- Oxford Library of Psychology
- Oxford Library of Psychology
- About the Editors
- Toward Bridging Gaps: Finding Commonality between Evolutionary and Comparative Psychology
- Why Behaviorism Isn't Satanism
- Confronting Language, Representation, and Belief: A Limited Defense of Mental Continuity
- Evolved Cognitive Adaptations
- Convergent Evolution of Cognition in Corvids, Apes and Other Animals
- Social Complexity and Intelligence
- Cephalopod Intelligence
- Cold-Blooded Cognition: Reptilian Cognitive Abilities
- Cetacean Cognitive Specializations
- Socio-Cognitive Specializations in Nonhuman Primates: Evidence from Gestural Communication
- The Evolution of Canine Cognition
- Episodic Memory and Planning
- Comparative Mental Time Travel: Is There a Cognitive Divide between Humans and Animals in Episodic Memory and Planning?
- Animal Models of Human Cognition
- Metacognition across Species
- Symbolic Communication in the Grey Parrot
- Communication in Nonhuman Primates
- Female Preference Functions Provide a Window into Cognition, the Evolution of Communication, and Speciation in Plant-Feeding Insects
- Apes and the Evolution of Language: Taking Stock of 40 Years of Research
- The Phylogeny and Ontogeny of Prosocial Behavior
- The Ontogeny and Phylogeny of Cooperation
- Culture and the Evolution of Human Sociality
- The Evolution of Morality: Which Aspects of Human Moral Concerns Are Shared With Nonhuman Primates?
- The Evolutionary and Comparative Psychology of Social Learning and Culture
- Cognitive Imitation: Insights into the Development and Evolution of Social Learning
- The Ecology and Evolution of Social Behavior and Cognition in Primates
- The Evolution of a Cooperative Social Mind
- Darwin, Tinbergen, and the Evolution of Comparative Cognition
- Comparative Evolutionary Psychology: A United Discipline for the Study of Evolved Traits
Abstract and Keywords
Episodic memory in humans is the recall of a specific event in the past, which the rememberer has the sense of having personally experienced. Semantic memory is knowledge of the past without the accompanying phenomenological experience. Most life events are remembered episodically for a short time, but some memories are retained episodically long term. The episodic memory system and personal future planning are closely related, and we refer to this as the episodic cognitive system. Key uses of episodic memory are in maintaining a sense of self-continuity, successful social interaction, and using information from past events to direct future behavior. Most, but not all, researchers believe that the episodic cognitive system emerged later in evolution than the semantic cognitive system. There is some evidence that some mammals and birds have some aspects of episodic memory and future thinking, but much more data is needed and on a greater variety of species. It is possible that animals have “event memory,” an evolutionary forerunner of human episodic cognitive abilities that allow them to act on specific past events and take actions for the future but that do not necessarily comprise the experience of mental time travel or of autonoesis.
Caroline R. Raby, Department of Experimental Psychology, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK.
Nicola S. Clayton, Department of Experimental Psychology, University of Cambridge.
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