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date: 14 December 2019

(p. 873) Subject Index

(p. 873) Subject Index

“5-a-day” campaign, 596
2004 National Worksite Health Promotion Survey, 688
AAP (American Academy of Pediatrics), 351
absenteeism, 127, 128, 543–545, 685, 686, 696–697
abuse, domestic, 90, 180, 270
academic scores, 127–128
ACCRA (American Chamber of Commerce Researchers Association), 467, 468–470, 645
Acomplia® (rimonabant), 803, 841, 842
Active Living Research Program, 435, 762
activity, physical. See physical activity
Add Health (National Longitudinal Survey of Adolescent Health), 15, 39, 308–310, 333, 525, 539
African Americans
behavioral treatment outcomes, 784–786
children and youth, 263, 268–269
depression among, 336–337, 341–342
employment, 535, 546, 555
historical changes in BMI, 50–51, 54–56
medical costs, lifetime, 497, 498
mothers, 178, 270
overeating as coping strategy, 264, 270
physical activity barriers, 270
psychosocial stress, 283, 342
rates of obesity, 17, 40–41, 259, 261–262
residential patterns, 110
self-perception, 265–266, 268, 336–337, 785
sleep deprivation, 265
television targeted to, 268
weight as protection, 270
welfare reform and, 546–547
women, 17, 40, 44
age cohorts
adolescent, 198–199
birth, 38, 196–197, 525
child, 199
life course analysis in, 111–112
mature, 199–200
senior citizens, 197, 509
Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ), 798, 799
age-period-cohort analyses, 44
agricultural policy
acreage controls, 483–484
childhood obesity and, 480–481, 483
commodity promotion, 487–489, 615
farmland subsidies, 482–483
fast food chains and, 488
Federal Farm Promotion programs, 487–488
food assistance programs and, 485–487
food prices and, 482, 483
high-fructose corn syrup, 484–485
loan deficiency payments, 482
price supports, 481
production subsidies, 481–482
public policy goals, 489–490
rates of obesity, effect on, 250
tariffs on imports, 484–485
AHEAD (Study of Assets and Health Dynamics Among the Oldest Old), 197
AHG (Alliance for a Healthier Generation), 633
AHRQ (Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality), 798–799
AICR (American Institute of Cancer Research), 297
alcohol use, 307, 757, 758, 761–762
Alliance for a Healthier Generation (AHG), 633
AMA (American Medical Association), 484–485
American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP), 351
American Beverage Association, 634
American Chamber of Commerce Researchers Association (ACCRA), 467, 468–470, 645
American Heart Association, 760
American Indians, 69, 589, 672, 722
American Institute of Cancer Research (AICR), 297, 377
American Medical Association (AMA), 484–485
American Time Use Survey (ATUS), 188, 192
Americans for Nonsmoker’s Rights Foundatoin, 625
amphetamines. See drugs, anti-obesity
Analysis Grind for Environments Linked to Obesity (ANGELO), 717
ANGELO (Analysis Grind for Environments Linked to Obesity), 717
animal foods. See meat consumption
(p. 874) anthropology, 60–74
appearance norms, 61–62
auxology, 68
biocultural anthropology, 64
body image, 73–74
brain development, 62–63
cultural approaches, 64–65
defined, 60
ecological model, 65–66
evolutionary perspectives, 61–64
genetics, 69
human adaptability, 66–67
life-cycle research, 71
methodologies and techniques, 69–71
nutrition transition, 63
systems approach, 65
thrifty genotype, 62
anthropometric history, 48
anti-obesity drugs. See drugs, anti-obesity
anxiety, 89, 93, 94, 526, 561, 760
appearance norms
changes over time, 74, 304
cultural influences, 64–65, 73–74, 174–175, 285
racial/ethnic disparities, 265–266, 614
stigma and discrimination, 5, 558–559
television as influence, 285
value of body types, 17, 61–62
wage penalty and, 542–543
appetite suppressants. See drugs, anti-obesity
APPLE study, 668–669
Arkansas Center for Health Improvement, citations, 27
arthritis, 36
Asian Americans, 264, 510, 525
attractiveness. See appearance norms
ATUS (American Time Use Survey), 188, 192
Australia
community interventions, 723–724
food advertising, 354, 596, 670, 839–840
food deserts, 454, 457
food taxes, 641
school-based interventions, 670, 839
wage penalty, 542, 549
auxology, 68
BAEW (Be Active, Eat Well), 723–724
Balance project, the, 726
balancing equation (in demography), 35
Baltimarket, 727
Barbados Eye Studies, 14
bariatric pharmacotherapy. See drugs, anti-obesity
bariatric surgery, 795–804
annual statistics, 795–796
categories, 795–796
development, 795
efficacy, 5, 796–798
gastric devices, 803
guidelines and eligibility, 792–793
mortality risk, 800, 803
research opportunities, 803
safety, 798–803
Bates v. State Bar of Ariz., 743n
BBB (Better Business Bureau), 747
Be Active, Eat Well (BAEW), 723–724
beauty standards. See appearance norms
behavior, individual
adaptability, 66–67
commitment issues, 611
within complex systems, 228–229, 588–589
as contributing factor, 21
psychological theories of eating, 88–90
and random triggers, 214
resource maximization, 121–122
restrained eaters, 89
studies, 193
suicidal, 196, 561
behavioral economics, 138–153
approaches to study, 138–139
behavioral “nudges,” 149–151
changing prices, 148–149
decision errors, 149
diminishing sensitivity, 144
economic incentives, 151–152
information provision, 145–148
motivated information processing, 145
narrow decision bracketing, 143–144
the “peanuts effect” and intangibility, 142–143
policy limitations of conventional approaches, 145–149
present-biased preferences, 140–141, 151
projection bias, 143
resource maximization, 139
visceral factors, 141–142
willpower, 142, 553, 560, 564, 756
Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS), 37, 41–42, 192–193, 192n, 474
behavioral treatments. See treatments, behavioral
Belgium, 668
benzphetamine, 794
Better Business Bureau (BBB), 747
(p. 875) beverages, sugar-sweetened. See soft drinks
binge eating, 342, 562
biocultural anthropology, 64
See also anthropology
bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA), 194
birth cohorts. See age cohorts
Board of Trustees of the State of New York v. Fox, 743n
body mass index (BMI)
for children, 37
cliometrics of, 48–56
in epidemiology, 11
historical trend, 38–40, 53–55
inaccuracy of, 243–244, 539
as standard measure, 37
body shapes, value of, 17, 61–62
breakfast
school meals, 320, 419–422, 426–427, 670, 673
skipping, 124, 126
and weight loss maintenance, 819
breast-feeding, 72, 313–314, 316, 320, 422, 428
BRFSS (Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System), 37, 41–42, 192–193, 192n, 474
Bridging the Evidence Gap in Obesity Prevention, 731
Bridging the Gap program, 641
Britain. See United Kingdom
built environment, 433–444
Active Living Research Program, 435
context for study, 433
measures of, 435, 442–443
race and ethnicity, 264, 266–267
recreation environments, 436–437
research, past, 434–435
research opportunities, 440–444
safety of, 266–267, 437
supermarket access, 267, 456–457, 727
walkable neighborhoods, 434, 438–440, 441
bullying, 94, 180, 338, 557–558, 562
Bureau of Labor Statistics, 467, 471
calorie labeling. See food labeling
Canada
food advertising, 355, 596
food taxes, 641
incentive funding for programs, 231
labor market outcomes, 547
maternal employment, 283, 319
socioeconomic status (SES), 280, 283
Canadian Community Health Survey, 202
cancer, 23, 24, 297, 760, 797, 837
carbonated beverages. See soft drinks
cardiovascular disease, 23, 495, 693, 825–826
cash transfer programs. See income
CATCH (Child and Adolescent Trial for Cardiovascular Health), 672
Caucasian Americans
children and youth, 128, 262, 269
depression, 336, 337
historical changes in body mass index (BMI), 54–56
rates of obesity, 17, 40–41, 259, 261–262
self-perception, 265–266, 336, 337
causal inference
covariate adjustment, 240–241
difficulty explaining body weight, 245–250
dynamics, 248–249
instrumental variables, 241–242
instruments, finding good, 246–248
lack of good methods, 478
measurement error, 243–244
overview of approaches, 238–243
panel data, methods exploiting, 242–243
problems with observational data, 239–240
regression discontinuity designs, 241
causation, establishing
economic, 124–127
in epidemiology, 20–22
in mental health, 93–95
in nutrition transition, 294–295
for peer effects, 304–305, 308–310
randomized controlled trials (RCT), 25–26, 94, 240, 548, 728–729
Center for Consumer Freedom, 576
Center for Science in the Public Interest, 593, 597, 616
Centers for Disease Control (CDC)
analysis of workplace interventions by, 695
citations, 50, 423, 587, 620, 621, 624, 632, 683, 700, 728
data collection and distribution, 37, 41, 68, 158
definition of community intervention, 715
Heart Stroke/Check, 793
institutional interest, 577. See also National Survey of Family Growth (NSFG)
workplace intervention tools, 700
(p. 876) Centers for Medicaid and Medicare Services (CMS), 798
central adiposity, 23
Central Hudson Gas & Electric Corp. v. Public Service Commission, 742–743
CFBAI (Children’s Food and Beverage Advertising Initiative), 630
CHANGE study, 726
chapters, complimentary, 4
Checklist of Health Promotion Environments at Worksites (CHEW), 693
Chicago Heart Association Detection Project in Industry, 498
Child and Adolescent Trial for Cardiovascular Health (CATCH), 672
Child and Adult Care Food Program (CACFP), 486, 644
Child Nutrition and WIC Reauthorization Act, 591
children and youth
abuse of, 90
adoption studies, 538, 539, 540
advertising to, 5, 22, 132, 268–269, 489, 593–596
birth weight, 72, 195
body size measurement, 11–12, 37
bullying, 94, 180, 338, 557–558, 562
and cumulative disadvantage, 112
dating, 113
decreased exposure to advertising, 747–748
depression, 333, 334, 561
in developed countries, 277
effect of agricultural subsidies on, 483, 486
effect of food prices on, 468–469, 653–655
environmental factors, 66
fast food consumption, 316–318, 320–325
feeding of, 71, 213, 376–377
feeding of infants, 72, 313–314, 316, 320, 422, 428
food assistance program participation, 418–419, 422–423
food purchases by, 161, 163, 201, 353
government regulation to protect, 132–133, 161
health effects, 24–25, 350, 561
incidence of obesity, 14–16
influence on parents, 123, 197, 269, 353
in media, 560
with obese parents, 16, 17
parental influence, 66, 90, 123, 612, 746–747
peer effects, 91, 305–306
portion sizes and, 373–375, 374–377, 379
prenatal development, 22
prevalence of obesity, 14, 18, 39–40, 41, 350–360
psychological effects, 159, 561
race and ethnicity, 41, 262–263
restrained eating, 90
Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development, 321
trend in obesity, 39–40
urban vs. rural populations, 17
weight loss camps, 107
Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS), 195–196
Children’s Food and Beverage Advertising Initiative (CFBAI), 630
Chile, 668
China
body mass index (BMI) cutoffs, 11
China Health and Nutrition Longitudinal Survey, 294–295
depression, 335
nutrition transition in, 297
prevalence of obesity, 14, 18, 293
school-based interventions, 669–670
chronic disease. See also specific conditions, 10, 25, 225–226, 283, 835
cigarette companies. See tobacco use
ciliary neurotrophic factor, 803
classes of obesity, 37
cliometrics of BMI, 48–56
adoption of BMI, 48–49
BMI as health measure, 50
cliometrics defined, 48
historical overview, 49
historical trend, 54–55
modern BMI values, 53–55
mortality risk, 50, 51
nineteenth century BMI values, 50–53
research opportunities, 56
stature as measure, 48–49
CMS (Centers for Medicaid and Medicare Services), 798
Coca-Cola company, 124, 590, 634
commercial speech, 132, 596, 742–744, 747
Community Action Model, 720–721
community interventions, 713–733
assessment of needs and assets, 726–728
Balance project, the, 726
Be Active, Eat Well (BAEW), 723–724
CHANGE study, 726
CHOPPS project, 27
community readiness, 720
conditional income transfer, 125–126
context for study, 713–714
cost-effectiveness of, 839
decision making, 730–732
definition of community, 714–715
Dutch Obesity Intervention in Teenagers (DOiT), 26–27
(p. 877)
ecological models, 717–718
EPODE (prevention campaign), 725
four keys to success of, 714
frameworks for understanding, 716–717
Healthy Kids, Healthy Communities, 725
participatory models, 720–721
Pathways (American Indian) program, 672, 722
Photovoice, 728
prevention messages, 761–763
Request for Application (RFA) process, 726
research opportunities, 730, 732–733
Shape Up America, 175
Shape Up Somerville, 675–676, 723, 726
smoking and disease prevention, 721–722
social change models, 719
study design and evaluation, 728–730
SWITCH study, 675–676, 725
systems approach, 718–719
Vielle Santé III (FLVSIII), 724
community-based participatory research model (CBPR), 721, 730
compensatory consumption, 148–149, 150, 164, 369–371, 374, 377
complex systems science, 208–232
5-level Intervention Level Framework, 224–227
12 points for intervention, 223–224
adaptation and self-organization, 217–219
concept mapping, 222
defined, 208, 221
deterministic vs. stochastic, 214
and disciplinary perspectives, 3
feedback loops, 215–217, 231
Foresight obesity system map, 208–212, 213, 215, 216–218, 230
hallmarks of complexity, 212–219
homogeneous vs. heterogenous, 213
independent vs. interdependent, 215
intervention level framework, 223–227
linear vs. nonlinear, 213–214
principles to guide specific action, 228–232
reductionistic approach, rejection of, 220–221
research opportunities, 222
responses to complex problems, 220–222
solutions to complex problems, 222–223
static vs. dynamic, 215
conditional income transfer programs, 125–126, 416
See also income
conditioning, classical. See treatments, behavioral
confounding factors, 508–512
and causal inference, 239
in causal peer estimates, 308
defined, 19–20
in depression studies, 23, 24
in education studies, 520, 524
in health studies, 95
in mortality estimates, 504
in randomized controlled trials (RCT), 25–26
Congressional Budget Office, 657, 659
consequences of obesity. See specific conditions
Continuing Survey of Food Intake by Individuals (CSFII), 320, 373, 470, 653
controversy over body weight. See debates over body weight
Convergence Partnership, citations, 714
cookbook portion sizes, 150, 368
corporate food systems, 111, 577–578
correlation. See causal inference
cost benefit analysis, 834
cost-effectiveness of interventions, 832–844
annual health care costs, 832
assessing the options, 832–834
bariatric surgery, 842–843
case study for analysis design, 834–838
comparative effectiveness research (CER), 833
cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA), 833–836
diets, 840
drug therapies, 841–842
multicomponent interventions, 840–841
physical activity, 840–841
prevention programs, 838–840
research opportunities, 840, 843–844
CPS (Current Population Survey), 192
Crete, 668
CSFII (Continuing Survey of Food Intake by Individuals), 320, 373, 470, 653
Cuba, 126
Current Population Survey (CPS), 192
D.A.R.E., 758
data, publicly available, 187–204
cross-sectional, 188–196
discussion of sources, 203–204
international sources, 202, 541
longitudinal, 194, 195, 196–202
See also causal inference; study design; specific sources and demographic groups
data collection, 12–13, 37, 41, 68, 69–71, 158
deaths. See mortality
(p. 878) debates over body weight, 572–579
critiquing medical claims, 574–575
economic interests, 576
framing of obesity as a health crisis, 572–573, 576–578
“obesity paradox,” 573, 577
reality of obesity crisis, 573
research opportunities, 579
social implications, 578–579
decision analysis (DA) technique, 836–837
decision making, 143, 144–148, 149, 230, 730–733, 836–838
definitions of obesity, 11–16, 36
demography, 35–45
age differences, 39–40
areas of study, 36
defined, 35
educational achievement, 43
gender, 40
geography, 41
measurement of obesity, 36–37
methodologies and techniques, 35–36, 43–44
overall trend, 38–39, 43–44
race and ethnicity, 40–41
social organization, 64
socioeconomic status (SES), 42–43
Denmark, 547
depression, 329–344
and age groups, 333–334
association with obesity, 5, 330–331, 333–334, 340–343
context for study, 329–330
disruption of social interactions, 337–338
and gender, 330, 334, 335–337, 341
international studies, 331, 335
measurement and variation of results, 331–333
physical limitations, 338–339
psychological studies, 93–94
psychosocial theories, 283, 340, 342
and race, 336–337, 341, 341–342
research opportunities, 339–340, 343–344
self-perception and, 335–337
suicidal thoughts and behaviors, 196, 561
U-shaped relationship to age, 339
U-shaped relationship to BMI, 23
See also mental health
desoxyephedrine, 794
dexfenfluramine (Redux®), 794
diabetes, 22–23, 495, 588, 797–798
Dietary Guidelines for Americans, 644
dietary modification. See weight loss
dietary shift. See nutrition transition
diethylpropion, 794
diets
behavioral weight-loss techniques, 96
cost-effectiveness of, 840
deceptive claims, 744–745
diet foods, 577
disinhibition effect, 89
disordered eating, 179
estimation of calories, 145–146
fad diets, 615
failure rate, 177, 587
group dynamics, 107–108
health effects, 575
low calorie, very, 778
low-carbohydrate, 26
low-fat, 26
meal replacements, 778–779
narrow decision bracketing, 143–144
percentage of population on, 177
portion-controlled, 779
product marketing, 174–175
diminishing sensitivity, 144
disability, 338–339, 544–545
disability-adjusted life year (DALY) measure, 834
discrimination. See stigma and discrimination
diseases. See health risks of obesity; specific conditions
disinhibition effect, 89, 90, 399
disordered eating. See eating disorders
Dominican Republic, 668
Domino’s fast food chain, 488
Dow Chemical Company case study, 697–698
Dr. Pepper Snapple Group, 634
Drug Awareness and Resistance Education (D.A.R.E.), 758
drug epidemiology. See pharmacoepidemiology
drugs, anti-obesity, 792–795
appetite suppressants, 793, 794
classes of, 793
costs of, 801
Food and Drug Administration (FDA), 793–794
future drugs, 803–804
lipase inhibitors, 793, 794
for maintaining weight loss, 824–826
off-label, 793, 826
pharmaceutical lobbies, 175, 576
prescription data, 794–795
problems with, 587, 794
Dutch Famine of 1944, 22, 72
Early Childhood Longitudinal Surveys (ECLS), 196–197, 525
early mortality. See mortality
(p. 879) Earned Income Tax Credit (EITC), 125
EAT (Environmental Assessment Tool), 694
eating disorders, 342, 562
See also mental health
ECHP (European Community Household Panel), 475, 541
ECLS (Early Childhood Longitudinal Surveys), 196–197, 525
ecological models, 65–66, 434, 717–718
economic evaluations (EEs), 834
economic history. See cliometrics of BMI
economic incentives, 151–152
economic perspectives on policy, 609–617
behavioral theories, 611
economic problem of obesity, 609–610
fast food regulation, 615–616
information provision, 614–615
normative aspects of increasing obesity, 613–614
physical activity, price of, 610–611
positive aspects of increasing obesity, 610–613
price effects on weight, 611–612
research opportunities, 613, 617
taxation, 615
technological change, 610–611
tobacco, 616
utility, 613
economics, 120–133
defined as social science, 120–121
economic consequences of obesity, 127–128
external costs, 130–132
failures of individual rationality, 132–133
food prices, 124–125
government intervention rationales, 128–133, 613–614
income, 125–126
lack of consumer information, 129–130
“last dollar” and “last hour” rules, 122–123, 127
resource maximization, 121–124
technological change, 126–127
Economics of Slavery, The, 48
Edenfield v. Fane, 743n
educational achievement
causation, establishing, 518, 526–527
changes in effect over time, 518–520
context for study, 518
educational levels, 278–279
historical trend, 43
human capital, 517–518, 615
immigrants vs. U.S. -born, 270
and maternal employment, 323–325
population subgroups, 521
research opportunities, 526–527
school outcomes, 5, 127–128, 522–526, 557–558
as socioeconomic indicator, 282
study design, 525
embryonic development. See fetal development
employer programs. See workplace interventions
employment
association with obesity, 278, 473
occupational attainment, 545–546
occupational segregation, 265
shift work, 265
and socioeconomic status (SES), 281–282
employment discrimination. See stigma and discrimination
energy density of foods
and portion sizes, 370–371, 374–375, 379
and price per calorie, 466–467
energy imbalance
defined, 263–264
and depression, 341
in developing countries, 17
global dynamics of, 293–295
psychosocial factors, 22
weight loss maintenance and, 821–822
England. See United Kingdom
England Longitudinal Survey of Aging, 476
entitlement programs, 499, 588, 613
Environmental Assessment Tool (EAT), 694
epidemiology, 9–28
analytic (observational), 18–25
causation, 20–22
chronic disease models, 25
defined, 9–10
definitions of obesity, 11–16
descriptive, 16–18
experimental, 25–27
exposure, obesity as, 22–25
incidence of obesity, 14–16
nutritional, 21
occurence measures and data collection, 12–13
(p. 880)
outcome vs. exposure, 19–20
pharmacoepidemiology, 26
research challenges and opportunities, 27–28
research opportunities, 27–28
EPODE (prevention campaign), 724–725
EPPM (extended parallel process model), 764–765
Established Populations for Epidemiological Studies of the Elderly, 507
estimation of intake, 597
Europe, 202, 368, 541–542, 547
See also specific countries
European Community Household Panel (ECHP), 475, 541
Evidence-Based Practice Center (EPC), 798
evidence-based public health (EBPH), 730–731
exchange theories, 112
exercise. See physical activity
exposure, obesity as an, 22–25
extended parallel process model (EPPM), 764–765
family
BMI and relationship quality, 338
cultural socialization, 336
environmental influence of, 90
genetics and BMI, 559
sibling fixed-effects models, 540–541
support from, 691, 699
teasing from, 561
family studies, 21, 69
famines, 22, 62
FAO (Food and Agricultural Organization), 296
farm subsidies. See agricultural policy
farmers’ markets, 592
fast food
access to, 194
and commodity promotion, 488
costs and benefits of consuming, 122
food prices, 124–125
health effects, 596–597
and maternal employment, 315
in minority neighborhoods, 267
New York City menu labeling law, 129–130, 146–147, 163–164, 597–599
as percent of calories consumed, 616n
portion sizes, 368
prevalence, 193
prices and weight outcomes, 653–655
See also restaurants
fat studies, 168–180
as academic discipline, 179–180
appearance norms, 174–175
discrimination, 177–178
fat-positive exercise, 180
health and dieting, 176–177
historical views of fatness, 175
preoccupation with weight, 174–175
public policy, 175
social movement organizations, 108–109, 173–174, 179, 180
“fatosphere,” the, 180
FCTC (Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, 622–623
FDA (Food and Drug Administration), 175, 576, 793–794
Federal Farm Promotion programs, 487–488
Federal Trade Commission (FTC)
authority, 741
citations, 593, 596, 744n, 745n, 746n
regulation of advertising, 132
regulation of diet products, 744–748
feedback loops, 215–219
feminist studies. See fat studies
fenfluramine, 794
fetal development, 22, 49, 63, 72, 196–197
field-based research, 69–70
Fiji, 285
Finland, 14, 547
First Amendment rights, 132, 596, 742–744, 746, 747
FitKid program, 676
food access
Baltimarket, 727
in schools, restricting, 591–592
supermarket access, 267, 456–457, 727
food addiction, 199
food advertising, 741–750
advergames, 355
calorie-related claims, 748–750
checkoff programs, banning, 488–489
to children, decline in, 5, 747–748
Children’s Food and Beverage Advertising Initiative (CFBAI), 630
commodity promotion, 487–489
comparative claims, 749–750
deceptive claims, 742, 748–750
diet foods, 577
effects on children, 357–359
Federal Trade Commission, 132, 741, 744–748
First Amendment rights, 132, 596, 742–744, 746, 747
healthy foods, 359, 596, 748–749
historical materialism perspectives, 111
international studies of, 354–355
(p. 881)
“kid vid” rule making, 746–747
marketing restrictions, 132, 593, 596, 616, 629–630
new media, 748
product placement, 355, 593
public service announcements (PSAs), 359
by race and ethnicity, 268–269
Saturday Morning Food Pyramid, 354
self-regulation by industry, 747–748
unfairness standard, 742, 746
value pricing, 368
Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO), 296
Food and Drug Administration (FDA), 175, 576, 793–794
food assistance programs, 415–429
Child and Adult Care Food Program (CACFP), 486, 644
context for study, 415–416
multiple program participation, 423–424
as obesity combatants, 424–428
research opportunities, 428–429
school meal programs, 419–422, 426–427
Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP), 133, 192, 417–419, 424–426
targeted subsidies, 644, 659
Women, Infants and Children (WIC) program, 422–423, 427–428
food deserts
concepts, 455–456
context for study, 452–453
definitions, traditional, 453–455
links to obesity, 457–458
methodological issues, 458–459
minority neighborhoods, 267
research opportunities, 459
food industry, 576–578
food insecurity, 133, 192, 280
food labeling
in combined approaches, 166
effectiveness of, 166, 614
and maternal employment, 315
on packaged foods, 129, 146, 378, 748–750
in workplace cafeterias, 692
food prices, 124–125, 463–478
data, publicly available, 203
declining, 612
effects of, 148, 468–472, 653–655
high cost of “healthy” foods, 267, 458
import tariffs, 484–485
income and body weight, 472–477
measurement challenges, 466–468
public policy, 297
research opportunities, 478
sugar prices, 484, 654
theoretical issues, 464–465
value pricing, 368, 378
and variation in demand, 465–466
food taxes, 639–661
candy, 642, 643
chips and baked goods, 642
commodity promotion, 487–488
context for study, 639–640
current tax system, 641–642
design as policy instrument, 659–660
empirical evidence for, 645, 653–655
federal vs. state, 659
obesity prevention programs, 657–658
policy design issues, 657–660
possible forms, 615
potential effects, 130–132, 660
prices and weight outcomes, 644–645
requirements for success, 640
revenue potential, 657
size or amount, determining the, 657–658
subsidies, 644
vending machine taxes, 643, 655
what to tax or subsidize, 658
Foresight program
obesity system map, 208–212, 213, 215, 216–218
report, 675
systems approach used, 719
Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC), 622–623
Framingham Heart Study, 14
France, 724–725
fruits and vegetables
advertising of, 596
agricultural policy, 482, 484
consumption by income, 425–426
effect of prices, 655–656
subsidies, 644
FTC (Federal Trade Commission). See Federal Trade Commission
gender
children, 66
depression and, 330, 334, 335–337, 341
(p. 882)
educational achievement, 521–522, 525–526
LGBT people, 178
mortality, 505
prevalence of obesity by, 16–17, 18, 39–40
socioeconomic status (SES), 42–43, 261
See also fat studies; men; women
genetic factors
adoption studies, 538, 540
limited effect of, 588
role of, 21, 69, 213
study design and, 538, 539, 540–541
geographical data, 41–42
globalization, 612
government data. See data, publicly available
government interventions. See public policy
Government Office for Science (U.K.), 675
Great Britain. See United Kingdom
Great Shape: The First Fitness Guide for Large Women, 180
Greece, 17, 669
growth, human, 68
guilt, 97, 145, 759, 773
See also mental health
Health and Retirement Study (HRS), 197, 470, 474, 475, 476, 504
Health at Every Size (HAES) movement, 179
See also fat studies
Health Behavior and Health Education: Theory, Research, and Practice, 716, 722
Health Behaviour in School-Aged Children (HBSC) study, 14
health care avoidance, 177, 563
health care providers, 92, 177, 556–557
health care reform (2010), 130, 168, 597, 659, 699, 701–702
Health Impact Assessment (HIA), 728
health insurance
anti-obesity drugs and, 801
bariatric surgery and, 801–803
data on use of, 197–198
employer-provided, 684–686
experience-rating of, 613
external social cost of, 130
health-promoting behaviors and, 195
moral hazard due to, 197
premiums, 499
public programs, 588, 613
wage offsets and, 536–537
health risks of obesity, 22–25, 50, 94–95, 293, 350, 526
See also epidemiology; mental health; specific conditions
Health Surveys of England, 474
Healthy Eating Research program, 763
Healthy Incentive Pilot (HIP), 425
Healthy Kids, Healthy Communities, 725
Healthy People, 187–188, 258, 351, 688
Heart Check, 693
heart disease. See cardiovascular disease
high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS), 162, 484–485
Hispanic Americans
acculturation, 269
children and youth, 263, 319
“mother blame,” 178
rates of obesity, 40–41, 259, 261
historical materialism, 111
“hogging,” 180
home meal preparation, 192, 280, 315, 616, 616n
HRS (Health and Retirement Study), 197, 470, 474, 475, 476, 504
human behavior. See behavior, individual
human capital. See educational achievement
hyperlipidemia, 797–798
hypertension, 797–798
IARC (International Agency for Research on Cancer), 625, 628
identification, 578–579
See also peer effects
immigrants to the U.S., 269–270, 319, 589, 668
incidence of obesity, 14–16
income
association with obesity, 278, 472–477
conditional income transfer programs, 125–126, 416
data on, 200–201
fast food consumption and, 322–325
maternal employment and, 316
percentage spent on food, 612
racial/ethnic disparities in, 259–262
research opportunities, 478
Social Security, 125
socioeconomic status (SES), 280, 282–283, 284
weight and, 125, 128, 199, 611
See also food prices
India, 14, 292, 821
information provision, 145–148, 162, 376–377
ingredients, banning, 162, 484–485
(p. 883) inheritance. See genetic factors
Institute for Social Research, 197
Institute of Medicine (IOM), citations, 132
Institute of Medicine (IOM) citations, citations, 25, 133, 159, 313, 314, 351, 352, 353, 355, 356, 357, 360, 426, 427, 438, 489, 593, 629, 630, 644, 657, 719, 731, 741n, 745
interdisciplinary research opportunities, 2
internal-external theory of eating, 88
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), 625, 628
International Obesity Task Force (IOTF), 576
International Union for Health Promotion and Education (IUPHE), 674
Internet, 180, 690, 781
interpersonal relationships
exchange thinking, 112
marital satisfaction, 113
stigma and discrimination, 558–559
IOM (Institute of Medicine). See Institute of Medicine (IOM) citations
IOTF (International Obesity Task Force), 576
Israel, 669
ITC Project, 628
Japan, 319, 321
Joy of Cooking portion sizes, 150
Kaiser Family Foundation, 351
KOPS school-based intervention, 673
Korea, South, 295, 335
labeling. See food labeling
labor market outcomes
absenteeism, 127, 128, 543–545, 685, 686, 696–697
context for study, 531–532
disability, 544–545
employment, 546–547
experimental evidence, 547–549
international studies, 541–543, 546, 547
occupational attainment, 545–546
racial/ethnic disparities, 535
research opportunities, 541, 543, 546, 549
wage penalty, 532–543, 549, 555
and welfare reform, 546–547
“last dollar” rule, 122–123, 124
“last hour” rule, 122–123, 127
Latin Americans. See Hispanic Americans
laziness and behavioral “nudges,” 149–151
Leading by Example (LBE), 693
LEARN Program for Weight Management, 774
legal cases, 742–743
Let’s Move initiative, 600
LGBT people, 178
life course analysis, 111–112
life expectancy. See mortality
life table analysis, 35, 44
life-cycle research, 71–73
lifestyle modification. See treatments, behavioral
lipase inhibitors. See drugs, anti-obesity
longitudinal studies, 278
“looksism,” 174
Marx, Karl, 111, 174
maternal employment, 313–326
anxiety about, 578
causation, establishing, 315–319
child care, 314, 319, 320
convenience foods, 315, 320–321
educational achievement and, 323–325
fast food consumption, 320–325
fathers, 126, 316–318
home meals, 320, 321
increase in, 126
increased childhood obesity, 126, 199, 318–321
infant feeding, 313–314, 316, 320
international studies, 319
maternity leave, 314
“mother blame,” 178
neutral and positive effects, 316, 319
physical activity and, 321
school food consumption, 320
screen time and, 126, 321
snacking and, 321
Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development, 321
mazindol, 794
McDonalds restaurant chain, 147, 488
meal planning. See home meal preparation
measurement of weight
alternatives to BMI, 539
bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA), 194, 540
body composition, 194, 199
body mass index (BMI), 36, 37, 199
in demography, 36–37
epidemiological, 11–16, 19
(p. 884)
error in, 244
in human biology, 69–71
research opportunities, 478
stature, 48–49
waist circumference, 194, 197
waist-to-hip ratio, 194, 243
meat consumption
by boys, 66
disease risks of, 296
food prices, 469
increase in, 295
nutrition transition, 291, 292–293
by SNAP program participants, 417
Medicaid, 588, 613, 627, 798
medical claims, questioning. See debates over body weight
medical conditions. See specific conditions
medical costs, 495–500
annual aggregate, 127, 496–497, 657, 684, 832
annual per capita, 495–496, 588
bariatric surgery, 496, 587, 801–802
for employers, 684–686
external costs, 497–498
international, 159–160
intervention rationales, 139
lifetime, 495
Medicaid, 588
Medicare, 498, 588
mortality as spending reduction, 613
predicted future, 684
prescription drugs, 495–496
public policy implications, 498–500
Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS), 197–198, 536–537
medical students. See health care providers
Medicare
costs, 498, 499, 588, 613
coverage of bariatric surgery, 798, 802
studies, 193
men
and depression, 341
in developed countries, 279–283
and educational achievement, 521–522
employment, 555
food assistance program participation, 418
interpersonal relationships, 558–559
medical costs, lifetime, 497
self-perception, 174, 265
and socioeconomic status (SES), 16–17, 261–262, 277, 278
See also gender
mental health
anxiety, 89, 93, 94, 526, 561, 760
eating disorders, 342, 562
emotional eating, 88–89, 264
guilt, 97, 145, 759, 773
internalization of stigma, 94
“jolly fat” hypothesis, 93
psychological studies, 93–94
psychosocial stress, 283, 342
self-esteem, 94, 174–175, 336, 535, 543
suicidal thoughts and behaviors, 196, 561
World Mental Health Survey, 331
menu labeling. See food labeling
MEPS (Medical Expenditure Panel Survey), 197–198, 536–537
Meridia® (sibutramine), 576, 794, 824–826, 841–842
messages, strategic. See prevention messages, strategic
metabolic syndrome, 23, 194, 343, 575
metabolism, 23, 70, 72, 473, 812
methodologies and techniques. See study design
Mexico, 18, 125–126
Micronesia, 284
MIDUS (National Survey of Midlife Development in the United States), 202, 555
migration between cultures, 73
mindless eating, 385–406
altering environment to prevent, 404–406
atmospherics, 399–400
consumption norms, 388–389, 392
context for study, 385–387
distractions, 358, 402–403
effort, 400–401
estimation of intake, 389
five “S’s” of the food environment, 393–394
four consumption drivers, 398
influence of the food environment, 392
portion sizes, 395–396
research opportunities, 404
salience of food, 394
serving containers, 397–398
social influences, 401–402
stockpiled food, 396–397
structure and perceived variety, 394–395
models
of chronic disease, 25
complex systems, 228–232
ecological, 65–66, 434, 717–718
extended parallel process (EPPM), 730
participatory research, 720–721, 730
social change, 719
See also specific disciplines
Monitoring the Future, 201
moral hazard, 195
morbid obesity, 55, 56
mortality, 502–513
alternative measures of weight statues, 511
bariatric surgery, 797, 800, 803
causation, establishing, 95
context for study, 502–503
demography and, 36
effect modification by age, 506–508
estimates of excess deaths, 24, 503–506, 684
life expectancy increase, 177
life table analyses, 44
rates of, 574–575
research opportunities, 512
risk, 4–5, 24, 50, 51
secular trends, 510–511
smoking and disease confounding, 508–509
socioeconomic status (SES), 509–510
and underweight, 575
See also medical costs
MPOWER package, 622–632
multidisciplinary approaches, need for, 2, 28, 44–45
“nanny state,” 746
narrow decision bracketing, 143
National Association to Advance Fat Acceptance (NAAFA), 173–174
National Cancer Institute, 625, 628, 629
National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS), 195, 575
National Collaborative on Childhood Obesity Research (NCCOR), 714
National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), 12, 37, 193–194, 467–468, 474
National Health Examination Survey (NHES), 194–195
National Health Interview Survey (NHIS), 37, 195, 474
National Heart Lung and Blood Institute (NHLBI), 26, 37, 94, 693, 694
National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE), 666
National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD), 321
National Institutes of Health (NIH)
adoption of BMI cutoff, 576
citations, 36, 37, 258, 587, 792
NIH-AARP study, 509, 512
National Long Term Care Survey, 507
National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health), 15, 39, 308–310, 333, 525, 539
National Longitudinal Surveys (NLS), 197–200
Mother-Child, 316
Original Cohorts, 199–200
of Youth, 198–199, 526, 539, 540, 546, 555
National Restaurant Association, 596
National School Lunch Program (NSLP). See school meal programs
National Survey of Family Growth (NSFG), 201–202
National Survey of Midlife Development in the United States (MIDUS), 202, 555
national surveys. See specific nations
National Weight Control Registry (NWCR), 816–820
National Youth Anti-Drug Media Campaign (NYADMC), 758
Native Americans. See American Indians
NCHS (National Center for Health Statistics), 195, 575
need for multidisciplinary approaches, research opportunities, 2, 28
neighborhoods. See obesogenic environments
neurobiology, 90
New Deal (1933), 481
New York City menu labeling law, 129–130, 146–147, 163–164, 597–598
New York State Division of Budget, 657
NHANES (National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 12, 37, 193–194, 467–468, 474
NHIS (National Health Interview Survey), 37, 195, 474
NHLBI (National Heart Lung and Blood Institute). See National Heart Lung and Blood Institute (NHLBI)
NICE (National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence), 666
Nielsen Media Research, 269
NIH (National Institutes of Health). See National Institutes of Health
nineteenth century BMI values, 50–53
NLEA (Nutrition Labeling and Education Act), 146, 598, 748
NLSP (National School Lunch Program). See school meal programs
Norway, 596, 673
Nurse’s Health Study, 510
Nutrient Profile Model, 596
nutrition education, 426, 669, 672–673
nutrition guidelines, 596
(p. 886) nutrition information. See food labeling
Nutrition Labeling and Education Act (NLEA), 146, 598, 748
Nutrition Labeling of Standard Menu Items at Chain Restaurants, 597
nutrition transition, 289–297
behavioral change, 293
defined, 289–290
in descriptive epidemiology, 17–18
discussion of current situation, 293–297
energy imbalance, 293–295
evolutionary perspectives, 63
famine, 291
hunter-gatherers, 290
in nineteenth century United States, 50, 52–53, 56
non-communicable disease, 292–293
public policy options, 297
receding famine, 291–292
Siberian populations, 70
stages of, 290–293
nutritional epidemiology, 21
See also epidemiology
nutritional labeling. See food labeling
NWCR (National Weight Control Registry), 816–820
NYADMC (National Youth Anti-Drug Media Campaign), 758
Obama, Barack H., 168, 440, 699
Obama, Michelle, 158
“obesity paradox.” See debates over body weight
obesogenic environments
built environment, 266–267
and depression, 341–342
evolutionary perspectives, 63–64
peer effects, 304, 305
and public policy, 161–162, 168
residential patterns, 266–267, 621
and weight loss maintenance, 813–814
observational studies, 18–25, 70
occupations. See employment
ODPHP (Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion), 688
Office of Communications, 593
Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (ODPHP), 688
Office of the Surgeon General, 159
oppression. See fat studies
orlistat (Xenical®), 576, 794, 824–825, 841, 842
overweight vs. obesity, 258–259
Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID), 200–201, 538
parental influence, 66, 90, 123, 612, 746–747
parks and playgrounds, 131, 266–267, 436–437, 441
participatory action research, 71
Pathways (American Indian) program, 672, 722
“peanuts effect,” 142–143
Pearson v. Shalala, 743
pediatric obesity, 14–16, 18, 24–25
peer effects, 303–310
approaches to study, 303–307
causation, establishing, 308–310
and depression, 337–338
empirical difficulties, 304–307
past research, 305–307
race and ethnicity, 265–266
recent research, 307–310
risk of obesity from, 90–91, 111, 307–308
as social multiplier, 303–304
weight loss maintenance and, 823–824
Pepsico, 634
personal responsibility
in American discourse, 577
emphasized by industry, 633
in the “kid-vid” rule making, 746–747
in media, 560
and public policy, 160–161, 162, 564, 588
pharmaceutical lobbies, 175, 576
pharmacoepidemiology, 26
phendimetrazine, 794
phentermine, 794, 795, 826
phenylpropanolamine (PPA), 794
Photovoice, 728
physical activity, 433–444
by adults, 438–439
American Time Use Survey (ATUS), 192
appetite regulation by, 821
in child care settings, 314
context for study, 433
cost-effectiveness of interventions, 840
economic cost of, 610–611
as effect modification, 24
environmental interventions, 691
fat-positive programs, 180
in less developed countries, 284
Let’s Move initiative, 600
for maintaining weight loss, 782–783, 815–816, 817–818
and maternal employment, 321
measures of, 441–442
parental support for, 673
racial/ethnic barriers to, 270
research, past, 434–435
research opportunities, 440–443
safety of neighborhoods, 266–267, 437
(p. 887)
schools and, 132–133, 314–315, 421
and screen time, 22, 268, 352
by seniors, 439–440
and soft drink consumption, 160
studies, 192, 193
Walking School Bus program, 839
and weight stigma, 562–563
by youth, 439
physical health, 94–95, 95, 561–563
physical limitations, 338–339
physical proximity of food, 141–142
Pima Indians, 69, 589
PIR (Poverty Income Ratio), 472
Pizza Hut, 488
Planet Health, 26, 668, 839
playgrounds. See parks and playgrounds
policy, public. See public policy
politics
political economy critiques, 111
social movement organizations, 108–109, 173–174, 179, 624, 626–627
populations. See demography; gender; race and ethnicity; specific populations
portion sizes, 367–380
adjustment to, 370–371
and childhood obesity, 373–375
in cookbooks, 150, 368
and daily energy intake, 369–370
dietary strategies to moderate, 376–380
and different types of foods, 368–370, 379
effects on intake, 368–372, 395–396
and energy density, 370–371, 374–375, 379
estimation of, 368–372, 374–377
European, 368
growth of, 150, 367–368
and maternal employment, 315
portion-controlled packaging, 378–379
in school meals, 132
serving containers, 397–398
in supermarkets, 368
Poverty Income Ratio (PIR), 472
PPA (phenylpropanolamine), 794
pre-commitment devices, 151
prenatal influence. See fetal development
present-biased preferences, 140–141, 151
presenteeism, 685
prevalence of obesity
adults worldwide, 13–14
analytic epidemiology, 19
children and youth, 14, 18, 39–40, 41, 350–360
China, 14, 18, 293
historical trend, 53–55, 295–296, 574
occurence measures, 12–14
overall trend, 38–39
pediatric, 18
and socioeconomic status (SES), 42–43
women, 202, 259
prevention messages, strategic, 752–765
boomerang effect of, 754, 759, 762, 764–765
construct activation, 755–757
context for study, 752–753
defined, 753–754
defining the effects of, 754
minimizing unintended effects of, 764–765
outcomes of message campaigns, 757–761
policy goal advocacy, 761–763
public service announcements (PSAs), 359, 596, 628, 753, 758
unintended effects of, 754
prevention of obesity
among racial/ethnic minorities, 270–271
difficulty of, 574
prevention, three types of, 715–716
testing preventative and therapeutic measures, 25–27
privilege and power, 17
projection bias, 143
prospective longitudinal studies, 94–95
PSAs (public service announcements), 359, 596, 628, 753, 758
PSID (Panel Study of Income Dynamics), 200–201, 538
psychology, 87–98
approaches to study, 87–88
disinhibition effect, 89
environment and weight, 90–91
individual behavior and weight, 88–90
internal-external theory of eating, 88
mental health consequences, 93–94
physical health consequences, 94–95
psychosomatic hypothesis, 88–89
set-point theory, 89–90
stigma and discrimination, 91–93
treatment of mental health, 97–98
treatment of physical health, 96–97
psychosocial stress, 283, 342
psychosomatic hypothesis, 88–89
(p. 888) public policy, 158–169, 587–600
adopting a public health model, 589–591
attributing responsibility, 588–589
categories of policies, 590–591
causes of obesity, 160
collective vs. individual solutions, 168–169, 589
commodity promotion, 487–488
complex systems models and, 228–232
comprehensive approaches to, 166–167, 632
context for, 158–159, 587–591
discrimination legislation, 177
disease stigma, 563–564
ecological model and, 65
entitlement programs, 498–500
fat studies and, 175
food subsidies, 162, 297
food taxes, 130–131, 297, 592, 631
government intervention rationales, 128–133, 297, 589, 609, 613–614
information provision, 145–148, 614–615, 628
institutional interests, 577
marketing restrictions, 593–596, 629–630
MPOWER package, 622–632
obesogenic environment, 161–162
objectives of the Department of Health and Human Services, 187–188
optimal defaults, 599
parks and playgrounds, 131
peer effects, 304
personal responsibility, 160–161, 564, 577
resistance to, 158, 161, 166–167, 632–633
Shape Up America campaign, 175
solutions in practice, 161–162
stigmatizing effect of, 167–169, 564
tax options, 615
welfare reform, 546–547
wellness policies, 626
Women, Infants and Children (WIC) program, 133
public service announcements (PSAs), 359, 596, 628, 753, 758
quality-adjusted life year (QALY) measure, 834, 835, 837, 841–842
questioning medical claims. See debates over body weight
race and ethnicity, 257–271
academic scores, 128
acculturation, 269–270
behavioral treatment outcomes, 784–786
biological adaptations, 67
body image perception, 265–266
body mass index, 50–53
built environment, 266–267
children and youth, 262–263
depression, 331, 341–342
income, 259–262
“mother blame,” 178
occupational segregation, 265
overeating as a coping strategy, 264
prevention of obesity, 270–271
rates of obesity, 17, 40–41
socioeconomic status (SES), 17, 110
supermarket access, 267
television marketing, 267–269
See also socioeconomic status; sociology; specific racial and ethnic groups
randomized controlled trials (RCT)
bariatric surgery, 796–797
causal inferences, 240
causal links, demonstration of, 94
community intervention studies, 728–729
confounding factors in, 25–26
Women’s Health Initiative, 26
rates of obesity
annual in U.S., 1
historical trend, 38–39
predicted, 612–613
rational choice theories, 113, 121–124, 132, 138–139, 143–144
Redux® (dexfenfluramine), 794
Request for Application (RFA) process, 726
research increase, 1–2
research opportunities
bariatric surgery, 803
built environment, 440–444
cliometrics of BMI, 56
community interventions, 730, 732–733
complex systems science, 222
cost-effectiveness of interventions, 840, 843–844
debates over body weight, 579
depression, 339–340, 343–344
economic perspectives on policy, 613, 617
educational achievement, 526–527
epidemiology, 27–28
food assistance programs, 428–429
food deserts, 459
food prices, 478
income, 478
(p. 889)
labor market outcomes, 541, 543, 546, 549
measurement of weight, 478
mindless eating, 404
mortality, 512
need for multidisciplinary approaches, 2, 28
physical activity, 440–443
stigma and discrimination, 559, 564–565
treatments, behavioral, 782, 786
weight loss maintenance, 827
workplace interventions, 692
residential patterns, 110, 266–267
resource maximization, 121–124, 139
restaurants
and checkoff programs, 488–489, 615
portion sizes, 368, 380, 596
taxes on, 641, 642
See also fast food
restrained eaters, 89, 90, 379
retirement. See senior citizens
rimonabant (Acomplia®), 803, 841, 842
Robert Wood Johnson Foundation
Active Living Research Program, 435, 762
Bridging the Gap program, 641
citations, 598, 714, 725
Healthy Eating Research program, 763
Healthy Kids, Healthy Communities, 725
as largest research funder, 599–600
Project MOVE, 835–837
romantic relationships. See interpersonal relationships
Rubin v. Coors Brewing, 743n
Rudd Center for Food Policy and Obesity, 592, 597, 657
rural populations. See urban vs. rural populations
Saturday Morning Food Pyramid, 354
school meal programs
commodity distribution programs, 485–487
competitive foods, 165–166, 427, 591
effect on childhood obesity, 419–422, 486–487
improving, 27, 162, 427, 591–592, 626
nutritional standards, 591
policies, 426–427, 591–592
portion sizes, 132
school food consumption, 192, 320, 485–487
studies of BMI and, 194, 197
subsidies, 644
school-based interventions, 665–678
Alliance School Beverage Guidelines, 634
APPLE study, 669
Child and Adolescent Trial for Cardiovascular Health (CATCH), 672, 676
context for study, 665–666
effectiveness, determining, 667, 670–672, 674–676
FitKid, 676
Foresight report, 675
KOPS intervention, 673
Pathways (American Indian) program, 672, 722
physical activity, 27, 132–133, 197, 667
physical activity and diet programs, 667–669
physical activity programs, 669–670
Planet Health, 26, 668, 676, 839
process evaluation, 673–674
research recommendations, 676–678
sedentary behaviors, 671
sendentary behaviors, 670
Shape Up Somerville, 675–676, 723, 726
soft drinks, 165, 667
successful programs, 26–27
SWITCH study, 675–676, 725
vending machines, 27, 132, 165, 616
WAY program, 669
wellness policies, 626, 644
“whole school” approach, 673
scorecards, wellness, 689
SCOUT (Sibumatrine Cardiovascular Outcomes Trial), 825
screen time, 22, 126, 321, 352–353
Scrip Drug Market Developments, 803
self-esteem, 94, 174–175, 336, 535, 543
self-perception
by African Americans, 265–266, 268
by Caucasian Americans, 265–268
depression, 335–337
habitus, 280–281
mental health treatment, 97–98
weight identities, 106–107, 578–579
self-reporting, 96–97, 145, 188, 194, 537
senior citizens, 339, 344, 419, 506–508
See also demography
Sesame Workshop, 358
set-point theory, 89–90
sexual attractiveness. See appearance norms
SFSP (Summer Food Program), 486
(p. 890) Shape Up America campaign, 175
Shape Up Somerville, 675–676, 723, 726
shift work, 265
Sibumatrine Cardiovascular Outcomes Trial (SCOUT), 825
sibutramine (Meridia®), 576, 794, 824–826, 841–842
size discrimination. See fat studies; stigma and discrimination
skepticism. See debates over body weight
sleep apnea, 797–798
sleep deprivation, 22, 265
smoking. See tobacco use
snacking, 297, 314, 321, 378–379, 403
social costs, 130, 139, 587–589, 588
social movement organizations, 108–109, 173–174, 179
social networks. See peer effects
Social Security, 125, 477, 613
socioeconomic status (SES), 259–262, 276–285
anxiety about, 578
association with obesity, 5, 64–65, 176, 276–279
and behavioral treatments, 784–785
chronic health problems, 159–160
demography, 42–43
depression, 331, 341–342
in developed coun tries, 279–283
in developing countries, 283–285
dietary quality, 279–280
food insecurity, 280
food stamp use, 133, 192, 280
and gender, 16–17, 64
and geographical data, 41
income, 280, 282–283, 284
literature reviews, 276–279
and maternal employment, 322–325
in mortality estimates, 509–510
occupation and, 281–282
physical activity and, 266–267, 280
racial/ethnic differences, 17, 258
school-based interventions and, 673
social determinants of weight, 279–280
social stratification, 110
sociology, 105–114
applied sociological practice, 113–114
approaches to study, 105–106, 109–110, 113
cumulative disadvantage, 112
defined, 105
dieting group dynamics, 107–108
framing of obesity, 108
historical materialism, 111
life course analysis, 111–112
rational choices, 113
social exchange theories, 112
social facts perspectives, 109–113
social movement organizations, 108–109, 173–174, 179
social networks, 90–91, 111
social problem of obesity, 108–109
social stratification, 110
stigmatization of obesity, 106
weight identities, 106–107
soda. See soft drinks
soft drinks
beverage companies and schools, 591, 634
defining for tax purposes, 658–660
physical activity levels and, 160
prices of, 124
school-based interventions and, 27, 165
taxes, opposition to, 590
taxes, past and current, 164, 642, 643–644, 655
taxes, proposed, 130–131, 164–165, 296, 593, 631, 659
total caloric intake and, 296
somatotyping, 68
South Korea, 295, 335
speech, commercial, 132, 596, 742–744, 747
standardization (in demography), 36, 43
Starbucks coffee chain, 130, 147, 599
StickK.com, 151
stigma and discrimination, 553–565
combating, 92–93
context for study, 553–554
cultural norms, 64–65, 577
and depression, 337–338
educational settings, 557–558
by health care providers, 92, 556–557
internalization, 94
in interpersonal relationships, 112, 558–559
justifications for, 91, 553, 579
legislation prohibiting, 177, 555–556
in media, 559–560
mental health consequences, 93–94, 561
and mortality, 578–579
physical health consequences, 91, 92, 562–563
prevalence of, 91–92, 553
prevention messages as cause of, 760–761
public health consequences, 563–564
public policy and, 167–169
research on, 180
research opportunities, 559, 564–565
sources of weight bias, 554–556
studies, 106, 180, 202, 724
(p. 891)
workplace, 92, 128
stomach stapling. See bariatric surgery
strategic messages. See prevention messages, strategic
studies
AHEAD (Study of Assets and Health Dynamics Among the Oldest Old), 197
APPLE study, 668–669
Barbados Eye Studies, 14
CHANGE study, 726
Framingham Heart Study, 14
Health Behaviour in School-Aged Children (HBSC) study, 14
National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, 15
Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID), 200–201, 538
Study of Assets and Health Dynamics Among the Oldest Old (AHEAD), 197
Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development, 321
SWITCH study, 675–676, 725
study design. See also methodologies and techniques
analysis of cost-effectiveness design, 834–838
audit studies, 548
built environment, 443
for community interventions, 728–732
demographic techniques, 35–36, 43–44
epidemiological techniques, 25–27
in epidemiology, 16, 18–22
establishing causation, 20–21, 93–95
field-based research, 69–70
instrumental variables, 537–538
long-term follow-up, 96
in mortality estimates, 504
participatory action research, 71
in peer effects research, 304–307
qualitative and mixed approaches, 70–71
randomized controlled trials (RCT), 25–26, 240, 548, 728–729, 796–797
and school outcomes, 525
self-reporting, 96–97, 188, 194, 537
systemic bias, 96–97
for wage penalties, 532–534, 536–541
Study of Assets and Health Dynamics Among the Oldest Old (AHEAD), 197
Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development, 321
Subway restaurant chain, 146, 150
suicidal thoughts and behaviors, 196, 561
Summer Food Program (SFSP), 486
supermarket access. See food access
Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP), 133, 192, 417–419, 424–426, 644
Surgeon General publications, 623, 686, 750
surgery, bariatric. See bariatric surgery
Survey of Health, Aging and Retirement in Europe (SHARE), 202, 475, 547
Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP), 314
Sweden, 596, 796
SWITCH study, 675–676, 725
symbolism of fatness. See body shapes, value of
systems approach, 65
Task Force on Community Preventive Services, citations, 625
techniques. See study design
technological change, 126–127, 194, 291–292, 295, 610–611
Technomic Inc., 597
television and video games, 350–360
advergames, 355
appearance norms, 285, 559–560
childhood obesity and, 314, 351–352
household ownership, 351–352
limiting advertising exposure, 747
maternal employment, 126
mindless eating, 358
and physical activity, 22, 352
public service announcements (PSAs), 359, 596, 628, 753, 758
ratings, 758
screen time, 22, 126, 321, 352–353
snacking while viewing, 22, 268
temptation. See behavioral economics
“The Economic Reality of the Beauty Myth,” 533
Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 537
Thrifty Food Plan Basket, 455
thrifty genotype, 62
thrifty phenotype, 72
time discounting, 140–141, 142
Time on the Cross, 48
time preference, 193, 199
tobacco use
cigarette companies, 632–633
cigarette prices, 193
comparison with obesity, 620–621
consumption per capita, 621
deficiencies of policy model, 616
in estimates of excess deaths, 504–505, 508–509
Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC), 622–623
insurance premiums, 499
marketing restrictions, 629
monitoring, 623–625
the MPOWER package, 622–632
(p. 892)
non-smokers’ rights movement, 624
peer effects, 305–306
policy examples by category, 590
prevention messages, 757, 762, 763
protection of nonsmokers, 625
social movement organizations, 626–627
stigmatization of, 224
support for individual change, 627
taxes on, 630–631
warning about the harms, 628
and weight control, 612n
trans fats, 162, 760
Transportation Research Board (USA), citations, 438
treatments, behavioral, 771–786
behavior chains, 772–773
behavioral “nudges,” 149–151
characteristics of, 774
cognitive restructuring, 775
components of, 774–776
effectiveness of, 771
health-centered approaches, 97–98, 575
improving long-term results of, 779–783
improving short-term results of, 778–779
lack of reliable options, 587–588
LEARN Program for Weight Management, 774, 776
measuring improvements, 97
outcomes, 776–778
physical activity, 782–783
principles of, 772–773
psychological approaches, 96–97
racial/ethnic group outcomes, 784–786
research opportunities, 782, 786
self-monitoring, 774–775
stimulus control, 775–776
structure of, 776
treatments, medical, 792–804
lack of reliable options, 159–160, 587–588
testing the efficacy of treatments, 25–27
treatments, mental health, 96–97
trends in obesity, 38–39, 574
Trust for America’s Health, 597
twins, 21
U. S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), 596
U. S. Government Accounting Office, 593
under-nutrition, 67, 72
See also famines
underreporting of consumption, 145
underweight, 575
unintended consequences of prevention messages. See prevention messages, strategic
United Kingdom
adult rates of obesity, 18
APPLES school intervention, 671
British Household Panel Survey, 202
British National Child Development Study, 202
data, publicly available, 202
employment, 546
England Longitudinal Survey of Aging, 476
food advertising restrictions, 596
Foresight program, 719
National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE), 666
occupational attainment, 545
prevalence of pediatric obesity, 18
Social Exclusion Unit, 453
United States of America
gender differences, 18
global influence, 612
incidence of pediatric obesity, 15
national surveys, 37
rates of obesity, 18
urban vs. rural populations
community interventions, 726
descriptive epidemology and, 17
food balance studies, 292
food deserts, 454, 455
food prices, 592
gender and diet, 66
in nineteenth century United States, 51–52, 53
U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA)
citations, 368, 415, 417, 425, 483, 486
NHANES-USDA project, 467
portion sizes, 367–368
Saturday Morning Food Pyramid, 354
Thrifty Food Plan Basket, 455
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services
citations, 258, 433, 592, 620, 621, 623, 624, 625, 626, 684, 685, 686, 687, 696
objectives, 187–188
U.S. National Cancer Institute, 596
U.S. Public Health Service, 623
vegetables. See fruits and vegetables
vending machines, 27, 132, 165, 616, 655, 691–692
Venus of Willendorf, the, 62
video games and television. See television and video games
Vielle Santé III (FLVSIII), 724–725
walkable neighborhoods. See built environment
Walking School Bus program, 839
Washington Legal Found. v. Friedman, 743n
Washington Post, 746
WAY program, 669
WCRF (World Cancer Research Fund), 297
weight acceptance, 97–98, 122
See also fat studies
weight bias. See stigma and discrimination
weight loss
deceptive claims, 744–745
by dietary modification alone, 26
difficulty of, 139–145
follow-up data on, 177
health effects, 575
investment in, 138–139
as measure of health, 97
as non-linear system, 214
obstacles to, 140–145
as short-term process, 809
and weight identities, 107
and weight stigma, 563
weight loss maintenance, 808–827
behavioral treatments, 780–783
biological factors promoting regain, 815–816
dietary intake, 818–819
difficulty of, 811–814, 826
drugs, anti-obesity, 824–826
energy gap for, 810–811
environmental influences, 826
establishment of “steady state” weight, 812–813
extended contact with participants, 822
long-term failure rate of diets, 177, 587
multicomponent approaches, 824
National Weight Control Registry (NWCR), 816–820
physical activity, 782–783, 815–816, 820–822, 826–827
predictors of weight regain, 819–820
relapse prevention training, 823
requirements for success, 814–815
research opportunities, 827
screen time and, 818
social support, 823–824
strategies for success, 820–822
transition from weight loss, 809–810
vigilance, 819
Weight Loss Maintenance Trial, 822
weight regain. See weight loss maintenance
Weight Watchers, 499
wellness policies, 626, 644
wellness scorecards, 689
West Indies, 14
WHO (World Health Organization). See World Health Organization
Willendorf Venus, the, 62
women
abuse of, 180
African Americans, 17, 40–41, 259, 265–266
Caucasian Americans, 262
and depression, 330, 336–337, 341, 343
in developed countries, 279–282, 283
and educational achievement, 521–522, 525–526
employment, 535, 546, 555
evolutionary perspectives, 62–63
food assistance program participation, 418, 422, 424–425
Hispanic Americans, 261
interpersonal relationships, 92, 112–113, 558–559
medical costs, lifetime, 497, 498
“mother blame,” 178
pregnancy and weight, 199
prevalence of obesity, 202, 259
responsibility for food, 280, 615–616
self-perception, 265–266, 535
and socioeconomic status (SES), 16, 42–43, 176–177, 261–262, 277, 278
and welfare reform, 546–547
Women, Infants and Children (WIC) program
effect on obesity, 422–423
foods allowed, 133, 422, 428
improving, 427–428
Women’s Health Initiative, 26
workplace interventions, 683–702
2004 National Worksite Health Promotion Survey, 688
cash incentives, 131, 690
comprehensive approaches, 690–691, 694–695
determining effectiveness, 689, 692–694
Dow Chemical Company case study, 697–698
effectiveness of, 691–692
employer costs, 684–686
environmental approaches, 690–692
individual-oriented, 689–690, 694
leadership support, 692
obstacles to, 698–699
outcomes, 694–695
prevalence of, 688
principles and best practices, 688–689
productivity losses, 685, 686
rationales for intervention, 686–688
(p. 894)
recommendations for action, 699–702
research opportunities, 692
return-on-investment (ROI), 696–697
vending machines, 691–692
World Cancer Research Fund (WCRF), 297
World Health Organization (WHO)
and body mass index, 11–12, 576
citations, 11, 12, 13, 37, 53, 160, 284, 297, 313, 360, 443, 587, 622, 623, 624, 728, 778
costs, medical, 159–160
Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC), 622–623
global strategy, 297
international reference standards for children, 12
MPOWER package, 622–632
prevalence of obesity, 13–14
World Mental Health Survey, 331
Xenical® (orlistat), 576, 794, 824–825, 841, 842
Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS), 195–196