Show Summary Details

Page of

PRINTED FROM OXFORD HANDBOOKS ONLINE (www.oxfordhandbooks.com). © Oxford University Press, 2018. All Rights Reserved. Under the terms of the licence agreement, an individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a title in Oxford Handbooks Online for personal use (for details see Privacy Policy and Legal Notice).

date: 10 December 2019

(p. 561) Index

(p. 561) Index

A
Aβ. See amyloid-β
absence
African grey parrot and, 301–2
of prosocial behavior, 381
acquisition mechanisms, for gestures, 180–81
action, cognitive processes and, 23
active network, 104
adaptation, 61–76
brain size and, 85
cross-species comparisons and, 63
memory and, 239
metacognition and, 289–90
MTT and, 253
natural selection and, 61–62
of organism to environment, 17
politics and, 63–64
by primates, 166–67
social learning and, 447
adaptionist program, 64–68
addition, by African grey parrot, 308–9
adoption, altruism and, 492
affect buffer, 110
affiliation, primate gestures for, 173–74
affordance learning, 452
African grey parrot, 45, 547
absence and, 301–2
addition by, 308–9
anticipatory cognition in, 299
category-learning tasks and, 301
choosing subject, 298
comprehension by, 302–4
equivalence and, 309–11
exact integer system and, 311
heterogeneous sets and, 306–7
iconic gestures in, 304
labeling by, 300–301, 306–7
mutual exclusivity and, 311–12
“none” and, 308
number concept in, 304–5, 307–11
object and label combinations and, 312–13
ordinality and, 309–11
phonological awareness in, 304–5
play and, 299–300
relative size and, 302
same/different and, 301
symbolic communication in, 297–314
training of, 298–300
zero concept and, 308
aggression
ancestral design and, 70
assessment mechanisms for, 71
body size and, 69, 71
chimpanzees and, 517
communication for, 13
computational design and, 70
conflict management mechanisms for, 72–75
in monkeys, 498
politics and, 69–70
punishment and, 385
relationships and, 89
selection pressure with, 70
sex differences and, 64, 70, 71
in social wasps, 69
aha moments, 538
Alexander, Richard, 72
allegiance. See ingroup allegiance
Allen, Colin, 45
alligators, 134
all-or-none approach, 6–8
altruism
adoption and, 492
in children, 396–402
in chimpanzees, 402–6, 492
cooperation and, 396–406, 488
Dictator game and, 399
evolutionary study of, 494–95
evolution of, 492–93
prosocial behavior and, 13
terminology about, 488t
Ultimatum game and, 399
altruistic punishment, 385, 422
social emotions and, 424
Alzheimer's disease (AD), 261–63
American Sign Language, 330
chimpanzees and, 356–57
amyloid-β (Aβ), 262
amyloid precursor protein (APP), 262
ancestral design, aggression and, 70
animals. See nonhumans
anterior thalamic nuclei, 219
anthropomorphism, 3, 6–7
Darwin and, 523–30
by radical behaviorism, 34n7
anticipatory cognition, 223, 243–46. See also future planning
in African grey parrot, 299
in nonhumans, 243–48
antisocial concerns, 424
ants
chimpanzees and, 460–61
teaching by, 465
apes. See also great apes; specific species
brain size in, 95f
calls by, 329
convergent evolution in, 80–96
culture in, 461
enculturation of, 186, 547–53
episodic memory in, 239
future planning by, 229, 229, 243–46
generalized diet of, 85–86
humans and, 185–86
imitation by, 168
juvenile development of, 186–88
language and, 356–74
MTT by, 94, 253
physical reasoning by, 93
pointing by, 185–86
sociality in, 95f
social learning by, 168, 458
social nature of, 3
syntax and, 184
tools and, 10, 95f
unpredictable environments for, 85
(p. 562) ape language research (ALR), 357–74
artificial language and, 372–73
associative learning and, 364–65
audience effects and, 372
calls and, 372
comprehension in, 361–62
data recording for, 360
future directions of, 371–73
general findings of, 360–64
imitation and, 370–71
participant abilities in, 362t
study methodologies for, 358–59, 358t
study selection for, 358
symbols in, 362–65
syntax and, 365–67
trained behaviors and, 368–70
apes, rearing environment of, 186
arbitrary symbols, 184
archer fish, social learning by, 455
Aristotle, 19, 39–40
continuity and, 41
gradation and, 41
Watson and, 20
Armstrong, D.M., 45
artificial language, 183–84
ALR and, 372–73
artificial life, 19
associative learning, 198
causal reasoning and, 10
by chained events, 29
chimpanzees and, 364–65
cognitive learning and, 26
complexity and, 29–31
in laboratory, 29
vs. symbols, 364–65
trust with, 26
attention, by bottlenose dolphins, 150
audience effects
ALR and, 372
with auditory signals, 333
communication for, 331–33
with visual signals, 333
auditory sense
in bottlenose dolphins, 158, 285f
in cephalopods, 120
for gestures, 177
auditory signals
coding of, 321–26
decoding of, 327–29
intention and, 332
authority
chimpanzees and, 443
macaques and, 443
morality and, 434, 442–43
vocal communication and, 443
autism, 3
autobiographical memory, 221, 222–23
MTT and, 236
preverbal memories and, 223
automated teller machine (ATM), 476
autonoesis, 223, 238–39, 239
episodic memory and, 532
awareness, 532–33
indeterminacy and, 288
in metacognition, 288–89
phonological, 304–5
vs. self-awareness, 290–91
B
baboons
calls by, 324
contingent cooperation by, 518
culture in, 461
dominance hierarchies in, 508
future planning by, 229
social grouping by, 486
social relationships of, 498–7, 512
Barks, Sarah, 3
bar presses, for rates, 10
basal principle, 27
bats, social learning by, 456
bees
communication by, 9
episodic memory in, 239
social learning by, 455
teaching by, 465
The Behavioral and Brain Sciences (Dennett), 530
behavioral ecology, 530
behavior analysis, 34n8
morality and, 434
behaviorism. See also radical behaviorism
methodological, 21, 23
neobehaviorism, 20–21
purposive, 20–21
trouble with, 19–20
of Watson, 17
behaviorist associations, 10
beliefs
bottlenose dolphins and, 150–51
cartographic systems of, 47
disposition and, 49–51
in dynamical system, 32
embodied, 51–53
interpretation and, 51
language and, 43–53
map systems of, 47
MCC and, 41
nonrepresentational, 49, 53–55
representationalism and, 47–49
stereotypes and, 49, 51
belongingness, communication for, 13
bi-cone, 236, 236f
bipedalism, 223
birds. See also specific species
brain size in, 82f
caching by, 461
culture in, 461
foraging by, 461
gaze following in, 137
ghost control and, 474
imitation in, 456
match-to-sample task for, 298
social cognition in, 509
social learning by, 415, 456
tools and, 87
visual acuity in, 84–85
Bischoff-Köhler hypothesis, 229, 243, 243
black-and-white colobus monkeys, calls by, 327–28
black-capped chickadees
episodic memory in, 226, 239
future planning by, 243, 243f
MTT in, 253, 255f
black iguana, 136
black rats, social learning by, 454
black-throated monitors, 135
blank trials, 288
bobwhite quail, 137
body postures
of OW, 173
as visual signals, 325–26
body size, aggression and, 69, 71
Bombykol, 327
Bonnet, Charles, 41
bonobos
artificial language for, 184
calls by, 323, 324
cooperation by, 515–16
fairness in, 389
gestures by, 332
visual signals by, 329–30, 333
bottlenose dolphins, 144
attention by, 150
auditory sense in, 158
auditory sense of, 285f
beliefs and, 150–51
cognitive abilities of, 12
cognitive evolution of, 158–59
communication by, 153–54
concepts in, 145
cooperation with, 149–50
episodic memory in, 226, 239
food and, 158
foraging by, 152
gaze following in, 150
goals and, 150
imitation by, 153
intentions and, 150
juvenile development in, 145
knowledge and, 150–51, 156t
memory in, 146–47
metacognition in, 152, 284–85
natural history of, 145
number concept in, 147
perception by, 150
physical cognition in, 147–48
same/identity in, 145–46
self-awareness of, 151
self-recognition by, 151
sex differences in, 14
social cognition in, 148–51
social intelligence of, 158–59
social learning by, 152–53, 456–57
social relationships of, 509
(p. 563) spatial cognition in, 147–48
symbolic cognition by, 154–56
TOM and, 150
tools and, 148
UR and, 284–85
brain
of cephalopods, 122–23
cognitive processes and, 17
computer as metaphor for, 17–18, 23–24, 31–32
convergent evolution and, 81–82
episodic memory and, 218–19, 220
mental states and, 32
mind and, 22
MTT and, 248–53
structure and function of, 81–82
brain size, 95f
adaptation and, 85
mating and, 88
relative, 81–82
breakfast-choice experiment, 94
brown-necked ravens, cooperative hunting by, 89
budgerigars, social learning by, 456
bumblebees, social learning by, 455
Buss, David, 23
C
caching
by birds, 461
future planning and, 229–32, 243
memory and, 239
by scrub jays, 31, 87, 95, 511, 532
TD and, 92
calculated reciprocity, 495
calls
ALR and, 372
discrete, 321–23, 327–28
flexible, 323–25
graded, 324, 328
intention and, 510
mental representation with, 329
of monkeys, 510
sequences of, 328–29
as vocal communication, 321–25
call-triggering events, 327
Camp, Elisabeth, 47
Campbell's monkey, calls by, 322–33, 323–24, 328
canines. See dogs
Canis, 197
capuchin monkeys
cognitive imitation by, 478–79
culture in, 461
dominance hierarchies in, 507
fairness in, 389, 439–40
food and, 478–79
ingroup allegiance in, 441–42
instrumental helping in, 438
metacognition in, 282–83
olfactory signals by, 326–27
physical cognition of, 168
prosocial behavior of, 10, 382–83
social learning by, 457–58
social relationships of, 498
sparse-middle-dense task and, 282, 283f
UR and, 282–83
visual signals by, 330
Cartesian view, 17–19
cognitivism, 22
Darwin and, 17, 483, 486f
cartographic systems, of beliefs, 47
category-learning tasks, 288
African grey parrot and, 301
causal reasoning, 6
associative learning and, 10
cephalopods
brain of, 122–23
cognition in, 118–25
learning in, 122–23
motor output in, 120–21
sensory information processing in, 118–20
skin displays of, 123–24
Cercis canadensis, 350–52
cetaceans. See also bottlenose dolphins
brain size in, 95f
cognitive abilities of, 12
cognitive specializations in, 144–60
cooperative coalitions in, 89
intelligence of, 6
sociality of, 88, 95f
social learning by, 456–57
teaching by, 465
tools and, 95f
chacma baboons
dominance hierarchies in, 508
social relationships of, 498–7
cheats, cooperation and, 421
Chelonia, 130
chemotactile reception, 120
chickadees. See black-capped chickadees
chickens, conflicts of assessment with, 72
childhood amnesia, 223
children
altruism in, 396–402
cognitive imitation in, 478–81
Dictator game and, 383–86, 393f
emulation by, 468
extrinsic rewards with, 401–3
failed attempt and, 454
fairness in, 391–93
gestures by, 182
ghost control and, 474
imitation by, 415, 451, 468
informing in, 399–400
instrumental helping in, 400–402
mutualism in, 407–9, 409f
nonrepresentational belief in, 49
prosocial behavior in, 383–84, 385f
punishment in, 387–89, 391
secondary representation in, 159
sharing in, 396–99
social learning by, 459
Ultimatum game and, 388–89
chimpanzees, 3, 547–52
abilities of, 6
adoption by, 492
aggression and, 517
altruism in, 402–6, 492
American Sign Language and, 356–57
ants and, 460–61
artificial language for, 184
associative learning and, 364–65
authority and, 443
calls by, 322, 324, 328
competition with, 10
cooperation with, 10, 489–90, 515–17
cooperative coalitions in, 89
culture in, 461
cumulative culture in, 464–65
death and, 27–28
fairness in, 389–91, 439
food and, 402, 404, 437
free riders and, 519
future planning by, 229, 229, 243
gestures by, 330, 332
ghost control and, 474
grooming by, 461
group hunting by, 488, 489–90
iconic gestures in, 325–26
imitation by, 451–52, 468
informing in, 405–6
ingroup allegiance in, 441
instrumental helping in, 404–5, 405f, 437
intentional gestures in, 175–76
language and, 356–74
mental states of, 31
mutualism in, 409–13, 409f
numerosities and, 6
pointing in, 406
politics and, 90
prosocial behavior in, 9–10, 373–81, 381f, 382f, 437
punishment in, 385–87, 387f
rearing environment of, 497
reciprocity in, 495
rules and, 542–47
sharing in, 402–4
social grouping by, 486
sociality of, 88
social learning by, 458
social relationships of, 507, 512
symbols in, 364–65
syntax and, 365–67
TOM and, 6, 53–55
tools and, 83–84, 87, 460–61
traditions and, 460–61
trust in, 110
Ultimatum game and, 385, 388f, 391, 515
in unfamiliar scenarios, 10–11
visual signals by, 330, 333
Chomsky, Noam, 23
cichlid fish, aggression in, 71
(p. 564) circadian timed episodic-like memory, 249, 263
Clark, Andy, 22, 51
cleaner fish, punishment with, 421–22
cognition. See also specific types of cognition
from bottom up, 539–40
in cephalopods, 118–25
concept of, 32–34
contingent cooperation and, 514–15
convergent evolution of, 80–96
dexterity and, 84
in different species, 83
in dogs, 194–211, 195t
ecology and evolution of, 483–98
enactive, 51–53
female preference and, 339–53
gestures and, 178–83
in humans, 261–68
juvenile development and, 84
lifespan and, 84
in macaques, 288
natural selection and, 483
parenting and, 84
prerequisites for, 83–84
in primates, 483–98
in reptiles, 129–41
social complexity and, 102–14
sociality and, 88
social relationships and, 519
visual acuity and, 84–85
in wolves, 198
cognitive discontinuities, 6
cognitive dissonance, 302
cognitive ecology, 530
cognitive imitation, 13
by capuchin monkeys, 478–79
by children, 478–81
by great apes, 478
in monkeys, 476–79
by rhesus monkeys, 476
social learning and, 468–82
cognitive learning
associative learning and, 26
complexity and, 29–31
cognitive maps, 29
of octopus, 122–23
cognitive processes, 23
brain and, 17
Cognitive Processes in Animal Behavior (Hulse, Fowler, and Honig), 530
cognitive psychology, Skinner and, 22–23
cognitive revolution, 23–26
cognitive specializations, 12
in cetaceans, 144–60
of primates, 166–88
cognitivism, 17, 17, 34n2. See also comparative cognitivism
Cartesian, 22
collaboration. See mutualism
collating mind, 223
common marmosets
prosocial behavior in, 381
scent marking by, 326
communication. See also specific types of communication
for audience effects, 331–33
by bottlenose dolphins, 153–54
by dogs, 198–201, 207–8
flexible, 324
gestures for, 320, 325–26
by honeybees, 9
by humans, 324
by insects, 6, 13, 339–53
of intention, 331–33
multimodal systems for, 179
neurological parallels in, 373
for persuasion, 331–32
by primates, 166–88, 170–72, 320–34
receivers for, 327–33
signals for, 321–33
vibrational, 342–44
by wolves, 198–201
comparative cognition
Darwin and, 523–41
development of, 530–32
Tinbergen and, 523–41
comparative cognitivism
critique of, 26–29
MTT and, 243, 252–55
comparative psychology
adaptation and, 62
of culture, 447–66
Darwinism and, 17
definitions for, 3
developmental psychology and, 3
evolutionary psychology and, 3
focus of, 6
methodological behaviorism and, 23
of social learning, 447–66
competition, with chimpanzees, 10
complex functional design, 64
complexity, 29–31
in culture, 424–27
Darwin and, 62
in primate communication, 170–72
social, 102–14
comprehension
by African grey parrot, 302–4
in ALR, 361–62
of pointing, 406
computational design, aggression and, 70
computer, as metaphor for brain, 17–18, 23–24, 31–32
concepts, in bottlenose dolphins, 145
concrete rewards, for UR, 274–75
conditional tasks, 302
conditioned reflex
Pavlov and, 20
Tolman and, 21
conflict management mechanisms, for aggression, 72–75
conflicts of assessment, 71, 72
conformity. See synchronization
conjunctive conditions, 302
consciousness
information processing and, 23
radical behaviorism and, 21
structuralism and, 20
unobservability of, 20
Watson and, 19–20
constructive episodic simulation hypothesis, 248
contagion, social learning by, 452
content, episodic memory and, 223
contingent cooperation, 514–20
by baboons, 518
cognition and, 514–15
emotions and, 515–16
experimental evidence for, 517–19
mental states and, 519
punishment and, 519–20
continuity, 41
Darwin and, 483–85
MCC, 39–43
convergent evolution, 529
brain and, 81–82
of cognition, 80–96, 81f
intangible traits and, 81–83
of social behavior, 495–96
cooperation. See also contingent cooperation; sociality
altruism and, 396–406, 488
by bonobos, 515–16
with bottlenose dolphins, 149–50
cheats and, 421
by chimpanzees, 10, 489–90, 515–17
contingent, 514–16
cultural group selection and, 422–24
by dogs, 198
evolutionary study of, 489–92
evolution of, 486–90
fairness and, 420
food and, 419
free riders and, 421, 519
function of, 512–13
in future planning, 248
gossip and, 420–21
mechanisms for, 513–14
mutualism and, 406–13, 488
noncooperators and, 519–20
ontogeny of, 396–413
phylogeny of, 396–413
primate vocalization information view and, 171
prosocial behavior and, 13
punishment and, 421–22
reciprocity and, 419
sociality and, 419
terminology about, 488t
trust and, 110
Ultimatum game and, 420
cooperative coalitions, 89
SBH and, 103–4
cooperative dog versus competitive ape hypothesis, 198
corn snakes, 130
corvids
(p. 565) brain size in, 81–82, 82f, 95f
cognition in, 83
cognitive abilities of, 12
convergent evolution in, 80–96
generalized diet of, 85–86
grooming in, 89
physical reasoning by, 93
sociality in, 95f
social learning by, 456
social reasoning by, 90–91
tools and, 87, 95f
unpredictable environments for, 85
Cosmides, Leda, 23
cost-benefit trade-offs, 107–9, 107f
cottontop tamarins, prosocial behavior in, 381, 437
cowbirds
episodic memory in, 239
MTT in, 253
coyotes, 195
crickets
formidability self-assessment by, 72
social learning by, 455
crocodiles, 134
Crocodilia, 130
cross-species comparisons
adaptation and, 63
gestures and, 177
natural selection and, 68–69
of social cognition, 489f
cryptomentalism, 20
cryptophenomenologist, 21
culture. See also enculturation; social learning
in apes, 461
in baboons, 461
in birds, 461
in capuchin monkeys, 461
in chimpanzees, 461
comparative psychology of, 447–66
complexity in, 424–27
cumulative, 463–65
evolutionary psychology of, 447–66
of humans, 415–28
imitation and, 12–13
in macaques, 461–62
in monkeys, 461–62
in orangutans, 461
in primates, 13
sociality and, 415–28
social learning and, 415, 447–66
traditions and, 459–62
cultural group selection, cooperation and, 422–24
cultural transmission. See social learning
cumulative culture, 463–65
cuttlefish, 119–20, 124
brain of, 122
D
damselfly, social learning by, 455
Darwin, Charles, 39, 42, 542
anthropomorphism and, 523–30
Cartesian view and, 17, 483, 486f
comparative cognition and, 523–41
comparative psychology and, 17
complexity and, 62
continuity and, 483–85
episodic memory and, 529
genetics and, 42–43
MTT and, 523
Plato and, 34n3
on social learning, 447
Tinbergen and, 523–41
Wallace and, 42
Watson and, 20
dead matter, 62, 75n1
death, chimpanzees and, 27–28
death drive, 62
declarative memory, 218, 238–39
declarative use of symbols, 367–68
de dicto belief attributions, 45
deferred imitation, 452
Dennett, Daniel, 53–54, 530
killjoys and, 536–39
density-discrimination task, 282
de re belief attributions, 45
Descartes, René, 17, 39, 43
Descent of Man (Darwin), 42
The Descent of Man and Selection in Relation to Sex (Darwin), 523, 523, 539
developmental psychology, 45–47
comparative psychology and, 3
dexterity, cognition and, 84
Diana monkeys
calls by, 322, 328
vocal communication by, 321
Dictator game, 373
altruism and, 399
children and, 383–86, 393f
fairness and, 393f, 439, 445n2
morality and, 435
prosocial behavior and, 435
diffusion chain, 459
digger wasps, future planning by, 229
dingo, 195
direct cooperation, 488
directive function, of episodic memory, 221–22
direct reciprocity, 419–20
disadvantageous inequity, 439, 440
discrete calls
coding of, 321–23
decoding of, 327–28
to multiple referents, 322–23
to natural referents, 321–22
disgust reaction, 444
displacement, 156
disposition, beliefs and, 49–51
distance-based mechanisms, in MTT, 249–52
DNA, 43
mtDNA, 197
do-as-I-do paradigm, 457
dogs
cognition of, 194–211, 195t
communication by, 198–201, 207–8
cooperation and, 198
domestication of, 3, 195, 198
enculturation of, 201–4
episodic memory in, 239
gaze following by, 201, 207–8, 511
group hunting by, 488
imitation in, 451
ontogeny and, 3
phenotypes of, 197–98
play and, 209–10
social competence of, 198, 204f, 208–10
sociality of, 205–6
social learning by, 208–9, 457
social nature of, 3
synchronization of, 206–7
vocal communication by, 198
dolphins. See bottlenose dolphins
domain-general intelligence, 3
domain-specific intelligence, 3
domestication, of dogs, 3, 195, 198
dominance hierarchies, 72
in baboons, 508
in capuchin monkeys, 507
in chacma baboons, 508
in macaques, 507–8
in monkeys, 507
in social relationships, 507–8
transitive inference and, 509
in vervet monkeys, 507–8
double induction, 17
drive states, Hull and, 21
dualism, 34n5
Skinner and, 21
Watson and, 20
dynamical systems, 32
beliefs in, 32
E
earthworms, Darwin and, 17
ecological anthropomorphism, 34n11
ecological validity, 489, 494
ego, social networks and, 107
elephants
brain size in, 95f
conflicts of assessment in, 72
sociality in, 95f
tools and, 95f
elephant seals, conflicts of assessment with, 72
E-maze, 226
embodied beliefs, 51–53
emergents, 289
emotions. See also social emotions
contingent cooperation and, 515–16
emotion-based scorekeeping, 495
empathy, 6
prosocial behavior and, 424
(p. 566) emulation, 468
by children, 468
social learning by, 452
emydid turtles, 135–36
enactive cognition, 51–53
encephalization quotient (EQ), 81
Enchenopa binotata. See treehoppers
enculturation
of apes, 186, 547–53
of dogs, 201–4
end-state conditions, 453–54
episodic-like memory. See what-where-when memory
episodic memory, 217–32
autonoesis and, 532
cognitive systems for, 219–20
construction of, 220–21
Darwin and, 529
as declarative memory, 238
definition of, 218, 263
directive function of, 221–22
evolution of, 222–23
future planning and, 218–19
MTT by, 239–48
multiple definitions for, 532–34
in nonhumans, 226–29
phylogeny of, 222
retrieval of, 220
self-concept and, 221
semantic memory and, 222
sociality and, 221
equivalence, African grey parrot and, 309–11
Eurasian jays, future planning by, 229–32
event memory, 217
evolutionary convergence, 17
evolutionary framework, 542–56
evolutionary frill, 223
evolutionary psychology
comparative psychology and, 3
of culture, 447–66
definitions for, 3
focus of, 6
nature/nurture in, 12
of social learning, 447–66
exact integer system, African grey parrot and, 311
executive brain, 90
experience, external world and, 17
expert systems, 3
The Expression of Emotion in Man and Animals (Darwin), 539
external behavior, inner mind and, 17
external validity, 9
external world, experience and, 17
extrinsic rewards, 299
with children, 401–3
eyed lizards, 132
F
facial expressions
intention and, 510
of OW, 173
of primates, 510
as visual signals, 325–26
faculty of language
broad (FLB), 371
narrow (FLN), 371–72
failed attempt, 454
fairness, 389–93
in bonobos, 389
in capuchin monkeys, 389, 439–40
in children, 391–93
in chimpanzees, 389–91, 439
cooperation and, 420
Dictator game and, 393f, 439, 445n2
in gorillas, 389
in humans, 439
morality and, 434, 438–40
in orangutans, 389
in primates, 389–91, 439–40
purity and, 444
sex differences with, 391–93
Ultimatum game and, 439
false belief, 53–55, 150–51
false memories, 222
feedback, in cognition, 32
female preference
cognition and, 339–53
signals and, 348–52
in treehoppers, 345–48, 345f, 347f, 348f
fighting ability, sex differences and, 12
finite-state, vs. recursive combinatorial rules, 371–72
fish. See also specific species
formidability assessment in, 72
group hunting by, 488
prey finding by, 6
social learning by, 415, 455, 461
tools and, 87
fission-fusion societies, 88
fitness-maximizing decisions, for foraging, 530
five-factor model (FFM), 53
flexibility
emergents and, 289
episodic memory and, 223
gestures and, 178–79
in human communication, 324
imitation and, 476
UR and, 280–81, 288
flexible calls
to multiple referents, 324–25
to natural referents, 323–24
folk physics, 84, 87
folk psychology, 20, 481, 534
food. See also caching; foraging
bottlenose dolphins and, 158
capuchin monkeys and, 478–79
chimpanzees and, 402, 404, 437
communication for, 13
cooperation and, 419
foraging for, 86–87
intentional gestures for, 175
MTT and, 253–54
unpredictable environments and, 85
for UR, 274–75
foraging
by birds, 461
by bottlenose dolphins, 152
fitness-maximizing decisions for, 530
for food, 86–87
olfactory signals for, 326
physical reasoning and, 93
reinforcement and, 536
sampling and, 536–37
sociality and, 90
social learning for, 455
tools for, 87
formidability assessments, 70–75
by voice, 73–75
fornix, 219
fortunes-of-others emotions, 424–25
Fowler, H., 530
free riders, 423
chimpanzees and, 519
cooperation and, 421, 519
Freud, Sigmund, psychoanalysis and, 20
friendship, 105–6
functionalist school, 17, 542–46
functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), 219
empathy and, 424
functional similarities, 532
future planning, 534, 547
cooperation in, 248
episodic memory and, 218–19
in nonhumans, 229–32
tools and, 229
G
Gage, Phineas, 62
Galton, Francis, 542
Gardner, Allen, 356
Gardner, Beatrice, 356
gatekeeper mental construct, 290
gaze following
by bottlenose dolphins, 150
by dogs, 201, 207–8, 511
gestures and, 177
intention and, 511
by ravens, 511
by reptiles, 136–37, 137f
by rhesus monkeys, 511
by scrub jays, 511
geckos, 134
gender. See sex differences
generalization
in social learning, 138–40
of stimulus, 289
UR and, 280–81
(p. 567) generalized diets, 85–86
general purpose intelligence, 23
genetics
Darwin and, 42–43
MCC and, 39
Gestalt psychology, 538
gestures
acquisition mechanisms for, 180–81
auditory sense for, 177
by children, 182
cognition and, 178–83
for communication, 320, 325–26
cross-species comparisons and, 177
development of, 330–31
flexibility and, 178–79
gaze following and, 177
by great apes, 187–88
for grooming, 182
by humans, 181–83
idiosyncratic, 330–31
imitation of, 457
intention in, 175–76
language and, 320, 373
manual, 175
meaning and, 179
ontogeny of, 180–81
by primates, 172–78, 330
representationalism and, 182
social learning for, 180–81
strategic communication with, 180
ghost control, 468–74
ghost display, 453
gibbons, calls by, 323
goal-emulation, 452, 468
goals, bottlenose dolphins and, 150
God, 41
golden lion tamarins, scent marking by, 326
gorillas
artificial language for, 184
episodic memory in, 229
fairness in, 389
social learning by, 458
gossip, cooperation and, 420–21
gradation, 41
graded calls
coding for, 324
decoding for, 328
great apes
calls by, 323
cognitive imitation by, 478
gestures by, 187–88
manual gestures in, 175
great chain of being, MCC and, 41–42
grey parrot. See African Grey Parrot
Griffin (African grey parrot), 311–13
Griffin, Donald, 23, 530
grooming
body posture and, 174
by chimpanzees, 461
in corvids, 89
gestures for, 182
by primates, 182, 243
SBH and, 103
group cohesion, communication for, 13
group hunting, 488–89, 489f
guilt, prosocial behaviors and, 424
guinea fowl, mental representation in, 329
guppies, social learning by, 455
H
habit learning, 239
habituation-dishabituation paradigm, 47
Hamadryas baboons, social grouping by, 486
Hamilton, W.D., 419
Hanuman langurs, social grouping by, 486
harm, morality and, 434, 435–37
Harris hawks, 488
hearing. See auditory sense
height-and-weight assessment
nature/nurture and, 68
from voice, 65–68, 73–75, 73t
Heinlein, Robert, 3
heterogeneous sets, African grey parrot and, 306–7
Hill, Clarke, 21
Hinde, Robert, 3
hippocampus, 219, 248
The History of Animals (Aristotle), 39–40
holy grail approach, 6, 6, 547–50
honeybees
communication by, 9
social learning by, 455
teaching by, 465
Honig, W.K., 530
host races, 340–41
host shifts, 341–42
hot topics, 12–14
Huber, Ludwig, 12
Hulse, S.H., 530
human nature, 6
humans. See also children
altruistic punishment in, 385
apes and, 185–86
category-learning tasks for, 288
cognition in, 261–68
communication by, 324
culture of, 415–28
cumulative culture in, 463–65
disgust reaction in, 444
episodic memory in, 223–26, 239–41, 532–34
fairness in, 439
false belief in, 151
gaze following in, 137
gestures by, 181–83
ingroup allegiance in, 441
instrumental helping in, 437–38
metacognition in, 271–72
morality in, 430–45
relationships in, 105–13
self-anointing by, 327
sociality in, 415–28
social learning by, 458–59
teaching by, 465
in Ultimatum game, 388f
UR in, 273, 288
Hume, David, 26
on beliefs, 43
hummingbirds
episodic memory in, 239
MTT in, 253
hyenas
group hunting by, 488
social relationships of, 509
I
iconic gestures, 177–78, 304
in African grey parrot, 304
in primates, 325–26
icons, 155
idiosyncratic gestures, operant conditioning and, 330–31
imitation, 6. See also cognitive imitation
ALR and, 370–71
by apes, 168
by birds, 456
by bottlenose dolphins, 153
by children, 415, 451, 468
by chimpanzees, 451–52, 468
culture and, 12–13
deferred, 452
by dogs, 451
of gestures, 457
by infants, 28–29
over-imitation, 451–52
rational, 451–52
selective, 451–52
social learning by, 447–52
in-between believing, 49
incipient actions, 176
indeterminacy, 286–87
awareness and, 288
indirect reciprocity, reputation building and, 420–21
infanticide, in primates, 486
infantile amnesia, 9
inferential reasoning, 10
influence view, of primate vocal communication, 170–71
information processing
consciousness and, 23
as metaphor, 17–18, 23
UR and, 286
information-seeking responses, 284
information view, of primate vocal communication, 170–71
informative pointing, 400
informing
in children, 399–400
in chimpanzees, 405–6
ingroup allegiance
in capuchin monkeys, 441–42
in chimpanzees, 441
in humans, 441
morality and, 434, 440–42
in primates, 441–42
(p. 568) inner mind, external behavior and, 17
innovations, 89–90
insects. See also specific species
communication by, 6, 13, 339–53
plant-eating, 339–53
sociality of, 419
social learning by, 415, 455
tools and, 87
insightful behavior, 536–39
in New Caledonian crows, 538–39
in pigeons, 538
tools and, 538–39
instrumental helping
in capuchin monkeys, 438
in children, 400–402
in chimpanzees, 404–5, 405f, 437
morality and, 437–38
intangible traits, convergent evolution and, 81–83
intelligence. See cognition
intelligence tests, 6
intelligent mechanisms, 21
intention
with auditory signals, 332
bottlenose dolphins and, 150
calls and, 510
communication of, 331–33
facial expressions and, 510
gaze following and, 511
in gestures, 175–76
knowledge and, 511–12
meaning and, 179
in monkeys, 510
in phonological awareness, 304
of rhesus monkeys, 510
social relationships and, 510–11
teaching and, 465
with visual signals, 333
vocal communication and, 510
internal validity, 9
International Society for Research on Aggression (ISRA), 69
interpretation, beliefs and, 51
intervening variables, 21
Skinner and, 22
intrinsic reinforcers, 299
introspection, mental phenomena and, 20
invisible displacement, 148
involuntary recall system, 223, 223–26
iterative tasks, 302
J
Jaakola, Kelly, 12
jackals, 195
jackdaws, relationships in, 89
James, William, 542
join the aggressor rule, 89
Journal of Experimental Psychology, 547
just noticeable differences (JNDs), 286
juvenile development, 84
of apes, 186–88
of bottlenose dolphins, 145
K
keas, social learning by, 461
Kennedy, John, 536
killjoys, Dennett and, 536–39
kinship, 106–7
knowing how, vs. knowing that, 49
knowledge
bottlenose dolphins and, 150–51, 156t
intentions and, 511–12
Kohler, Wolfgang, 536
komodo dragon, 133
L
labeling, by African grey parrot, 300–301, 306–7
language, 9, 39, 536–37. See also ape language research; communication
American Sign Language, 330, 356–57
apes and, 356–74
artificial, 183–84, 372–73
beliefs and, 43–53
chimpanzees and, 356–74
evolution of, 356–74
gestures and, 320, 373
MTT and, 223–25
multimodal systems for, 373
operant conditioning with, 370
reinforcement with, 370
statistical learning in, 28–29
langurs, social grouping by, 486
latent semantic analysis, 28–29
leaf clipping, 175, 326
learning. See also specific kinds of learning
in cephalopods, 122–23
nature/nurture and, 62
by octopus, 122–23
Leptocyon, 197
lesser mouse lemurs, olfactory signals by, 327
lifespan, 84
lions, group hunting by, 488–89
local enhancement, social learning by, 452–53
location-based mechanisms, in MTT, 249–52
location-change task, 151
Locke, John, 26
Lombroso's Legacy, 69
long-term memory, 532–34
in bottlenose dolphins, 146–47
Lorenz, Konrad, 34n5
loyalty. See ingroup allegiance
M
macaques. See also rhesus monkeys
authority and, 443
calls by, 323, 324, 328
category-learning tasks for, 288
cognition of, 288
culture in, 461–62
dominance hierarchies in, 507–8
metamemory of, 275, 277f
olfactory signals by, 327
social learning by, 457–58
sparse-dense discrimination by, 277–80, 277f
UR in, 273–82, 280f, 281f
working memory in, 286
Machiavellian intelligence, 194
Maestripieri, Dario, 12
magpies
episodic memory in, 226, 239
MTT in, 253
social learning by, 461
Malebranche, Nicolas, 39
males, aggression by, 70
mamillary bodies, 219
mammalian organ of intelligence, 298
mammals. See also specific species, orders, or families
gaze following in, 137
social learning by, 138, 415, 456–59
tools and, 87
WWW in, 239–42
mandrills, scent marking by, 326
manual gestures, in great apes, 175
map systems, of beliefs, 47
Marcus, Ruth Barcon, 49–50
marmosets. See common marmosets
match-to-sample task, 277f
for birds, 298
for pigeons, 292
material culture, 168
mate selection, 6
Mather, Jennifer, 12
mating. See also female preference
brain size and, 88
communication for, 13
intentional gestures for, 175
olfactory signals for, 326, 327
in polygynous species, 75n2
primate gestures for, 173–74
signals for, 344
for treehoppers, 344
mazes
E-maze, 226
radial-arm, 132
for rates, 10
meadow voles
episodic memory in, 226–29, 239
WWW in, 534
meaning, 51, 370
gestures and, 179
intention and, 179
mean length of utterance (MLU), 362
means-ends disassociation, 179
mechanical processes, rational thought and, 26
medial temporal lateral system (MTL), 248
(p. 569) Meditations (Descartes), 43
meerkats
social learning by, 461–63
teaching by, 465, 536
memory, 13–14. See also specific kinds of memory
adaptation and, 239
in bottlenose dolphins, 146–47
caching and, 239
in nonhumans, 239, 532
of octopus, 122–23
relationships and, 110
systems for, 238–39
WWW, 94
mental actions, 32, 34n4
separating, 32
mental continuity claim (MCC), 39–43
great chain of being and, 41–42
mental discontinuity, 42–43
mental fictions, 21
mentalism, 34n2
mental maps, Tolman and, 21
mental phenomena, 17
introspection and, 20
mental representation, 32–34, 167
with calls, 329
with MTT, 249
mental states, 6–9
brain and, 32
of chimpanzees, 31
contingent cooperation and, 519
metacognition and, 271
of nonhumans, 291
in radical behaviorism, 19
rules of, 17
understanding in, 26
mental time travel (MTT), 93–94, 219, 236–56, 236f, 255f
adaptation and, 253
comparative cognitivism and, 252–55
Darwin and, 523
distance-based mechanisms in, 249–52
by episodic memory, 239–48
evolution of, 223
food and, 253–54
language and, 223–25
location-based mechanisms in, 249–52
mental representation with, 249
neurocognitive control of, 248–52
in nonhumans, 229, 236–38
prerequisites for, 223t
prospective cognition in, 243–48
retrospective cognition and, 239–43
subjective time and, 220
timing mechanisms in, 249–52
mere-presence effects, social learning by, 452
metacognition, 6, 532–33, 547
adaptation and, 289–90
awareness in, 288–89
by bottlenose dolphins, 152, 284–85
in capuchin monkeys, 282–83
evolutionary context of, 289–90
in humans, 271–72
in monkeys, 290
in nonhumans, 271–92
in OW, 285
phylogeny and, 282–86
in pigeons, 283–84
in primates, 168
in rats, 14
research theoretical framework for, 271f
UR and, 273–88
in vertebrates, 285–86
visual cognition and, 288
working memory and, 289–90
metacommunication, 174
metamemory, 14
in macaques, 275, 277f
in pigeons, 292
in rhesus monkeys, 535
working memory and, 286
metamind, 223
methodological behaviorism, 21
comparative psychology and, 23
N-Methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA), 262
mice
episodic memory in, 239
social relationships of, 513
Mill, J.S., 26
mind. See also theory of mind
brain and, 22
collating, 223
inner, 17
metamind, 223
reflective, 291–92
unobservability of, 20, 21
Watson and, 19–20
mind-reading-first hypothesis, 290
minimal group paradigm, 424
M-Notebook, of Darwin, 17
model/rival technique (M/R), 299
modern synthesis, 39, 42–43
modules, 3
Money, John, 64
monkeys. See also specific species
aggression in, 498
calls of, 510
cognitive imitation in, 476–79
culture in, 461–62
dominance hierarchies in, 507
intention in, 510
mental representation in, 329
metacognition in, 290
reconciliation in, 498
same/different and, 275f
self-recognition in, 547
social learning by, 457–58
social relationships of, 512
monologue speech, 300, 314n3
Moral Foundations Sacredness Scale, 434
morality, 13
authority and, 442–43
behavior analysis and, 434
Dictator game and, 435
fairness and, 434, 438–40
five foundational domains of, 434
harm and, 434, 435–37
ingroup allegiance and, 434, 440–42
instrumental helping and, 437–38
punishment and, 435
purity and, 434, 443–44
reciprocity and, 438–40
Morgan, Lloyd, 17, 27–28, 34n10
canon of, 468–74, 529, 547–51
morphemes, 304
motor output, in cephalopods, 120–21
mtDNA, 197
multimodal systems
for communication, 179
for language, 373
multiple imitation mechanisms (MIM), 474–76, 475f
multiple-memory-systems theory, 238
multiple referents
discrete calls to, 322–23
flexible calls to, 324–25
multipurpose learning strategies, 23
mutual exclusivity, African grey parrot and, 311–12
mutualism, 23
in children, 407–9, 409f
in chimpanzees, 409–13, 409f
cooperation and, 406–13, 488
Darwin and, 17
prosocial behavior and, 13
Skinner and, 22–23
mutually beneficial cooperation, 488
N
naturalistic paradigms, for UR, 280
natural referents
discrete calls to, 321–22
flexible calls to, 323–24
natural selection, 17, 42–43
adaptation and, 61–62
cognition and, 483
cross-species comparisons and, 63, 68–69
as organizing force of life, 68
purity and, 444
social behavior and, 483
studying nonhumans in natural environment, 63
nature/nurture, 3
avoiding, 62–63
in evolutionary psychology, 12
height-and-weight assessment and, 68
negative findings, 6, 10, 547
negative social preferences, 424
(p. 570) neobehaviorism, after Watson, 20–21
The New Anthropomorphism (Kennedy), 536
New Caledonian crows, 195
cumulative culture in, 464
insightful behavior in, 538–39
physical reasoning by, 92–93
social learning by, 456
spatial memory in, 530
tools and, 87
New-Guinea singing dogs, 195
Newton's third law of motion, 17
New World monkeys
prosocial behavior in, 437
scent marking by, 326
niche construction theory, 17
Nile soft-shelled turtles, 135
nine-spined sticklebacks, social learning by, 455
nominative fallacy, 22
noncooperators, 519–20
“none,” African grey parrot and, 308
nonexistence. See absence
nonhumans. See also specific orders, families, or species
anticipatory cognition in, 243–48
beliefs by, 41, 43–45
cognitive revolution and, 23
episodic memory in, 226–29
future planning in, 229–32
human cognition and, 261–68
language and, 43
memory in, 239, 532
mental life of, 43
mental states of, 291
metacognition in, 271–92
MTT in, 229, 236–38
reasoning by, 3–5
semantic memory in, 238
studying in natural environment, 63
teaching in, 536
testing of, 6–7
TOM for, 512
nonrepresentational belief, 49
methodological implications of, 53–55
Northern bald ibis, 137
novel behaviors, social learning for, 458–59
novel imitation, 476
novel problems, 10
reptiles and, 135–36
null results, 547
publishing of, 6
number concept
in African grey parrot, 304–5, 307–11
in bottlenose dolphins, 147
in rhesus monkeys, 47
symbols for, 305–6
numerosities, chimpanzees and, 6
nurture, vs. nature, 3
nutcracker birds, 62–63
O
object and label combinations, African grey parrot and, 312–13
object concept, 32
object movement reenactment (OMR), 452, 468
Occam's razor, 27, 31, 547
parsimony and, 453
octopus
brain of, 122
learning by, 122–23
memory of, 122–23
skin displays by, 124
Oedipal complex, 62
Oldowan cultural niche, 223
Old World monkeys (OW)
body postures of, 173
facial expressions of, 173
metacognition in, 285
olfactory signals of, 326
olfactory signals
coding of, 326–27
decoding of, 331–32
On the Origin of Species (Darwin), 523
ontogenetic ritualization, 180–81, 330
ontogeny
of cooperation, 13, 396–413
dogs and, 3
of gestures, 180–81
of prosocial behavior, 373–94
operant conditioning, 298
idiosyncratic gestures and, 330–31
with language, 370
operant psychology, of radical behaviorism, 21
orangutans
artificial language for, 184
culture in, 461
fairness in, 389
future planning by, 243
gestures by, 330
prosocial behavior of, 10
tools and, 87
UR and, 280
ordinality, African grey parrot and, 309–11
The Origin of Species (Darwin), 42, 536
over-imitation, 451–52
owl monkeys, scent marking by, 326
P
pantomime, 182, 325–26
parenting, 84
parrots. See also African Grey Parrot
brain size in, 81–82, 95f
cognition in, 83
generalized diet of, 85–86
sociality in, 95f
tools and, 95f
parsimony, 26–28
Morgan and, 529, 547
with MTT, 253
Occam's razor and, 453
pastness, 220, 223, 223
Pavlov, Ivan, conditioned reflex and, 20
Pepperberg, Irene, 45
perception
by bottlenose dolphins, 150
cognitive processes and, 23
personality
FFM of, 53
social relationships and, 519–21
theory of, 55
persuasion, communication for, 331–32
phenotypes, of dogs, 197–98
phonemes, 304, 324
phonological awareness, in African grey parrot, 304–5
phylogeny
of cooperation, 13, 396–413
of episodic memory, 222
metacognition and, 282–86
of prosocial behavior, 373–94
physical cognition
in bottlenose dolphins, 147–48
in primates, 167–68
vs. social cognition, 3
physical reasoning, 92–93
Piaget's A-not-B test, 32
pied flycatchers, contingent cooperation by, 517–18
pigeons
episodic memory in, 226, 239
insightful behavior in, 538
match-to-sample task for, 292
metacognition in, 283–84
metamemory of, 292
Skinner and, 22
Skinner boxes for, 10
social learning by, 456, 461
trained behaviors with, 368
UR and, 283–84
visual signals by, 330
pigs, 239
conflicts of assessment in, 72
pigtail macaques, olfactory signals by, 327
Pinker, Steven, 23
pinyon jays
conflicts of assessment with, 72
social relationships of, 509
planning. See future planning
plant-eating insects, communication in, 339–53
Plato, 17
Darwin and, 34n3
plentitude and, 41
Plato's paradox, 28–29
platyfish, social learning by, 455
play
African grey parrot and, 299–300
dogs and, 209–10
primate gestures for, 174
in reptiles, 135–36
(p. 571) play face, 174
plenitude, 41
pointing
by apes, 185–86
in chimpanzees, 406
comprehension of, 406
informative pointing, 400
by primates, 332
Polistes fuscatus, 69
politics
adaptation and, 63–64
aggression and, 69–70
chimpanzees and, 90
positive findings, 6, 547
disproval of, 12
for social learning, 138
positron emission tomography (PET), 510
poverty of stimulus, 28–29
pragmatism, 19
preexperience, 219
preferential-looking time paradigm, 45–47
Premack, David, 53
preverbal memories, 9
autobiographical memory and, 223
primates. See also apes; humans; monkeys; specific species
adaptation by, 166–67
authority and, 442–43
cognition in, 483–98
cognitive abilities of, 12
cognitive specializations of, 166–88
communication by, 166–88, 170–72, 320–34
contingent cooperation with, 515
cooperative coalitions in, 89
culture in, 13
disgust reaction in, 444
facial expressions of, 510
fairness in, 389–91, 439–40
gaze following in, 137
gestures by, 172–78, 330
grooming by, 182, 243
iconic gestures in, 325–26
infanticide in, 486
ingroup allegiance in, 441–42
instrumental helping in, 437–38
intentional gestures in, 175–76
metacognition in, 168
morality in, 430–45
physical cognition in, 167–68
pointing by, 332
prosocial behavior in, 381–83
SBH in, 103–4
self-awareness in, 168–69
sex differences in, 486
signals in, 321–26
social behavior in, 483–98
social cognition by, 168–70
social community structure for, 104
social environment and, 186–87
social relationships of, 498–9
visual acuity in, 84–85
vocal communication by, 13, 170–72, 187, 510
primate economic games, 435. See also specific games
private experience, 21
private speech, 300
procedural memory, 238–39
proprioceptive stimuli, 21
prosocial behavior, 9–10
absence of, 381
of capuchin monkeys, 382–83
in children, 383–84, 385f
in chimpanzees, 9–10, 373–81, 381f, 382f
chimpanzees and, 437
in common marmosets, 381
cooperation and, 13
in cottontop tamarins, 381, 437
Dictator game and, 435
empathy and, 424
fairness and, 389–93
in New World primates, 437
ontogeny of, 373–94
phylogeny of, 373–94
preferences in, 373–86
in primates, 381–83
punishment and, 385–89
sex differences in, 385
social emotions and, 424
sympathy and, 424
in tamarins, 381–82
in tufted capuchin monkeys, 382
prosocial behaviors, guilt and, 424
prospective cognition
in MTT, 243–48
timing in, 252
proximal cause, 534–36
psychical faculties, 529
psychoanalysis, Freud and, 20
Ptelea trifoliata, 350–52
Public Goods game, punishment and, 421
publish-or-perish, 6
punishment, 385–89
aggression and, 385
altruistic, 385, 422, 424
in children, 387–89, 391
in chimpanzees, 385–87, 387f
with cleaner fish, 421–22
contingent cooperation and, 519–20
cooperation and, 421–22
definition of, 421
morality and, 435
Public Goods game and, 421
selfish, 385
third-party, 422
Ultimatum game and, 421
purity
fairness and, 444
morality and, 434, 443–44
Ultimatum game and, 444
purposive behaviorism, 20–21
putty-nosed monkeys, calls by, 322
Q
The Question of Animal Awareness (Griffin), 23
R
Rachlin, Harold, 22
radial-arm maze, 132
radical behaviorism
anthropomorphism by, 34n7
mental states in, 19
operant psychology of, 21
Skinner and, 21–22
radical embodied cognition thesis, 51
rape, 69
ratcheting, 464
rational imitation, 451–52
rational thought, mechanical processes and, 26
rats
bar presses for, 10
episodic memory in, 226–27, 239, 239
future planning by, 229, 243–44
mazes for, 10
metacognition in, 14
MTT in, 253
Skinner and, 22
social learning by, 454, 457
social relationships of, 512–13
transitive inference in, 248
rattlesnakes, aggression in, 71
ravens
cooperative hunting by, 89
future planning by, 229–32
gaze following by, 511
rearing environment
of apes, 186
of chimpanzees, 497
social evolution and, 13
reasoning, 3–5
causal, 6, 10
inferential, 10
physical, 92–93
social, 90
receivers
for communication, 327–33
internal processes with, 329
reciprocity
calculated, 495
in chimpanzees, 495
cooperation and, 419
evolution of, 495
indirect, 420–21
mechanisms for, 514
morality and, 438–40
prosocial behavior and, 13
strong, 424
trust and, 110–12
reconciliation, in monkeys, 498
recursive combinatorial rules, vs. finite-state, 371–72
red-bellied cooters, 135
red deer, aggression in, 71
(p. 572) red-footed tortoise, 132, 138, 138
reference memory, 302
referential mapping, 299–300
Reimer, David, 64
reinforcement
foraging and, 536
with language, 370
for social learning, 457
UR and, 277–80
relations between relations, 146
relationships, 88–89. See also social relationships
classifications for, 106
in humans, 105–13
memory and, 110
stability and structure of, 110
symbols for, 301
trust in, 110–13
types of, 109–10, 110t
relative formidability, 72–75
relative size, African grey parrot and, 302
religion, structuralism and, 20
representation. See mental representation
representationalism
beliefs and, 47–49
gestures and, 182
representation-hungry processes, 32
reproduction, evolution to, 3
reptiles. See also specific species
cognition in, 129–41
evolutionary history of, 130
extant orders of, 130
gaze following in, 136–37, 137f
novel problems and, 135–36
play behavior in, 135–36
prey finding by, 6
social cognition in, 136–38
social learning by, 137–38, 138f, 138f
spatial cognition by, 130–33
visual cognition by, 133–35
reputation building, indirect reciprocity and, 420–21
research questions and strategies, 10–12
respect. See authority
response, 20. See also uncertainty response
retrograde amnesia, 218
retrospective cognition
MTT and, 239–43
timing in, 252
rhesus monkeys
cognitive imitation by, 476
contingent cooperation with, 515
episodic memory in, 226–27, 239
gaze following by, 511
intention of, 510
metamemory in, 535
number concept in, 47
social learning by, 458–59
social relationships of, 498
stimulus and, 277f
Rhynchocephalia, 130
Rilling, James, 3
ring-tailed lemurs, scent marking by, 326
robotics, 19
rodents. See also specific species
social learning by, 457
Romanes, George, 17, 23
on social learning, 447
rooks
relationships in, 89
sociality of, 88
rough-necked monitors, 133
rules, 476
chimpanzees and, 542–47
S
same/different
African grey parrot and, 301
monkeys and, 275f
same/identity, in bottlenose dolphins, 145–46
sampling, foraging and, 536–37
sanctity. See purity
scala naturae, 41, 529
scent marking, 326
schadenfreude (pleasure in misfortunes of others), 424
Schwitztgebel, Eric, 49–51
scientific method, 3
scorekeeping, 495
scrub jays
caching by, 31, 87, 95, 511, 532
episodic memory in, 226–28, 239
future planning by, 229, 243, 243–47
gaze following by, 511
MTT in, 253, 255f
WWW in, 532
secondary representation, 159
segmentation, 304
selection pressure, with aggression, 70
selective imitation, 451–52
self-anointing, as olfactory signal, 326–27
self-assessment, of formidability, 72
self-awareness
vs. awareness, 290–91
of bottlenose dolphins, 151
evolutionary precedent of, 290–91
metacognition and, 271
in primates, 168–69
self-concept, episodic memory and, 221
selfish, 373, 488
selfish punishment, 385
self-recognition, 6
by bottlenose dolphins, 151
in monkeys, 547
semantic communication, 170
as declarative memory, 238
semantic memory, 218
cognitive systems for, 219–20
definition of, 263
episodic memory and, 222
in nonhumans, 238
sensory information processing, in cephalopods, 118–20
sex differences, 6
aggression and, 64, 70, 71
in bottlenose dolphins, 14
with fairness, 391–93
fighting ability and, 12
in primates, 486
in prosocial behavior, 385
in social relationships, 513
sharing
in children, 396–99
in chimpanzees, 402–4
Shelleworth, Sara, 10
short-term memory, 532–34
shunning, 435
signals
auditory, 321–26, 332
coding of, 321–27
for communication, 321–26
decoding, 327–33
female preference and, 348–52
for mating, 344
olfactory, 326–27, 331–32
in primates, 321–26
by treehoppers, 342–44, 342f
signature whistle, 153–54, 159n4
sign language. See American Sign Language
Silk, Joan, 9–10
skin displays, of cephalopods, 123–24
Skinner, B.F.
intervening variables and, 22
radical behaviorism and, 21–22
Skinner boxes, 23
for pigeons, 10
small-n approach, 547
social behavior
convergent evolution of, 495–96
natural selection and, 483
in primates, 483–98
social brain hypothesis (SBH), 102, 103–4
social cognition
in birds, 509
in bottlenose dolphins, 148–51
cross-species comparisons of, 489f
vs. physical cognition, 3
by primates, 168–70
in reptiles, 136–38
social community structure, 104–5
social competence, of dogs, 198, 204f, 208–10
social complexity, cognition and, 102–14
social-context speech, 300
social contracts, 3
social dog versus causal ape hypothesis, 198
social emotions
altruistic punishment and, 424
prosocial behavior and, 424
(p. 573) sociality and, 424–25
social enhancement, 452
social environment
communication and, 13
primates and, 186–87
social evolution, rearing environment and, 13
social facilitation, 452, 476
social grouping, evolution of, 486–590
social intelligence, of bottlenose dolphins, 158–59
sociality, 95f
cognition and, 88
cooperation and, 419
culture and, 415–28
of dogs, 205–6
episodic memory and, 221
foraging and, 90
in humans, 415–28
of insects, 419
social emotions and, 424–25
social learning, 13
adaptation and, 447
by apes, 168, 458
by birds, 415, 456
by bottlenose dolphins, 152–53, 456–57
captive experiments on, 463
by capuchin monkeys, 457–58
by cetaceans, 456–57
by children, 459
by chimpanzees, 458
cognitive imitation and, 468–82
comparative psychology of, 447–66
by contagion, 452
culture and, 415, 447–66
definition of, 447–50
by dogs, 208–9, 457
by emulation, 452
evolutionary psychology of, 447–66
field experiments on, 461–63
by fish, 415, 455, 461
generalization in, 138–40
for gestures, 180–81
by gorillas, 458
by humans, 458–59
by imitation, 447–52
by insects, 415, 455
by local enhancement, 452–53
by macaques, 457–58
by mammals, 138, 415, 456–59
mechanisms of, 447–54
by mere-presence effects, 452
by monkeys, 457–58
motivations for, 453–54
for novel behaviors, 458–59
by pigeons, 456, 461
by rats, 457
reinforcement for, 457
by reptiles, 137–38, 138f, 138f
by rhesus monkeys, 458–59
by rodents, 457
by stimulus enhancement, 452–53
strategies for, 447
teaching and, 465
testing for, 461–63
tools and, 458
of traditions, 468
social reasoning, 90
social relationships, 498–21
of baboons, 498–7, 512
of bottlenose dolphins, 509
of capuchin monkeys, 498
of chacma baboons, 498–7
of chimpanzees, 507, 512
cognition and, 519
dominance hierarchies in, 507–8
function of, 512–13
of hyenas, 509
intention and, 510–11
of mice, 513
of monkeys, 512
personality and, 519–21
of primates, 498–9
of rats, 512–13
recognition of, 498–9
of rhesus monkeys, 498
sex differences in, 513
transient, 508–9
of vervet monkeys, 498
of yellow baboons, 512
social time budget, 107–9
social wasps, aggression in, 69
socio-cognitive theory, 107–13
sparse-dense discrimination, 273, 273f, 274f
by macaques, 277–80, 277f
sparse-middle-dense task, capuchin monkeys and, 282, 283f
spatial cognition
in bottlenose dolphins, 147–48
by reptiles, 130–33
spatial memory, 530–31
specificity, imitation and, 476
speckled turtle, 130–31
Squamata, 130
squid, 124
squirrel monkeys
calls by, 323
future planning by, 229–31
olfactory signals by, 327
prosocial behavior of, 10
statistical learning, in language, 28–29
stereotypes
beliefs and, 49, 51
disposition and, 49
Stich, Stephen, 45–46
stimulus, 20
emergents and, 289
generalization of, 289
poverty of, 28–29
rhesus monkeys and, 277f
UR and, 275–77
stimulus enhancement, social learning by, 452–53
stoplights, 286
strategic communication, with gestures, 180
strong reciprocity, 424
structuralism, 19
consciousness and, 20
religion and, 20
structure, episodic memory and, 223
The Study of Instinct (Tinbergen), 530
subjective decisional boundary, 280
subjective time, MTT and, 220
submission, primate gestures for, 173
subordinate imitation, 476
superior temporal sulcus (STS), 510
superordinate imitation, 476
survival, evolution to, 3
symbols
in ALR, 362–64
arbitrary, 184
vs. associative learning, 364–65
in chimpanzees, 364–65
declarative use of, 367–68
for number concept, 305–6
for relationships, 301
symbolic cognition, by bottlenose dolphins, 154–56
symbolic communication, 223
in African grey parrot, 297–314
sympathy, prosocial behavior and, 424
synchronization, of dogs, 206–7
syntax, 156
ALR and, 365–67
apes and, 184
chimpanzees and, 365–67
T
tabula rasa, 22
tactical deception (TD), 91–92
tactile recognition system, in cephalopods, 120
tamarins
prosocial behavior in, 9–10, 381–82
scent marking by, 326
teaching
in nonhumans, 536
social learning and, 465
“Teaching Sign Language to a Chimpanzee” (Gardner, A. and Gardner, B.), 356
terrapin, 130
territorial defense
communication for, 13
olfactory signals for, 326
thalamus, 219
theory of mind (TOM), 3, 29
bottlenose dolphins and, 150
chimpanzees and, 6
for nonhumans, 512
research on, 53–55
theory of personality, 55
theromorphism, 34n11
third-party punishment, 422
(p. 574) Thorndike, E.L., 529–30
threshold state, 289
Tinbergen, Niko, 34n5
comparative cognition and, 523–41
Darwin and, 523–41
four causes of behavior of, 535
tip-of-the-tongue states, 286
Tolman, Edward, 20–21
mental maps and, 21
Tooby, John, 23
tools, 95f, 534
apes and, 10
bottlenose dolphins and, 148
chimpanzees and, 83–84, 87, 460–61
future planning and, 229
insightful behavior and, 538–39
physical reasoning and, 92–93
social learning and, 458
traditions
chimpanzees and, 460–61
culture and, 459–62
social learning of, 468
trained behaviors
ALR and, 368–70
with pigeons, 368
transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), 275–77
transient social relationships, 508–9
transitive inference
dominance hierarchies and, 509
by pinyon jays, 509
in rats, 248
transparent reinforcement, 277–78
treehoppers, 341–52, 341f
behavioral isolation in, 342–44
female preference in, 345–48, 345f, 347f, 348f
mating for, 344
signals by, 342–44, 342f
tremulation by, 342–44
vibrational communication in, 342–44
tremulation, by treehoppers, 342–44
trial-by-trial reinforcement, 277–78
trust
with associative learning, 26
in relationships, 110–13
tuatara, 133
tufted capuchin monkeys, prosocial behavior in, 382
U
Ultimatum game
altruism and, 399
altruistic punishment and, 422
children and, 388–89
chimpanzees and, 385, 388f, 391, 515
cooperation and, 420
fairness and, 439
humans in, 388f
punishment and, 421
purity and, 444
Umwelt (organism's environment), 118, 121
uncertainty response (UR)
bottlenose dolphins and, 284–85
capuchin monkeys and, 282–83
concrete rewards for, 274–75
emergents and, 289
flexibility and, 280–81, 288
generalization and, 280–81
in humans, 273, 288
information processing and, 286
macaques and, 273–82, 280f, 281f
metacognition and, 273–88
naturalistic paradigms for, 280
orangutans and, 280
pigeons and, 283–84
psychological interpretation of, 286–88
reinforcement and, 277–80
stimulus and, 275–77
unfamiliar scenarios, chimpanzees in, 10–11
unpredictable environments, 85
urine, for olfactory signal, 326–27
use-sophistication hypotheses, 253–55
V
validity
ecological, 489, 494
external, 9
internal, 9
verbal counting. See ordinality
vertebrates. See also specific orders, families, or species
metacognition in, 285–86
vervet monkeys, 170
dominance hierarchies in, 507–8
mental representation in, 329
social learning by, 463
social relationships of, 498
vibrational communication, in treehoppers, 342–44
visible displacement, 148
visual acuity, cognition and, 84–85
visual cognition
metacognition and, 288
by reptiles, 133–35
visual signals. See also gestures
artificial systems, 329–30
coding of, 325–26
decoding of, 329–31
intention and, 332–33
vocal communication, 321–26
authority and, 443
calls as, 321–25
by dogs, 198
intention and, 510
by primates, 13, 170–72, 187, 510
voice
formidability assessment by, 73–75
height-and-weight assessment from, 65–68, 65t68t, 73–75, 73t
voluntary retrieval system, 223, 223
vultures, tools and, 87
W
Wallace, Alfred
Darwin and, 42
on social learning, 447
Watasenia scintillans, 119
Watson, John, 19–20, 34n6, 547
Aristotle and, 20
behaviorism of, 17
Darwin and, 20
dualism of, 20
neobehaviorism after, 20–21
on social learning, 447
what-where-when memory (WWW), 94, 226, 239
in mammals, 239–42
in meadow voles, 534
in nonhumans, 239, 249–50, 263–67
in scrub jays, 532
white-handed gibbons, calls by, 323
Wilkinson, Anna, 12
wolves, 195
cognition of, 198
communication by, 198–201
woodpecker finches
social learning by, 456
spatial memory in, 530
tools and, 87
Woodruff, Guy, 53
woolly monkeys, scent marking by, 326
working memory
in African grey parrot, 302
in bottlenose dolphins, 146
in macaques, 286
metacognition and, 289–90
metamemory and, 286
Y
yellow baboons, social relationships of, 512
Yerkes, Robert, on social learning, 447
Yucatan minipigs, episodic memory in, 239
Z
zero concept, African grey parrot and, 308
zone of proximal development, 372