reciprocation, 425–426
for revenge, 426–427
from sexual desire, 422–424
towards sexual rivals, 422–423
in Shakespearean works, 417, 420
social context for, 424–428
(p. 536) for social dominance, 425–426
from social failure, 419–421
sociopolitical context for, 416
suicide in, 132, 418–421
Little Bighorn, Battle of, 333
Little Dorrit (Dickens), 420
Livni, Menachem, 240
Lolita (Nabokov), 426
Lonesome Dove (McMurtry), 415
Lord of the Flies (Golding), 428
Lorenz, Konrad, 24
“The Lottery” (Jackson), 427–428
Love of Shopping is Not a Gene: Problems with Darwinian Psychology (Dagg), 474
low moods, 138
low-order theories of impulsivity, 203
loyalty, in combat groups, 381
M
Machiavellian Intelligence hypothesis, 292
Madame Bovary (Flaubert), 420
Maid in Waiting (Galsworthy), 421
Maimonides, 80–81
males. See also competitively disadvantaged males; cuckoldry; male bonding; male groups; male-male competition, violence and homicide from; male warrior hypothesis; manhood, in cultures of honor; paternity uncertainty, for males; young male syndrome
adrenarche for, 162
aggressive behaviors by, 156, 200–201, 200–204, 375
animal cruelty by, as masculine motivation, 257–258
under biblical law of divorce, 80
coalitional aggression in, 367
coalition-building among, 33, 32–33
combat motivation for, 378–379
in cultures of honor, 17
empathy responses for, 375–376
facial masculinity for, social perception of, 163
fast life history strategy for, 16–17
fear for, expression of, 202–203, 211–212, 375
female reproduction controlled by, 303
fratricide by, 113, 114–115
group attachment and, 380–381
group formation for, 380–381
heroic behavior by, 377
hostility towards women, in confluence model of sexual aggression, 179
human nature for, 346
impulsivity among, 203–204
infanticide by, from coalition-building, 33
infanticide by, in animals, 29
in-group distinctions between, 16
intergroup aggression among, 296
intersexual bullying by, 277
intersexual competition among, for reproductive access, 11–12
intimate partner homicide-suicide by, 121
intrasexual competition among, for reproductive access, 11–12
in late marriage, 315
leadership issues for, by females, 385–386
under LHT, 162–164
male-male competition as harmful, 157
in mate-deprivation hypothesis, 176
neuroendocrine system for, 162
in nomological theory of human nature, 346
nurturance responses for, 375–376
pain tolerance levels for, 374
in parental investment theory, 6
rape as sexual preference for, 178, 185
regional differences in aggression, for U.S. males, 226–228
resource attributes for, by age, 163
risk-taking by, 203, 203–204, 374–375, 376–377
sexual coercion by, in human reproduction, 303
sexual jealousy for, 65
sexual selection hypothesis for, violence and aggression in, 513–514
siblicide by, 113
social status development among, 162
in Sociosexual Orientation Inventory, 204
solidarity among, biblical enforcement of, 82–83
spousal aggression by, 156
suicide by, 133
surplus of, from gender-based infanticide, 318, 317–318
testosterone levels in, 162–163, 183
valuation of, as offspring, 305
violence against females, as learned behavior, 309–310, 310–311
violence against females, evolutionary psychology and, 13
violence by, in animals, 6
wars and, 15–16, 325
male bonding, 379
horizontal cohesion in, 379
vertical cohesion in, 379
male dominance hierarchies, 313–314. See also Hajnal-Hartman thesis
among animals, 306
contemporary influences of, 307
democracy as response to, 308
dysfunctionality of, 314, 317
in FEA, 304, 306–307
late marriage in, 315–316, 315, 316
mitigations of, 319
nationalism and, 309
out groups and, aggression towards, 307
patriarchy and, 306
polygyny in, 313
power-seeking in, 313
purpose of, 306
reinforcement of aggression within, 313–314
resource accumulation in, 317
violence against women in, 306–307
male groups
as activity-dependent, 380
formation of, 380–381
male human nature, 346
male-male alliances, 303–304
in social learning theory, 310–311
male-male competition, violence and homicide from. See also life history theory; male warrior hypothesis; manhood, in cultures of honor
as advantageous strategy, 198–199
aggression in, 153
in contemporary society, 153–154
in cycle of life, 153
early warfare and, 155
for elimination of sexual rivals, 159
evolutionary psychology of, 200–204
evolutionary theory for, 154, 154–156, 198–200
in foraging societies, 155
functions of, 159–161
future research study for, 166
genetic relatedness and, 161
as harmful to males, 157
with infanticide, 161
for kin protection, 159
for offspring care, resources for, 155
paternity uncertainty and, 160
phylogenetic patterns of, 156–159
poverty and, 165
in pre-industrial societies, 153
to prevent cuckoldry, 160
for reproductive selection, 154–155, 160, 161
for resources, 155–156, 160
for self-protection, 159
for social status, 160–161
socioeconomic factors for, 165
spousal homicide and, 161
for territorial access, 160
in uncertainty environments, 164–165
violence in, 153
during war, 165
male surplus, from gender-based infanticide, 317–318
violence increase as result of, 318
male warrior hypothesis (MWH), 291–297. See also band of brothers; male bonding
behavioral science evidence for, 294, 295
(p. 537) brain imaging techniques for, 298–299
cross-species research for, 298
cultural influences on, 294
evolutionary models of, 293–294
external threat and, protection behaviors towards, 293–294
future research study for, 298–299
gender bias in, 294
for group dynamics, 379–380
group-level selection in, 294
hierarchy preferences in, 297
historical data for, 294
infrahumanization under, 296
intergroup aggression in, 292, 295–296, 297–298
multilevel selection theory and, 293
neurobiological mechanisms for, 298
out group prejudice in, 296
parameters of, 293
parental investment theory and, 293
psychological mechanisms for, 295–297
reproductive benefits in, 294
risk contract hypothesis and, 293
social identity in, from tribe, 297
stereotyping in, 296
tribal politics in, support for, 297
Malthus, Thomas, 507, 521
Darwin influenced by, 508
mammals, violence among. See also specific mammals
coalitional lethal violence, 28
LV, 27–28, 35
NLV, 26–27
Manchester, William, 348
Mandela, Nelson, 458
mandrills, aggressive behavior among, 44
manhood, in cultures of honor, 223–224. See also male warrior hypothesis
under precarious manhood hypothesis, 224, 223–224
manipulators, 516–517
marriage. See also late marriage
evolutionary, 315
in Hajnal-Hartman thesis, 315–316
IPV and, compared to cohabitation, 68
late, 315–316, 315
patrilocality and, 312
sexual coercion within, incidence rates for, 70
under structural patriarchy, 312
Marshall, S.L.A, 348
masculinity
facial, for females, 163
hypermasculinity, 383
in precarious manhood hypothesis, 224
war and, 372
masked boobies, siblicide among, 108
mass homicide, suicide after, 121
mate-deprivation hypothesis, 175–177. See also competitively disadvantaged males
age of male as factor in, 176
cost-benefit approach to, 176
data support for, 180
individual differences within, 180–183
micro-mate deprivation hypothesis, 177, 181
in polygynous mating systems, 176
resource competition and, in animals, 176
sexual aggression and, 176–177
socioeconomic factors in, 176
young male syndrome and, 181
materialism, development of, 451
maternal aggression, 206–207
future research study for, 212
OT and, 207
in rat models, 206–207
maternal mortality, offspring survival rates and, 199–200
Maupassant, Guy de, 423
The Mayor of Casterbridge (Hardy), 419
McCain, John, 474
McCarthy, Cormac, 415, 416
McDermott, Rose, 319
McKinnon, S., 474
McMurtry, Larry, 415
McTeague (Norris), 424
McVeigh, Timothy, 458
meerkats, sibling competition among, 111
Melville, Herman, 427
Men Against Fire (Marshall), 348
Mencken, H.L., 475
mental health theory (MHT), 394
mental illness
child homicide-suicide and, 122, 127
child maltreatment and, 97
dissociation, 101
familicide-suicide and, 123
filicide and, 97
homicide-suicide and, 126
intimate partner homicide-suicide and, 121–122
in literature, 421
suicidal thinking and behaviors from, 134
mercy killing-suicide, 121
Of Mice and Men (Steinbeck), 427
micro-mate deprivation hypothesis, 177
competitively disadvantaged males under, 181
Middle East, political instability in, 83–85
Two State Solution for, 85
Middlemarch (Eliot), 424
Midianites, mass murder of, 81–82
Midrash Rabbah, law of jealousy in, 80, 80–81
Miller, Barbara, 307
Mirounga spp. See elephant seals
monogamy, 204
social, 204
Sociosexual Orientation Inventory and, 204
two-way sexual selection and, 204
moral-creator socioeconomic hypothesis, 436–437
capitalism under, 436–437
for U.S., 436–437
moral psychology, 364
Morrison, Toni, 422
mortality rates
economic inequality and, for males, 16–17
in hunter-gatherer societies, for children, 279–280
maternal, offspring survival rates and, 199–200
paternal, offspring survival rates and, 200
Moulay Ismail the Bloodthirsty, 198
Moyers, Bill, 474
Mrs. Dalloway (Woolf), 421
multilevel selection theory, 293
Murakami, Haruki, 424
murder by proxy, 123
murder-suicide, 117. See also homicide-suicide
Murdoch, Rupert, 454
Muslim jihad, 237
development of terrorism, periods of, 237
Al Qaeda and, 237
Muslim law. See sharia
Mystic River (Lehane), 427
myth of restraint, 24
N
Nabokov, Vladimir, 426
Napoleonic Wars, in literature, 429
National Counterterrorism Center (NCTC), 354–355
nationalism, patriarchy and, 309
feminist conflicts with, 309
nation-states. See also male dominance hierarchies
conflict resolution strategies, IPV as influence on, 308
cultural violence in, 309, 309
democracy in, development in, 308
gender treatment in, 302
legal protections in, for females, 305, 305–306
physical security of females in, 305
prohibition of polygyny in, 313
social diffusion theory for, 308
structural violence in, 308–309
Women and Peace Thesis for, 306
natural, as lexical term, 485–486
naturalistic fallacy, 263
natural selection
homicide-suicide and, 125
survivability compared to sexual selection with, 5
Nazca boobies, siblicide among, 109–110
(p. 538) Nazism
Catholic Church support of, 458
as Darwinian atheism, 436
theology-based racism and, 458
negative affect rituals, 244
Neo-Liberal Genetics (McKinnon), 474
nepotism, in parasite-stress model of sociality, 367
New Grub Street (Gissing), 420
9/11, spiritual rewards for terrorists after, 239
1984 (Orwell), 428
No Country for Old Men (McCarthy), 415
nomological theory, of human nature, 346
divisions by gender in, 346
limitations of, 346
war and, 346
non-lethal violence (NLV)
among apes, 29–30
among early Hominids, 34–35, 40
future research study for, 36
among gorillas, 29–30
intersexual, among apes, 29
intrasexual, among apes, 29
among mammals, 26–27
as natural behavior, 35
among orangutans, 30
with sibling conflict, 112
non-state wars, 353
data methodology for, 354
results predictions for, 359
nontheism. See atheism
nonviolence, as lexical concept, 482
Norris, Frank, 424
Norris, Pippa, 311
North America, wars in, 327–334. See also Northern Great Plains, warfare record in; Santa Barbara Channel area, warfare record in
historical record of, 327–328
Kennewick Man, 327
paleoclimate data in, 330, 331–332, 334
settlement data for, 326, 328, 330, 332–333
Northern Great Plains, warfare record in, 333–334
American Indian Wars, 333
Battle of Little Bighorn, 333
Battle of Wounded Knee, 333
Crow Creek site, 334
Fay Tolten site, 334
historical record for, 333
paleoclimate data for, 334
Nostromo (Conrad), 415, 421
nurturance responses, by gender, 375–376
O
Oates, Joyce Carol, 415
Obama, Barack, 474
Obama, Michelle, 460
obligate strategies, 182
O'Connor, Flannery, 415, 415, 415
The Odyssey (Homer), 422–423
Oedipus Rex (Sophocles), 419
The Old Curiosity Shop (Dickens), 415
older adults, homicide-suicide by, 120
as filicide, 122
by intimate partners, 121
Old Testament, slavery in, 459
Oliver Twist (Dickens), 426
One Day in the Life of Ivan Denisovich (Solzhenitsyn), 428
One Thousand and One Nights, 426
O Pioneers! (Cather), 423
orangutans
intrasexual competition among, 158
NLV among, 30
Oresteia (Aeschylus), 417
organized crime, Catholic Church and, 458
Orwell, George, 420, 428
ostracism, within female groups, 380
OT. See oxytocin
Othello (Shakespeare), 415
Othello Syndrome, 184
Our Mutual Friend (Dickens), 423
out groups
bullying of, 273, 275
infrahumanization of, 296
male dominance hierarchies and, aggression towards, 307
MWH and, 296
religion and, 17–18
religious terrorism against, 239
stereotyping of, under MWH, 296
tribalism and, psychology of, 292
war against, 16
overproduction of offspring, in animals
Insurance Egg Hypothesis for, 109–110
sibling competition from, 109
oxytocin (OT), 207
fear reduction and, 210–211
female aggression and, 211
P
pain tolerance levels, by gender, 374
paleoclimate data, in archaeological warfare records
for Northern Great Plains, 334
for Santa Barbara Channel area, 330
for Southwestern U.S., 331–332
paleopathology, 335–336
Palestine, Two State Solution for, 85
Palestinian Islamic Jihad, 238
Palin, Sarah, 460
paraphilias, sexual offending through, 174, 185–186
biastophilia, 174, 186
as courtship disorder, 185
evolutionary hypothesis for, 185
exhibitionism, 174, 185
frotteurism, 174, 185
pedophilia, 174, 186, 186, 186
rape as sexual preference, 178, 185
toucheurism, 185
voyeurism, 174, 185
parasite prevalence, violence and, 17
social cooperation and, 17
parasite stress
Contemporary Pathogen Severity Index for, 355, 355–356
data methodology for, 355–356
GIDEON, 355
religion and, 361
parasite-stress model of sociality
as casual-effect model, 364–365
coalitional aggression in, 367
collectivism and, 352, 353, 356
condition-dependence in, 364
control variables for, 356–357
coups and, 353, 354, 359
democracy levels and, 352, 356–357, 365–366
ethnocentrism and, 351–352, 363
future research study for, 368
GDP per capita variable, 356, 357
individualism and, 356, 362
intrastate armed conflicts and, 352–353, 353, 354, 358–359, 366
methodology for, 353–358
moral psychology in, 364
nepotistic adaptation in, 367
non-state wars and, 353, 354, 359
parameters of, 351
path analysis for, 357–358, 359–360, 365, 366
for peace, 353, 355, 359
political conflict under, causes of, 362
political instability and, 357
population size variable for, 356
proximate causes under, for political conflict, 364
pursuit of conflict under, 363
regression analysis for, 357, 358
results predictions for, 358–360, 364
revolutions and, 353, 354, 359
scientific foundations for, 362
warfare under, as adaptation, 363
within-state terrorism and, 353, 354–355, 359
world region as variable for, 357
xenophobia in, 352–353, 363
parents. See also child maltreatment; filicide; stepparents
bullying by, 284
burdensomeness and, maternal age, 143–144
child development and, 405–406
(p. 539) child homicide-suicide by, among older parents, 122
conflicts with offspring, 414
modeling of violence from, in children, 310
in parental investment theory, mothers and unborn offspring, 14
in sibling conflict theory, 108
violence and, mothers and offspring, 14
parental investment theory, 6
aggression and, 198
child maltreatment and, 91, 92, 96
filicide and, 91, 92, 96
by gender, 6
male control over female reproduction and, 303
mothers and unborn offspring under, 14
MWH and, 293
sibling conflict theory and, 108, 112
suicide attempts and, 138
parental solicitude, 96–97
parent offspring conflict theory, 108, 108
parricide, 123
“him or me” dilemma and, 123
in literature, 422
separation-individuation development conflicts and, 123
partner rape, 183–184
as adaptive behavior, 183
cuckoldry risk hypothesis for, 183–184, 184, 184
definition of, 174
psychopathy and, 183
pastoralism, 230
paternal mortality, offspring survival rates and, 200
paternity uncertainty, for males, 64–66
evolutionary considerations of, 64
male-male competition and, 160
monitoring behaviors and, 65
post-detection behaviors, for males, 65–66
protective guarding behaviors against, 65–66
psychological mechanisms for reduction of, 65–66
sexual coercion as response to, 70
sexual jealousy as, among males, 65
path analysis
with Global Peace Index, 357–358
for parasite-stress model of sociality, 357–358, 359–360, 365, 366
pathogen exposure
Global Peace Index and, 365
international aid and, as deterrent to, 367–368
warfare and, 363
patriarchal family law, 311–312
in contemporary society, 312
patriarchy. See structural patriarchy
patrilineal societies, female sexual repression in, 79
patrilocality, 303
in hunter-gatherer societies, 303
marriage and, 312
patriotism, through imagined kinship, 249
patronymic naming, in cultures of honor, 229
“Paul's Case” (Cather), 420
Paul VI (Pope), 458
Pax Chaco period, 332
peace
dynamical systems models for, 486
embodied cognition with, 494
evolutionary peace project, 493–495
evolutionary psychology for, 19, 471–472
evolution theory and, acceptance of, 473–475
females as symbol of, 372–373
framework for, 480
gender-neutral language for, 485
Global Peace Index for, 355, 357, 357–358, 362
Hobbesian approach to, 476
intersubjectivity and, 494
lexical issues for, 478–486
organizational levels for, 490–493, 491
organizations for, female leadership of, 494
parasite-stress model of sociality for, 353, 355, 359
perceptions of threats and, 472–478
positive peace processes, 482
regional variables for, 361
relevant ideology for, 472–473
Rousseau on, 476
simplicity in approaches to, 475–477
sustainability of, 495
systems of, 482
time scales for, 487–489, 488
peacemaking, 482
pedophilia, 174, 186
by developmentally disabled, 186
incest and, 186–187
personal strain, 124
Persuasion (Austen), 417
Peterson, Dale, 306
pet-keeping, 262–263
cute factor for, 262–263
as parental care, 262
Phèdre (Racine), 419
phenotypic inertia, 400–401
philosophy. See biological philosophy
physical abuse. See also child maltreatment
intimate partner homicide-suicide and, 121
physical security, of females
legal protections for, 305, 305–306
in nation-states, 305
Physical Security of Women scores, 305
Pichot, A., 474
The Picture of Dorian Gray (Wilde), 419
pigs, sibling competition among, 108
pleiotropy, 137
Poe, Edgar Allen, 426–427
political coups. See coups, political
political psychology, theories for, 307–309
conflict resolution strategies, influences on, 308
cultural violence, 309, 309
social diffusion theory, state security and, 308
structural violence, 308–309
political revolutions. See revolutions, political
polygynous mating systems
among elephant seals, 157
in male dominance hierarchies, 313
in mate-deprivation hypothesis, 176
prohibition of, nation-state formation and, 313
for reproduction, in animals, 157
warfare and, 313
polytheism, war and, 456
population profiles, 450
in archaeology, for warfare, 327
human violence and, 507–509
for rape, sex ratio as influence on, 188–189
religious terrorism and, high-fertility factors for, 250
for Santa Barbara Channel area, in archaeological warfare record, 329–330
“Porphyria's Lover” (Browning), 423
positive peace processes, 482
post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), 394
postviolence peacebuilding, 482
poverty, male-male competition and, 165
precarious manhood hypothesis, 223–224
masculinity and, violent displays of, 224
predation, 24
infanticide as, in chimpanzees, 52
prehistory, warfare in, 340–344
archaeological evidence for, 341
artistic support for, 342
comparative primatology for, 342–344
data interpretation dilemma for, 342–343
definition of war and, 341–342
feuding as, 341
forensic support for, 342
between hunter-gatherer societies, 340–341
small-scale raiding as, 341, 343
Presbytis spp. See languars, infanticide among
Pride and Prejudice (Austen), 417
primates. See apes; chimpanzees; gorillas; specific species
The Prime Minister (Trollope), 420
Primitive War (Turney-High), 348
The Princess Casamassima (James), 420
process-tracing, in Women in Peace Thesis, 317, 317–318
criticism of, 318
pronghorn antelope, 27
psychological autopsy
after homicide-suicide, 128
after suicide, 135
psychology. See also evolutionary psychology; political psychology, theories for; social learning theory
evolutionary approach to, 4
moral, 364
social, 301–302
of tribalism, for out groups, 292
in Women and Peace Thesis, 311
psychology of law, for sexual offending, 188
evolutionary perspectives in, 188
for rape, 188
Psychology's War on Religion (Cummings/Cummings), 473
psychopathic cruelty, in literature, 414–416
psychopathy, bullying and, 276
emotional expression and, 281–282
evolutionary development of, 282
historical data for, 276, 281–282
psychopathy, sexual offending and, 182–183
antisocial behavior and, 182
as cheater strategy, 182
heritable coefficients for, 183
IQ and, 182–183
neurological correlates for, 183
as obligate strategy, 182
partner rape and, 183
puberty, timing of, 405–406
violent behaviors and, 511–512
Pueblo peoples, war among, 331
punishment, IPV as, 66–67
from cuckoldry, 67
in evolutionary game theory, 67
for female infidelity, in the Bible, 78
severity of, seriousness of offense and, 67
Pure Society: From Darwin to Hitler (Pichot), 474
Q
Al Qaeda, 237
Quinsey, V.L., 180
Quran, slavery in, 459
Qutb, Sayyid, 236, 239
R
Rabin, Itzhak, 493
Racine, Jean, 419
Rantisi, Abdul Aziz, 238
rape. See also biastophilia; confluence model of sexual aggression; forced in-pair copulation; mate-deprivation hypothesis; partner rape; sexual coercion, IPV and
acquaintance rape, 174
as adaptation, 175
byproduct behaviors from, 177, 178–179
costs and benefits of, under evolutionary perspective, 174–175
date rape, 174
early evolutionary accounts of, 174–175
for establishment of relationship, 184
ethnic cleansing and, 403
false explanations for, 180
FIPC and, 183–184
integrated models for, 179–180
during Iraq War, 82
legal definitions of, in U.S., 173, 174
personal relationships and, 183–185
prevalence of, variations of, 188–189
psychology of law for, 188
sex ratio of populations and, 188–189
sexual arousal during, 177–178
as sexual coercive behavior, 178
sexual jealousy and, 184–185
as sexual preference, among males, 178, 185
sexual selection and, for reproduction, 175
synthesized theory of, 180
in U.S., statistics for, 3, 70
rat models, for maternal aggression, 206–207
realistic group conflict theory, 220
recidivism, IQ and, 183
reciprocity
as The Ancient Contract, 261–262
evolution of, 515
in human-animal bonds, 261
reconciliation, 485
red colobus monkeys, coalitional aggression among, 45
red deer, 27
dyadic aggression in, 44
Reformed Zionism. See Two State Solution
Regan, Tom, 261
regression analysis, for parasite-stress model of sociality, 357, 358
relational aggression, among females, 12–13, 156, 205
through fidelity, 205
through gossip, 205, 273–274
in hunter-gatherer societies, 280–281
as intrasexual bullying, 272
through physical appearance, 205, 272
relationship counseling, for IPV, 166
religion. See also atheism; the Bible; Buddhism; Catholic Church; Christianity; Hinduism; Islam, expansion of; Midrash Rabbah, law of jealousy in; moral-creator socioeconomic hypothesis; polytheism, war and; religious fundamentalism; religious terrorism; sacred values; Talmud; Western democracies, religiosity in
adaptability of, 239, 247–248
adaptive benefits of, 241
during adolescence, 245–246
afterlife in, in early agricultural societies, 440
animal abuse and, 255
animal cruelty and, 255
belief in supernatural agents in, 243–244
communal participation in, 241–243
conflict identification within, 238
counterintuitive concepts in, 243
definitions of, 234–235
demands on faithful, 241–242
in early agricultural societies, 440–442
in early China, 440
essentialist perspective on, 235
evolutionary development of, 235
extension of community from, 239–240
fundamentalism in, 241–242
generational reinterpretation of, 239
group identity through, 245
hierarchy of ideas in, 247
among hunter-gatherers, 439–440
as imagined kinship, 249
inflexibility of, as popular misconception, 247–248
in-group identification and, 17–18
in literature, declines in, 444
moral justification from, 238–239
mythology in, 240
negative affect rituals and, 244
out groups and, 17–18
parasite stress and, 361
recurrent features of, 235
rites of passage in, for adolescents, 246
ritual as feature of, 235, 240, 239–240
the sacred in, creation of, 244
signaling models for, 241
slavery and, 442, 457
social bonding through, 240
spiritual rewards from, 239
superficiality of, 455
symbolism of, 240
violence and, 17–18, 455–462
in Western democracies, declines in, 444–445
after World War I, 435–436
religiosity. See also religious terrorism; Western democracies, religiosity in
complementary socioeconomic security hypothesis and, 438
(p. 541) corporate-consumer hypothesis for, 453–454
definitions of, 438–439
in early agricultural societies, 440–442
in early China, 440
global declines in, 446
grading of, 438–439
among hunter-gatherers, 439–440
noninternal nature of, 451–452
nonuniversality of, 451–452
science and technology and, 451
slavery and, 442, 457
social regulation through, 437
societal conditions and, 437–438
socioeconomic dysfunctionality hypothesis and, 438
in U.S., declines in, 445–446
violence and, 455–462
religious fundamentalism, 241–242
definition of, 241
exposure to secular values and, 241
multiculturalism as influence on, 241
resource competition as result of, 241–242
signaling theory for, 241–242
religious terrorism. See also sacred values
adaptability of, 239
among adolescents, 246
for adolescents, belief transmission for, 245–246
in Africa, 458
benefits to kin through, 242
conflict identification in, 238
contemporary, 236–237
definition of, 234, 235–236
ethnocentrism and, 361
evolutionary perspectives for, 238, 249–250
extension of community from, 239–240
future research study on, 249–250
group identity through, 245
in high-fertility populations, 250
increase in, 233
LHT for, 242
moral justification from, 238–239
by Muslim jihad, 237, 237, 237
mythology for, 240
through negative affect rituals, 244
out group conflicts and, 239
perpetrators of, demographics for, 237–240
political motivations of, 235–236
purpose of, 233–234
as ritual performance, 235, 240, 239–240
the sacred for, creation of, 244
sacrifice of youth as symbol of, 242
social bonding through, 240
social status inconsistencies as factor in, 238
spiritual rewards through, 239, 242–243, 243–244
symbolism of, 240
Renaissance period wars, in literature, 428
reproduction, among animals. See also polygynous mating systems
aggression and, 43
among chimpanzees, violence between males, 49
female aggression and, 198–199
incest strategies, 187
infanticide as strategy for, 29
intersexual competition and, among female chimpanzees, 50–51
intrasexual competition for, violence in, 7
in polygynous species, 157
self-destructive behavior and, evolutionary purpose of, 140–141
sexual coercion for, between males and female chimpanzees, 51
reproduction, in humans. See also cuckoldry; monogamy
cooperative breeding and, 199–200
facial masculinity and, female perception of, 163
in FEA, 303
homicide-suicide and, 125
intersexual competition for, in males, 11–12
intrasexual competition for, in females, 12–13
intrasexual competition for, in males, 11–12
IPV and, 72
male control over, 303
male-male competition for, 154–155, 160, 161
under MWH, 294
in parental investment theory, 303
rape and, 175
sexual coercion in, by males, 303
siblicide and, 114
status and, 12
suicide and, hypothesis for, 15
violence against females and, evolutionary psychology and, 13
violence and, as catalyst for, 11–13
reproductive tradeoffs, 162
reputation, in cultures of honor
aggressive defense of, 223
restoration of, 221–222, 225
resilience, after child maltreatment, 100–101
Resisting the Green Dragon, 473
resource competition
bullying and, 271
among chimpanzees, coalitional violence in, 8–9
FEA and, 304
female aggression and, 197, 198, 206
for food supplies, 7–9
intrasexual bullying and, 271–272
in male dominance hierarchies, 317
between males, 155–156, 160
in mate-deprivation hypothesis, among animals, 176
reproductive access as, 7
ritualized fighting and, 25
siblicide as result of, 108
resource control theory, bullying and, 274, 274–275
bistrategic controllers in, 274–275
coercive controllers in, 274–275
intrasexual bullying, 271–272
resource deprivation hypothesis, 220, 220–221
in realistic group conflict theory, 220
resource-holding potential (RHP), 43
retaliatory violence, in cultures of honor, 224–225, 225–226, 228
for terrorist acts, 225–226
revenge
child homicide-suicide as, 122
in literature, 426–427
murder by proxy and, 123
by Yanomamö peoples, violence as, 329
revolutions, political, 353
data methodology for, 354
results predictions for, 359
Rice, M.E., 180
Richard III (Shakespeare), 415–416
Richardson, Samuel, 427
risk contract hypothesis, 293
risk-taking
gender differences in, 374–375, 376–377
by males, 203, 203–204, 374–375
Riss, Linda, 63
rituals
negative affect, 244
in religion, 235, 240, 239–240
religious terrorism as, 235, 240, 239–240
ritualized fighting, 24–25
as ESS, 24–25
among male chimpanzees, 25
resource competition and, 25
among sierra dome spiders, 25
Robertson, Pat, 473
Robinson Crusoe (Defoe), 424
“A Rose for Emily “(Faulkner), 423
Rosen, Stephen, 313–314
Rousseau, Jean Jacques, 476
r-selected species, 164
rule of law, violence and, 221–222
broken window effect and, 221
strong state development and, 221
Rushdie, Salman, 236–237
S
Sacagawea, 372
sacred values
during adolescence, 245–246
for adolescents, belief transmission for, 245–246
compromise over, responses to, 245
in conflict resolution, 248
(p. 542) creation for, 244–245
emotional significance of, 244
ESS approach to, 248
future research study on, 250
group identity through, 245
as physical space, 244
sacrifice from commitment to, 245
Sade, Marquis de, 415
sadism, 174
Sageman, Marc, 237
Sakharov, Andrei, 461
Salammbô (Flaubert), 422
San Suu Kyi, 461
Santa Barbara Channel area, warfare record in, 328–330
craft specialization and, 330
hunter-gatherer societies in, 328
paleoclimate data, 330
population profiles in, 329–330
resource shortage assessment in, 330
settlement data for, 328, 330
severe injury data for, 328–329
weaponry in, 329, 330
The Satanic Verses (Rushdie), 236–237
schools
formal development of, adolescent bullying and, 282–283
violence in, 224–225
Schwerner, Michael, 457
science and technology, religiosity and, 451
science fiction, war in, 430
The Secret Agent (Conrad), 420, 426
secular terrorism. See terrorism, secular
selection bias, 135
self-destructive behavior, evolutionary purpose of, 140–141. See also burdensomeness
burdensomeness and, 141, 141–142
reproductive fitness and, 140–141
self-harm. See also self-destructive behavior, evolutionary purpose of
burdensomeness and, 143
DSH, 138
in literature, 418–421
suicide and, 15
self-preservation motivations, 145
self-protection, male-male competition and, 159
sensation-seeking, impulsivity compared to, 203
serotonin, suicide and, 136
settlement data, 326
for Santa Barbara Channel area, 328, 330
for Southwestern U.S., 332–333
sexual abuse, as legal term, 173. See also incest; pedophilia
sexual aggression, 173. See also confluence model of sexual aggression
definition of, 173
mate-deprivation hypothesis and, 176–177
sexual assault, as legal term, 174
sexual homicide and, 187
sexual behavior, child development and, 405–406
sexual coercion. See also coercive intersexual bullying; forced in-pair copulation; partner rape; rape
as adaptive behavior, 513
among chimpanzees, 51
direct, 188
in human reproduction, by males, 303
indirect, 188
infanticide as, among chimpanzees, 52–53
rape and, 178
sexual offending compared to, 173
sexual coercion, IPV and, 70. See also coercive intersexual bullying; forced in-pair copulation; partner rape; rape
in domination and control hypothesis, 70
in marriage, incidence rates for, 70
paternity uncertainty and, 70
sperm competition hypothesis for, 70
sexual conflict theory, 187–188
coercive intersexual bullying and, 278
direct coercion in, 188
indirect coercion in, 188
infanticide in, 188
interlocus conflict in, 188
intralocus conflict in, 188
sexual dimorphism, 303
in human nature, war and, 347–348
sexual disorders, 185–187
in sexual offenders, 191
sexual harassment, 276
sexual homicide, 187. See also intimate partner homicide-suicide; intimate partner violence; uxoricide
as byproduct behavior, 187
sexual assault and, 187
victim demographics, 187
sexual interference, 174
sexual jealousy. See also law of jealousy, in Bible
female aggression from, 205, 208
among females, 65
FIPC and, among males, 70–71
by gender, 208
intimate partner homicide-suicide from, 122
IPV and, 66, 208
in literature, 422–423
among males, 65
Othello Syndrome, 184
rape and, 184–185
sexual offenders. See also developmentally disabled, sexual offending by
as adaptive behavior, 190
assessment of, 189
as byproduct behavior, 190
through mating efforts, 190
as opportunistic, 190
prevention strategies for, 189
sexual disorders among, 191
treatment strategies for, 189
typology of, 190–191, 190
sexual offending. See also competitively disadvantaged males; forced in-pair copulation; incest; paraphilias, sexual offending through; partner rape; psychopathy, sexual offending and; rape; sexual coercion; sexual homicide
acquaintance rape, 174
child molestation, 174
in contemporary period, 180–188
date rape, 174
definition of, 173–174
by developmentally disabled, 186
in early periods, 174–180
incest, 186–187
integrated models for, 179–180
overview of, 173–174
through paraphilias, 185–186
psychology of law for, 188
sexual abuse, 173
sexual acts in, 173
sexual aggression in, 173, 173
sexual assault, 174
sexual coercion compared to, 173
in sexual conflict theory, 187–188
through sexual disorders, 185–187, 191
sexual interference, 174
under Standard Social Sciences Model, 174
three-path model for, 183
victimization rates for, 174
young male syndrome and, 181, 181, 181, 181
sexual selection, in animals, 5–6. See also intrasexual competition, between animals
infanticide as, by male chimpanzees, 52
intersexual competition in, 5–6
survivability compared to, 5
sexual selection hypothesis
for child maltreatment and filicide, 94, 94–95, 97
for rape, 175
for violence and aggression, in males, 513–514
Shakespeare, William, 415, 415–416, 417
violence in works of, 417, 420, 422, 425, 427
shamanism, among hunter-gatherers, 439
sharia (Muslim law), 237
Sheehan, Michael, 238
Shelley, Mary, 426
Shimkus, John, 473
The Shining (King), 422, 426
siblicide
age disparity between siblings, 114
among animals, 109–111
birth order as influence on, 113–114
(p. 543) in Bison Horn Maria of India, 112–113
among black eagles, 110
among black-legged kittwakes, 109
among blue footed boobies, 108, 110
as brood reduction, in animals, 109
among cattle egrets, 110
cultural myths about, 112
evolutionary perspectives on, 107
factors for, 113–115
in feudal societies, 113
fratricide, 107, 113
future research study on, 115
among Galapagos fur seals, 111
by gender, 113
genetic relatedness and, 114
historical examples of, 107
in humans, 112–113
incidence rates for, 107
among laughing kookaburras, 110
in literature, 422
among masked boobies, 108
among Nazca boobies, 109–110
parent offspring conflict theory for, 108, 108
proximity factors for, 112
reproductive fitness and, 114
from resource competition, 108
from sibling competition in animals, 108
sibling conflict theory for, 107–108
sororicide, 107
among spotted hyenas, 111
suicide after, 123
in U.S., incidence rates for, 112
sibling competition, in animals, 108–111
FAH for, 109
among guinea pigs, 108
inclusive fitness theory for, 108
infanticide and, 109
among meerkats, 111
overproduction of offspring and, 109
among pigs, 108
for resources, 108
siblicide as result of, 108
sibling conflict theory, 107–108, 112
age differences among siblings, 112, 114
birth order in, 107
children's perceptions of conflict, 112
conflict of interests in, 107
inclusive fitness theory and, 107
kin selection theory and, 107
NLV and, 112
parental investment theory and, 108, 112
parent offspring conflict theory and, 108
siblings, violence between, 14, 106
historical examples of, 107
parent offspring conflict theory for, 108
sibling conflict theory for, 112
sierra dome spiders, ritualized fighting among, 25
signaling theory, 241–242
Sinai War, 85
Singer, Peter, 261
Six-Day War, 85
slavery, religiosity and, 442, 457
in Old Testament, 459
in Quran, 459
slip-up hypothesis, for uxoricide, 69
small-scale raiding, in prehistorical societies, 341
comparative primatology for, 343
by Yanomamö people, 343–344
Smuts, Barbara, 302, 306. See also feminist evolutionary analysis
social bargaining model, suicide attempts and, 139
social bonding, burdensomeness and, 144
Social Brain hypothesis, 292
social carnivores, lethal violence among, 28
social conflict, as evolutionary process, 514–517
social diffusion theory, state security and, 308
social failure, in literature, 419–421
Social Glue hypothesis, 292
social integration theory, 125
social learning theory, 309–311
biological basis for aggression in, 309
immediate reinforcement in, 310
male-male alliances in, 310–311
modeling in, 310
violence as learned behavior, 309–310, 310–311
social monogamy, 204
social navigation hypothesis, 139
social psychology, 301–302
social status. See also reputation, in cultures of honor
male-male competition for, 160–161
for males, development of, 162
religious terrorism and, 238
social status, among animals, aggressive behavior and, 43
socioeconomic dysfunctionality hypothesis, 438
socioeconomic security hypothesis, 452–453
Sociosexual Orientation Inventory, 204
Soloveitchik, Joseph, 248
Solzhenitsyn, Alexandr, 428
The Song of Roland, 428
Sophie's Choice (Styron), 422
Sophocles, 419, 419
sororicide, 107
in literature, 422
Southwestern U.S., warfare record in, 330–333
cannibalism in, 332
Grand Gulch Caves, 331
osteological record of violence in, 331
paleoclimate data, 331–332
Pax Chaco period, 332
among Pueblo peoples, 331
settlement data for, 332–333
severity of violence in, 333
skeletal injury assessment, 333
Soviet Union. See also Communism, Christianity's defeat of
atheism in, 442
Cold War and, 443
sperm competition hypothesis, 70
for FIPC, 70–71
spider monkeys, coalitional aggression among, 45
spiteful strategy, in child maltreatment and filicide, 99–100
spotted hyenas
coalitional aggressive behaviors among, 45, 45–46
siblicide among, 111
spousal aggression, 156
“Spunk” (Hurston), 423
Standard Social Sciences Model (SSSM), 174
mixed sex groups under, 379
Stanford prison experiment, 294
status, reproductive access and, 12
Steinbeck, John, 426, 427
Stendahl, 427
stepparents
filicide by, 95
homicide-suicide by, 127
stereotyping
of evolutionary psychology, 475
of female aggression, 197
leadership and, in armed forces, 386
in MWH, 296
Stevenson, Robert Louis, 415
strain theory, 124
aggression in, origins of, 124
for animal cruelty, 264
anomie in, response to, 124
as personal versus social, 124
violence as responsive behavior in, 124
stream analogy, for homicide-suicide, 124–125
for aggressive behaviors, 124
frustration as propulsive emotion in, 124–125
LV in, 124
stress systems, intercultural contact and, 236
structural patriarchy, 311–312
cultural pervasiveness of, 311
cultural violence and, 309
democracy as response to, 308
in evolutionary theory, 311–312
family law under, 311–312, 312
FEA and, 302
as learned behavior, 307
male dominance hierarchies and, 306
marriage arrangements under, 312
nationalism and, 309
patrilocality and, 303, 303, 312
structural violence, 308–309, 480–481
(p. 544) Styron, William, 422
suicidal thinking and behaviors, 133. See also burdensomeness
adoption studies for, 136
child abuse history and, 137
cognitive model for, 134
depression compared to, 135
diagnostic criteria for, 135
DST for, 136
epigenetics and, 136–137
evolutionary significance of, 137
familial model for, 134
future research study on, 147–148
gene identification for, 136, 137
genetic foundations for, 135–136
HPA axis research and, 136
inclusive fitness theory for, 137, 140–141, 147
measurement variables for, 134–135
mental illness as risk factor, 134
neurochemical correlates for, 136–137
patient status as influence on, 134–135
proximate factors in, 133–134
psychological autopsy methods and, 135
from psychological disturbances, 134–135
selection bias in assessment of, 135
twin studies for, 135–136
suicide, 14–15. See also burdensomeness; child homicide-suicide; familicide-suicide; homicide-suicide; intimate partner homicide-suicide
adoption studies for, 136
age factors for, 133
alternative approaches to, 147
altruistic, 133, 139–140
anomic, 133–134
burdensomeness and, 141, 141–142
as byproduct of depression, 137–138
child abuse history and, 137
classification of, difficulties with, 132–133
in cultures of honor, 229
as desire, 142
egoistic, 133
epigenetics and, 136–137
as evolved response, 139–141
exhibitionistic, 120
extended, 122
after familicide, 94
future research study on, 147–148
by gender, 133
gene identification for, 136, 137
genetic foundations for, 135–136
historical references to, 132
homicide-suicide compared to, 120
HPA axis research and, 136
inclusive fitness theory for, 137, 140–141, 147
intervention strategies for, 146
kin selection theory and, 140–141
in literature, 132, 418, 418–419
after mass homicide spree, 121
mercy killing and, 121
nature of, 132–133
neurochemical correlates for, 136–137
reproductive hypothesis for, 15
as self-destructive behavior, evolutionary purpose of, 140–141, 140–141, 141
self-harm and, 15
serotonin levels and, 136
after siblicide, 123
twin studies for, 135–136
universality of, 133
in U.S., statistics for, 3, 133
suicide attempts
birth order and, 139
DSH and, 138
emotional purposes of, 138–139
for leverage of parental investment, by adolescents, 138
leveraging hypothesis and, 139
selective value of, 138
social bargaining model and, 139
social navigation hypothesis and, 139
suicide by proxy, 123
suicide genes, 136, 137
Sula dactylatra. See masked boobies, siblicide among
Sulloway, Frank, 107, 113
Sumner, William Graham, 347
superego, in homicide-suicide, 125, 125
Suricata suricatta. See meerkats, sibling competition among
survivability, sexual selection compared to, 5
Symons, D., 174–175
sympathetic nervous system, during anger, 202
synthesized theory of rape, 180
systems of peace, 482
T
A Tale of Two Cities (Dickens), 424
Talmud
cuckoldry in, 79
law of jealousy in, 80, 80–81
target paradox, in IPV, 210–211
female aggression in, 210
Taylor, Charles, 458
The Tea Party, 462
10 Books That Screwed Up the World (Wiker), 476–477
territorial access, animal aggression and, 43
male-male competition and, 160
terrorism, secular, 246–247. See also religious terrorism
as asymmetric, 361
civilian victims as focus of, 234
core features of, 246–247
against cultures of honor, retaliatory violence by, 225–226
definition of, 234, 355
fear as motivation for, 234
homicide-suicide from, 120, 121
by LTTE, 235, 246–247
political motives of, 234
violent features of, 234
within-state, 353, 354–355
Tess of the d'Urbervilles (Hardy), 426
testosterone production, in males, 162–163, 183
in non-industrialized nations, 164
Thackeray, William Makepeace, 415
Thayer, B., 307
theism. See religion; religiosity
Thérèse Raquin (Zola), 419
Theropithecus gelada. See gelada, aggressive behaviors among
Things Fall Apart (Achebe), 420
Through a Window (Goodall), 514
time preference, child development and, 405–406
Tobach, Ethel, 478
Tolstoy, Leo, 417–418
Toomer, Jean, 423
toucheurism, 185
tradeoffs
in LHT, 397–398
reproductive, 162
trauma bundle, 402
tribalism, among humans. See also male warrior hypothesis
coalition formation mechanism in, 291–292
Darwin on, 291
as in-group psychology, 292, 292
intergroup aggression as result of, 292
Machiavellian Intelligence hypothesis for, 292
out group conflict psychology with, 292
proximate causes for, 292
Social Brain hypothesis for, 292
Social Glue hypothesis for, 292
social identity from, 297
ultimate causes for, 292
Triple Threat, to religiosity in Western democracies, 454
Trollope, Anthony, 417, 420
Truman, Harry, 83
trust, in combat groups, 383–385
error management theory for, 384
evolutionary basis of, 384
as subconscious judgment, 384
Turney-High, H.H., 348
Twain, Mark, 15, 427
twin studies
for bullying, 271
for suicide, 135–136
Two State Solution, 85
two-way sexual selection, 204
(p. 545) U
Ulster Scots, culture of honor for, 222–223
emigration to U.S., 223
uncertainty, in LHT, 163–164, 164–165
male-male competition and, 164–165
United States (U.S.). See also cultures of honor, violence in; Northern Great Plains, warfare record in; Santa Barbara Channel area, warfare record in; Southwestern U.S., warfare record in
American Exceptionalism in, 443
Cold War and, 443
field studies of violence in, 224–226
homicide-suicide in, 119
lab studies of violence in, 226–228
legal definitions of rape in, 173, 174
moral-creator socioeconomic hypothesis for, 436–437
rape statistics in, 3
regional differences in, for male aggression, 226–228
religiosity in, declines in, 445–446
retaliatory violence in, 224–225, 225–226, 228
siblicide in, incidence rates for, 112
socioeconomic conditions in, 448–449, 450–451
suicide in, statistics for, 3, 133
The Tea Party in, 462
terrorism and, definition for, 234, 234
Ulster Scots in, 223, 223
uxoricide incidence rates in, 68–69
violent crimes in, statistics for, 3
United States Lifesaving Association (USLA), 376–377
Uppsala Conflict Data Program (UCDP), 354
uxoricide, 68–70
under game theory, costs of, 69–70
homicide adaptation theory and, 69, 72
in literature, 422
male-male competition and, 161
as misapplied control tactic, 69
slip-up hypothesis for, 69
U.S. incidence rates for, 68–69
V
Vanished in the Twinkling of an Eye, 473
Vatican. See Catholic Church
vertical cohesion, in male bonding, 379
Victory (Conrad), 419
Une Vie (Maupassant), 423
Vietnam War, 385
in literature, 430
violence, against females. See also cuckoldry; intimate partner violence; paternity uncertainty, for males; uxoricide
claustration, 78
collective undermining of, 314–315
evolutionary psychology and, 13
infibulation, 78
in male dominance hierarchies, 306–307
as punishment, 66–67
violence, as lexical concept, 479
violence aggression, 484
violence, in animals, 5–9. See also aggression, animal models of; chimpanzees; intrasexual competition, between animals; lethal violence; mammals, violence among; non-lethal violence; resource competition; ritualized fighting; specific animals
behavior characterization for, 42
coalitional, 8
competition increase and, 25
future research studies for, 55
by gender, 6
human violence compared to, 42
through infanticide, 9
parental investment theory for, 6, 6
predation and, 24
as purposeful, 9
resource competition and, 7–9
sex-role reverses in, by species, 6
sexual selection and, 5, 5–6, 5–6
within species, 5
violence, in humans. See also aggression; child development, violence and war and; crime, violence and; homicide; intimate partner violence; literature, violence in; male-male competition, violence and homicide from; violence, in animals; violence, within families; wars
as aberrant behavior, 24
animal violence compared to, 42
as antisocial behavior, 23
archaeological evidence for, 10–11
child development and, 393
cultural, 309
cultural approach to, 219
in cultures of honor, 17
definition of, 3, 42, 254
development of, 509–511
in early literature, 10
early tools for, 10
evolutionary consciousness for, 506–507, 517–520
fast life history strategy and, 16–17
in hunter-gatherer societies, 440
Industrial Revolution as influence on, 521–522, 521
LHT for, 16–17
from male surplus, through gender-based infanticide, 318
modeling of, from parents, 310
as moral necessity, 521
myth of restraint and, 24
parasite prevalence and, 17, 17
in popular media, 153–154
population issues and, 507–509
puberty as influence on, 511–512
religion and, 17–18, 455–462
for reproductive access, 11–13
retaliatory, 224–225
in schools, 224–225
sexual selection hypothesis for, in males, 513–514
in social learning theory, as learned behavior, 309–310,