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date: 31 March 2020

(p. 471) Index

(p. 471) Index

A
Access-and-legitimacy paradigm
Acculturation, 463
active faultlines, 55, 58–59, 63–64
adhocracy culture, organization, 245
adverse impact (AI), diversity selection, 289
affirmative action
diversity, 144
diversity programs, 254
University of Michigan, 454
agents of influence, leadership, 316–317
age similarity, network connections, 197–198
agreeableness, personality factor, 227
alignment, faultlines, 53
allocation decisions, variables, 379, 381
allophilia, 326
ambivalence aversive racism, 104
American Psychological Association, 144
American Psychologist, 317
Analysis of Subjective Culture, Triandis, 34
analytical methods
diversity research, 21–23
perceived vs. actual diversity, 22–23
ancestry, cultural diversity, 35
antecedents, stigmatization, 123
antidiscrimination departments, 260
antidiscrimination legislation, 8, 253
Anti-Drug Abuse Act of 1986, 450
anti-harassment training, 272, 273
Asia, population by age, 396
assimilationism, hierarchy-enhancing ideology, 134, 141
asymmetry in conflict
actual and perceived diversity, 186–187
diversity and conflict, 183–187
group-level conflict, 180, 184–185
understudied types of conflict, 185–186
attitudes
changing gender roles, 376–377
diversity, 352–353
diversity training, 343–344
prejudice, 116
pre-training, 350
attraction-selection-attrition framework, diversity research, 210
awareness, diversity training design, 344–345, 347, 348
B
Batson v. Kentucky (1986), 447, 449
behavior
knowledge, 38
norms and values, 38–39
power differentials, 319–320
role identity, 78
values of individuals, 36, 37
behavioral sciences, approach to diversity, 10
behavioral scripts, 80
Belief in Just World (BJW)
ideology, 133, 134, 140
origin of ideology, 136
structure, 138
bias
anxiety, 348
assessment, 10, 448–450
categorization processes, 76
counteracting, 450–453
definition, 10, 444
explicitness, 445–447
individual- and group-based approaches to counteracting, 450–452
institutional and ideological approaches to counteracting, 452–453
intentionality, 444–445
perception, 319
“Big Five,” personality factors, 227–228, 290
bilateral integration, 436
biocultural approach, stigmatization, 122
blindness, social identity, 320, 321
body size discrimination, 26–27
bona fide occupational qualification (BFOQ), 257
bottom line, understanding, 275–276
boundary spanning, 327–328
breadwinner role, 376
Brown v. Board of Education (1954), 452
buffering model, work-life interface, 372
bureaucracy
diversity, 263–265
hiring and promotions, 261–263
Bureau of National Affairs (BNA), 255, 256
business case
for diversity, 243, 333, 341, 345, 423
global diversity, 433–435, 436
business strategy
moderation model, 244
workplace diversity, 243
C
campus recruiting, 284–285
career development
ambient cues and traditional representation, 304–305
cross-cultural barriers to mentoring, 309–310
discrimination and isolation, 307
disembodied worker, 367–369
diversity, 8
diversity climate, 305
drivers of vocational choice, 302–303
expectations of success, 306–307
external barriers, 301
future directions, 310–311
gender and vocational choice, 304
gender/race valuation, 306
human resource strategy, 300–301
identity, 303–304
internal barriers, 301–302
mentoring, 302, 307–310
mentoring importance, 308–309
ongoing vocational choice, 306
opportunities, 310–311
perceived similarity, 305–306
race and vocational choice, 304
social distancing, 301–302
vocational choice, 302–307
categorization approach
bias, 76
diversity, (p. 472) 5–6
categorization-based outcomes
context effects, 212
normative context, 213–214
relational context, 212–213
structural context, 214–215
categorization-elaboration model (CEM)
faultlines, 57
information processing, 162
workgroup diversity and performance, 224
categorization processes
decategorization, 105–106
future directions, 108–109
intergroup bias in organizations, 103–108
multiculturalism vs. colorblindness, 107–108
mutual differentiation, 105, 107
recategorization, 106–107
centralization-based integration, global diversity, 436
change agents, global diversity managers, 431–433
child-care programs, women’s issues, 271, 274
Civil Rights Act, 126, 263, 269, 272, 452
civil rights movement, 253
claiming, identity, 87
clan culture, organization, 245
class, critical identity, 80–81
climate strength, shared diversity, 231, 235
closure, network, effect, 199
cocaine, racial bias, 450
cognitive ability tests (CATs), diversity selection, 289–291
cognitive accessibility, categorization, 57
cohesion
social networks, 199
team performance, 200–202
collaboration, cross-cultural, 41–42
collective cognition theory, cross-cultural research, 40
collective identity, politicized, 135
college recruitment, diversity climate, 231
colorblindness
bias in organizations, 107–108
counteracting bias, 452–453
hierarchy-enhancing ideology, 134, 137, 141
ideology research, 147–148
inclusion, 401–402
intergroup relations, 226
common goals, leaders, 326
communication, cross-cultural strategies, 34–35
communication technology use, faultlines, 61
comparative cross-national research, context, 216–217
comparative fit, categorization, 57
compensation, work-life interface, 371
competence expectations, workgroup interactions, 166
competition
global, and workforce diversity, 239–240
globalization, 4
competitive advantage
diversity training, 341–342
future research directions, 246–247
high-quality workers, 368–369
human capital, 282
competitive behaviors, social identity, 77–78
competitive diversity
business strategy, 244
human resource management practices, 245–246
knowledge-based view (KBV), 242
moderation model and current state of research, 243–246
moderation model of diversity, 242–243
organizational culture, 244–245
resource-based view (RBV), 241–242
value-in-diversity, 242
concealability, stigma, 116–117
conceptualization
diversity beliefs and attitudes, 222–225
diversity climate, 228–230
conceptualization of diversity, 4–5
conflict
actual vs. perceived diversity, 186–187
asymmetry, 183–187
diversity faultlines, 182–183
functional heterogeneity, 181–182
group, 180–181, 187
group-level, research, 184–185
lifestyle heterogeneity and, 185–186
power diversity, 186
social category heterogeneity, 181
understudied diversity, 185–186
confrontation, diversity training, 347
consequences, stigmatization, 124–125
construct dimensions, identification of, 27
contact hypothesis
decategorization, 105–106
stigmatization, 123
context
categorization- and elaboration-based effects of normative, 212, 213–214
categorization- and elaboration-based effects of relational, 212–213
categorization- and elaboration-based effects of structural, 212, 214–215
challenges in studying, 209–210, 217
comparative cross-national research, 216–217
cross-level research, 215–216
defining diversity, 211–212
diversity construct, 464–466
future research, 215–217
organizational research, 209
qualitative research, 216
relational leadership, 335
temporal effects, 216
theoretical framework, 210–215
understanding, 275
context model, global diversity management, 425, 428–429
contextual perspectives, diversity, 7
contingency theory, diversity, 243
controllability, stigma, 117
cooperation, faultlines, 64
coping strategies, stigma, 120–121
Corning Glass Works v. Brennan (1974), 263
corporate diversity programs
1960s and attack on Jim Crow, 256–259
1970s and labor relations model, 259–265
1980s: Reagan and rebranding equal opportunity, 265–269
1990s and women’s issues, 269–272
anti-harassment programs, 272, 273
bottom line, 275–276
context, 275
failure, 274
nondiscrimination policies, 256–257
origins and outcomes of, 254–255
sociological approach, 255–256
success, 274
understanding diversity, 275
corporations, business case rationale, 433
creativity, faultlines, 64
critical identity theory, navigating the self, 75, 80–82
cross-categorization, 59
cross-cultural barriers, mentoring, 309–310
cross-cutting category theory, 59
cross-level research, context, 215–216
cultivate and encourage approach, managing difference, 331
cultivation, mentoring, 308
cultural diversity
configuration of, within individuals, 37–38
contextualizing, 42–43
globalization, 32–33
identity construction and navigating the self, 90–91
individual-level, 37–39
language systems, 34–35
macrocomponents of, 34–36
management, 424
measurement, 45
objective attributes of, 33, 34
physical terrain and climate, 35
political systems, 35
research frontiers, 43–46
situational triggers, 38–39
social structures, 35
sociodemographic cultural components, 35–36
structure within individuals and teams, (p. 473) 45–46
student workgroups, 161
subjective attributes, 33, 36
team, 39–46
types of, 33–34
cultural identities, situational triggers, 38–39
cultural intelligence, teams, 42
culture, 167
defined, 33–36
diversity, 5
learning, 333
customer markets, internationalization, 3–4
cycle of influence, social identity, 322, 329
D
death penalty hearing, 448
decategorization, prejudice reduction, 105–106
decision making, information and opinions, 159
deep-level diversity
conceptualization, 14, 15, 16–17
cultural components, 41–42
demographic attributes (DEM), 17–19, 23
demographic dissimilarity, diversity vs., 233
demographic diversity. See also network connections
double-edged sword of, 221–222
informational resource, 222
organization of work processes, 192
social categorization, 221
United States, 283
demographic faultlines
active faultlines and faultline triggers, 58–59, 63–64
career development barrier, 301–302
categorization-elaboration model (CEM), 57
conflict, 182–183
consequences, 59–60, 64
definition, 52–53
direct vs. moderating effects, 65
diversity forms, 54, 55–56
diversity types and, 54–55
faultline composition and antecedents, 57–58, 63
faultline definition and measurement, 65–66
faultline endurance, 61–62, 65
gaps in the study of faultlines, 63–66
latent and active, 58–59
moderators of faultlines-outcomes relationship, 60–61, 65
relationship between diversity and, 53–56, 67n.1
research, 57–62, 66
role in capturing demographic complexity, 62–63
term, 53
theoretical underpinnings, 56–57
women and people of color, 305
demographic similarity
network connections, 193–195
propinquity, 196–198
deregulation, globalization and competition, 4
Desert Palace v. Costa (2003), 446
design features, moderation model, 246
desk experts, 437
devaluation threats, identity work, 85
developmental perspective, positive identity, 91
differences, 13
differential power approach, workgroup model, 17–19
direct and control, managing difference, 330–331
disabilities in workplace, socioeconomic trend, 408–410, 412
disagreement. See also conflict; group conflict
disclosure dilemmas, 120
discourse, navigating the self, 81–82
discrimination
assessing bias, 448–450
career development, 307
career development barrier, 301
employment, 445, 446
global diversity, 434
organizations, 119
Ricci v. DeStafano (2009), 452
sexual orientation, 228
stigmatizers, 124
Washington v. Davis (1976), 445
Discrimination-and-fairness paradigm
disembodied worker
career development, 367–369
focus on “war for talent,” 368–369
impact of gender, 375–378
work-life facilitation, 367
work-life flexibility, 369
disparity, 13
diversity, 19–21, 55–56, 67n.2
measurement, 22, 45
dispelling, negative stereotypes, 85–86
disruption, stigma, 117
distance, 13, 34
distancing, threats, 85
diversity, 167. See also context; ideologies
advantages in organizations and teams, 98–99
bureaucracy and, 263–265
categorization approach, 5–6
conceptualization of, 4–5, 461–462
conflict, 181–182
contingency theory, 243
as culture, 5
defining, 158–159
double-edged sword of, 221–222
effects of context, 464–466
equal opportunity and antidiscrimination legislation, 8
equal opportunity programs, 266
faultline theory, 62–63
holistic approach to study of, 468
ideologies, 132–133
ideology, 6
interactionist perspectives, 6–7
legal-behavioral science divide, 10
management, 466–468
mechanisms underlying effects, 462–464
perceived vs. actual, 22–23
performance benefits and process, 7
phenomenon, 4, 5
relationship to demographic faultlines, 53–56
social networks, 199–202
strategies for developing leaders of, 336
systems perspectives on, 9
team performance, 202–203
term, 28, 115
understanding, 275
variations of traits, 13
diversity advantage
design features, 246
future research directions, 246–247
human resource management, 245–246
moderation model, 242–243
value-in-diversity, 240–241
diversity attitudes
affirmative action, 144
categorization-elaboration model (CEM), 224
conceptualization and measurement of, 222–225
consequences of, 225–226
decision-making groups, 224–225
determinants of, 226–228
discrimination scales, 223
future directions, 233–235
ideology, 144–145
immigration, 145
individual, 222–228
intergroup biases, (p. 474) 224–225
labels, 223
learning from experience, 227
outcomes, 220–221
psychological climates, 233, 234
value of diversity, 226
women in workplace, 144–145
workplace, 146
diversity attributes, cross-national research, 216–217
diversity beliefs
attribute-specific beliefs, 223
categorization-elaboration model (CEM), 224
conceptualization and measurement of, 222–225
consequences of, 225–226
decision-making groups, 224–225
determinants of, 226–228
future directions, 233–235
individual, 222–228
intergroup biases, 224–225
diversity beliefs (cont.)
labels, 223
outcomes, 220–221
value of diversity, 226
diversity climate
career development, 305
conceptualization and measurement, 228–230
consequences of perceived, 230
definition, 228
determinants of perceptions of, 231
diversity attitudes and, 234
holistic approach to study of diversity, 468
individual perceptions, 228–231
organizational climate, 229
racio-ethnic and gender diversity, 244
shared, 231–233
team diversity-performance relationship, 229
team diversity perspectives, 229–230
diversity cognition
climate and, 235
diversity and demography, 233
outcome ratings, 225
personality factors, 227–228
diversity crises, dealing with, 332
diversity culture audits, from attitude surveys to, 267
diversity disadvantage, social identity theory, 240
diversity ecosystem, challenges, opportunities and future, 411–413
diversity forms, demographic faultlines, 54, 55–56
diversity hires, expectations of success, 307
diversity-leadership mindset, 8
diversity management, 7, 266, 284, 466–468. See also corporate diversity programs; global diversity management
domestic diversity in North America, 419–420
global, 9–10
global, managers as change agents, 431–433
integration of research and practice, 467–468
moderation model, 243
women’s issues, 273–274
Diversity Perceptions Scale, 343
diversity-performance debate, network connections, 198–199
diversity-performance research, 7
diversity climate of team, 229
diversity in groups, 465–466
diversity programs, 8. See also corporate diversity programs
management effects, 269
diversity recruitment, literature, 292, 293
diversity research
analytical methods and measures, 21–23
challenges, 14
cultural diversity, 43–46
deep-level diversity, 14, 15, 16–17
differential power approach, 17–18
diversity as separation, variety and disparity, 19–21
diversity types, 16–21
early theories, 14–16
expectations approach, 17, 18
future, 23–27
hidden traits approach, 23–26
identifying construct dimensions, 27
integrative multicultural approach, 18–19
invisible social identities, 23–26
multicultural approach, 18–19, 25
mutable traits, 26
perceived vs. actual diversity, 22–23
similarity-attraction paradigm, 14–15
social identity theory (SIT), 15–16
surface-level diversity, 15, 16
trait approach, 17, 18
trait self-disclosure, 26
weight and body size, 26–27
workgroup models, 17–19
diversity scholarship, navigating the self, 73–74
diversity skills, evaluation of training, 353, 357
diversity staffing
future directions, 293–294
how to select for diversity, 289–291
literature review, 283–291
recruiting and selecting diverse workforce, 291–293
what messages organizations should be sending, 285–286
when the time is right for, 287
where organizations should be recruiting, 287–289
who should be recruiting applicants, 284–285
why organizations should have, 283–284
diversity taskforces, 267, 268
diversity training
academic research and practitioners, 358–359
attitudes, 352–353
choice of diversity trainer, 349
communicated reason for, 350–351
delivery decisions, 349–351
demographics of training group, 349–350
design, 344–351
directions for future research, 357–358
diversity skills, 353
fair employment, 267
framing of training, 350
from race relations workshops to, 266–267
management linking consequences, 354–355
mandatory vs. voluntary, 351
mentoring, 268–269
models and methods for design, 344–348
needs assessment, 342–344
networking programs, 268
operations analysis, 343
organizational impact, 355–356
organization analysis, 342–343
person analysis, 343–344
task analysis, 343
teams, 358
trainee changes, 352–355
trainer demographics, 349
training evaluation and transfer of training, 351–356
transfer of training, 353–355
workforce diversity, 268–269
diversity training design
awareness first, 344–345, 347, 348
confrontation, 347
diversity knowledge, 345
diversity trainer, 349
Implicit Association Test (IAT), 346
models and methods, 344–348
self-awareness exercises, 346–347
self-knowledge, 346
social categorization, 345–346
social learning theory, 347–348
theory of learning, 344
trainees’ characteristics, 348–349
diversity types, demographic faultlines, 65–66
diversity-validity dilemma, selection, 291
double minorities, information processing, 163
dual identification, hyphenations, 88
Due Process Clause of the Fifth Amendment, 445
education
diversity mindset, 336
diversity training, 356–357
literacy rates, 404, 407
socioeconomic trend, 403–404, 412
E
Education For All (EFA), literacy rates, 407
egalitarianism
hierarchy-attenuating ideology, 135
structure, 137, 139
elaboration-based outcomes
context effects, 212
normative context, 213–214
relational context, 212–213
structural context, 214–215
embedded intergroup relations approach, 216
employee resource groups (ERGs)
employee staffing, competitive advantage, (p. 475) 282
employer antidiscrimination policies, women and minorities, 256
employer migration, socioeconomic trend, 398–399, 411–412
employment cycle, stigma, 119
employment discrimination, 445, 446
employment interview, selection, 290
endurance, faultlines, 61–62, 65
entitlement. See team entitlement
entrepreneurs of identity, 322
environmental munificence
family, 379, 381, 382–383
integrated model, 383
work, 379, 381, 382
environmental support, work-life flexibility, 373
equal employment opportunity, 8
attitude surveys, 254, 267
diversity culture audits, 267
diversity mission statements, 266
diversity programs and workforce diversity, 268–269
diversity taskforces, 267
job descriptions, 262–263, 264
job ladders, 262, 264
job posting, 262, 264
job tests, 261, 264
mentoring and networking programs, 267–268
monitoring individual managers, 260
organizational responsibility, 259–260
performance evaluations, 263, 264–265
Reagan and rebranding, 265–269
responsibility and diversity, 260–261
salary classification, 263, 265
Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC), 255
equal opportunity policies, targeted recruitment and training, 258–259
equal opportunity taskforces, 267
Equal Pay Act, 263
equal protection, court cases, 452
Equal Protection Clause, 452
ethnic, 167
ethnic diversity
socioeconomic trend, 401–402, 412
team performance, 210
ethnicity
communication media, 170–171
cultural diversity, 35
diversity programs and management effects, 269
diversity research, 14
faultline activation, 64
ethnic minorities
colorblindness, 147–148
self-esteem, 118
status, 171
Europe, population by age, 396
European Union (EU), women’s and men’s economic activity, 400
evaluative perspective
positive identity, 90–91
positive relational identity, 92
expectations approach, workgroup model, 17–19
experience, diversity and learning from, 227
experts in the field, 437
explicit attitudes, intergroup bias, 103–104
explicitness, bias, 445–447
F
factions, faultline trigger, 58
failure, understanding, 274
Fair Housing Act of 1968, 452
fairness perception, selection, 286
Fair Sentencing Act of 2010, 450
family, changing gender role behaviors, 376
family environment munificence
integrated model, 383
variables, 379, 381
work-life interface, 382–383
family interference with work (FIW), 372, 377–378
family resource gains/losses, variables, 379, 381
family resource investments, variables, 379, 381
family role demands, variables, 379, 381
family role performance, variables, 379, 381
family support, work-life flexibility, 373
family-to-work enrichment (WFE), 373
faultlines. See also demographic faultlines
active, 55, 63–64
bridging, 331–332
composition and antecedents of, 57–58
consequences, 59–60, 64
definition and measurement, 65–66
direct vs. moderating effects, 65
diversity, and conflict, 182–183
endurance, 61–62, 65
latent, 55
leadership managing, 331–332
potential sources in organizational groups, 57–58
social category, 54
strength, 53, 54
term, 53, 65–66
faultline theory
demographic complexity, 62–63
identity groups, 5
performance of group, 59–60
faultline trigger, active, 58–59
feigning indifference, threats, 85, 86
female leaders, role congruity, 78–79
The Feminist Case Against Bureaucracy, Ferguson, 263
firm performance, diversity and, 7
flextime programs, women’s issues, 270–271, 273
formalization-based integration, global diversity, 436
Fortune 100, teams, 166
framing, diversity training, 350
France, 368, 398
functional heterogeneity, conflict, 181–182
G
gays, lesbians, and transgender. See also lesbian, gays, bisexual and transgender (LGBT)
gender, 167
changing role attitudes, 376–377
changing role behaviors in family, 376
critical identity, 80–81
cultural diversity, 35–36
disembodied worker ideal, 375–378
role congruity, 78–79
stereotype threat, 306
vocational choice, 304
work-family interface, 377–378
gender diversity
attitudes, 226–227
beliefs in value, 226
diversity climate, 244
group outcomes, 210
information elaboration, 232
gender identity
socioeconomic trend, 402–403, 412
structural context, 215
geography, faultline trigger, 58
glass ceiling
equal opportunities, 401
expectations of success, 307
perception, 319
vocational choice, 302
Glass Ceiling Commission, 253, 259
Global Compact, 423
global competition, workforce diversity, 239–240
Global Diversity and Inclusion Readiness Index, 423
global diversity management
activities in organizational change, 430
business case rationale, 433–435
capacity of managers as change agents, 431–433
context model, 425, 428–429
database research, 435
definition, 421–422
development of, theory and practice, 422–424
domestic diversity in North America, 419–420
expansion of diversity management outside North America, 420–421
human resources, 422, 423
intervention model, 425, 429–430, 435
models of, 424–430
national borders, 9–10
process model, 425, 426–428
responsibility and translation, 430–431
strategic model, (p. 476) 424–426
globalization
cultural diversity, 32–33
driving diversity, 421–422
workforce diversity, 239–240, 399
world economies, 3–4
granting, identity, 87
Gratz v. Bollinger 2003, 452, 454
Greece, labor force participation, 368
grievance procedures, sexual harassment, 272, 273
Griggs v. Duke Power (1971), 259, 261
group approach, counteracting bias, 450–452
group composition, demographic diversity and faultlines, 54
group conflict. See also conflict
asymmetry, 180, 183–187
conflict and group effectiveness, 180–181
types of intra-, 180
workgroup outcomes, 179–180
group consciousness, 135
group diversity
faultline theory, 62–63
organizational success, 52
group effectiveness
conflict and, 180–181
diversity, 6
group identity, culture, 36
group-level organizational citizenship behaviors (GOCB), 64
group memberships
identity performance, 84–85
social identity, 76–77
stigma, 116
group mentoring, 308
group outcomes, faultlines, 64
group processes
group size, faultline composition, 63
growth, narrative-as-identity, 83
Grutter v. Bollinger (2003), 452, 454
H
hands-off approach, managing difference, 330
health care, socioeconomic trend, 395–397
heterogeneity, 13, 98
hidden diversity, social identities, 23–26
hierarchical organization, leadership, 317
hierarchy-attenuating ideologies, 6, 135–136, 139–140, 146–147
hierarchy culture, organization, 245
hierarchy-enhancing ideologies, 6, 133–134, 139–140
HIV/AIDS, socioeconomic trend, 396–397
holistic approach, study of diversity, 468
homemaker role, 376
homophily
demographic diversity and, 196
network connections, 193–195
social interactions, 160
social networks, 201
Hudson Institute, Workforce 2000, 3
human capital perspective
global diversity management, 432
value-in-diversity, 242
workplace diversity, 241
human dignity, workplace diversity, 437
humanitarianism, hierarchy-attenuating ideology, 135
human resources. See also diversity training
career development, 300–301
disembodied worker, 376
diversity climate, 228
diversity staffing, 287
diversity training, 341
global diversity management, 422, 423
implementing practices, 332–333
mandatory vs. voluntary training, 351
organizational diversity, 232–233
service organizations, 243
surveys, 255
workforces, 4
workplace diversity, 242
human rights, socioeconomic trend, 402–403, 412
Human Rights Campaign, 403
Hurricane Katrina, 147, 216
hyphenation, dual identification, 88
I
identity-as-self perspective, 5
identity awareness, perception, 320–321
identity construction
critical identity, 81
narrative-as-identity, 82
identity groups
faultline theory, 5
negative views of themselves, 118
positive views of themselves, 118
vocational choice, 303–304
identity narratives, narrative-as-identity, 83
identity negotiation, identity work, 84, 86–87
identity performance, identity work, 84–87
identity regulation, critical identity, 81
identity work
claiming, 87
devaluation threats, 85
granting, 87
identity negotiation, 84, 86–87
identity performance, 84–87
legitimacy threats, 85–87
navigating the self, 75, 83–87
social validation, 87
threat, 84, 85
ideological approach, counteracting bias, 452–453
ideologies
Belief in Just World (BJW), 133, 134, 136, 140
classes, 133–136
colorblindness, 107–108, 147–148
definition, 133
diversity attitudes, 144–145
diversity in workplace, 6, 132
future research, 146–148
hierarchy-attenuating ideologies, 135–136
hierarchy-enhancing ideologies, 133–134
implications for workplace, 139–140, 145–146
intergroup relations, 141–144
malleability, 147
multiculturalism, 107–108, 148
Protestant Work Ethic (PWE), 133, 134, 136, 137, 140
psychological origins and functions of, 136–137
self, 140–141
structure of, 137–139
system justification, 148n.2
ignorance, social identity, 320
immigration
ideologies and attitudes, 145
socioeconomic trend, 397–398, 411
Implicit Association Test (IAT), 103–104, 109, 346
implicit attitudes, intergroup bias, 103–104, 109
implicit egalitarianism, 109
inclusion
belongingness and uniqueness, 320
diverse workforce, 411
diversity mindset, 336
global diversity management, 427
racial and ethnic groups in workplace, 401–402
workforce diversity, 413–414
inclusive climate, developing a meta-narrative, 330
inclusive work climate, 325–326
inclusive workplace model, 414
inclusivity effect, context, 216
independent-effects model, work-life interface, 371–372
individual approach, counteracting bias, 450–452
individual behavior, role identity, 78
individual differences, 4–5
individualism-collectivism, faultlines, 65
individualism vs. collectivism, culture, 36
individual-level cultural diversity
configuration, 37–38
situational triggers, 38–39
individuals, faultline triggers, 64
informal integration
informational/opinion diversity, 159, 163
informational resource perspective, 222
information-based integration, global diversity, 436
information elaboration
decision-making groups, 224–225
shared diversity climates, 232
information-processing perspective (p. 477)
beyond double minorities, 163–164
categorization elaboration model, 162
categorization of articles, 168
diversity, 6, 463
double minorities, 163
expansion of, 162–164
explicit status/explicit, 172
explicit status/tacit, 170–172
group effectiveness, 6–7
integrating social categorization with, 162
minority influence, 163
no status/explicit, 168–169
no status/tacit, 169–170
social category perspective, 163, 172–173
tacit status/tacit, 170
teams, 41
theory, 210
understanding diversity, 159, 161–162
inhibition, stereotypes, 109
initiation, mentoring, 308
innovation
institutional approach, counteracting bias, 452–453
institutions, minority-focused recruiting, 288
integration
dual identification, 88
role identity, 79–80
integration and learning perspective, 230
intentionality, bias, 444–445
interactional model of cultural diversity (IMCD)
interactionist perspectives, 6–7, 463
interests, faultline trigger, 58
intergroup bias, 99
decategorization, 105–106
diversity beliefs and attitudes, 224–225
future directions, 108–109
mutual differentiation, 107
organizations, 103–108
recategorization, 106–107
intergroup emotions theory, stigmatization, 121
intergroup relations
high status perceivers/high status targets, 142–143
high status perceivers/low status targets, 141–142
ideological asymmetries, 147
ideologies, 141–144
low status perceivers/high status targets, 143–144
low status perceivers/low status targets, 143
workplace, 145–146
International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF), 408
International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPI), 401
internationalization, customer markets, 3–4
International Organization for Migration, 398
International Telecommunication Union (ITU), 410
Internet
recruiting, 287–289
technological advance, 411, 414
interpersonal dynamics, team performance, 6–7
interpersonal experiences, stigma, 119–120
intersectionality, critical identity, 80–81
intervention model, global diversity management, 425, 429–430, 435
interviews, recruiting applicants, 285
intragroup conflict
faultlines, 59
perceived and actual, 186–187
types, 180
intrapersonal experiences, stigma, 117–118
invisible identities, identity performance, 86
invisible social identities, future research, 23–26
isolation, career development, 307
J
Jim Crow. See also corporate diversity programs
attack on, 256–259
corporate nondiscrimination policies, 256–257
recruitment programs, 257–258
targeted recruitment and training, 258–259
training for opportunity, 258
job descriptions, 262–263, 264
job ladders, 262, 264
job posting, 262, 264
job-relatedness
job tests, 261, 264
job type, faultline moderator, 65
jury selection, counteracting bias, 450–451
justification-suppression model (JSM), 122
K
knowledge
diversity, 352
diversity training design, 345
driving behavior, 38
knowledge, skills, and abilities (KSA), 17–19, 25, 157
knowledge exchange, 6
categorization elaboration model, 162
communication media and ethnicity, 170–171
competence expectations, 166
database searches, 167–168
expanding information processing, 162–164
expectations states theory, 165
explicit status/explicit information processing, 172
explicit status/tacit information processing, 170–172
future directions, 167–172
globalization, 4
information processing perspective, 161–162, 172–173
integrating information processing with social categorization, 164
minorities, 163–164, 171
minority influence and social categorization, 163
no status/explicit information processing, 168–169
no status/tacit information processing, 169–170
performance expectations, 165
similarity-attraction perspective, 160–161
social category perspective, 159, 160–161, 172–173
status and power, 165
status characteristics theory, 165–166
status differences in diverse groups, 164–167
status violations’ influencing information processing, 166–167
tacit status/tacit information processing, 170
task experience, 166
understanding diversity through, 158
knowledge transfer
group effectiveness, 6–7
network connections, 192–193
L
labor force
entry of women into paid, 367–369
female proportion, 400
participation rates by country, 368
women’s participation in global, 399–401, 412
labor market, international, 4
labor market shortages, diversity staffing, 287
labor relations model
antidiscrimination departments, 260
bureaucracy and diversity, 263–265
bureaucratic hiring and promotion, 261–263
creating organizational responsibility, 259–260
expanding, 259–265
monitoring individual managers, 260
responsibility and diversity, 260–261
language, objective culture, 34–35
latent faultlines, 55, 58–59
Latin America, 396, 400, 405–406, 407
law and diversity. (p. 478) See also legal-behavioral science
assessment of bias, 448–450
bias, 444–447
counteracting bias, 450–453
future directions, 454–455
law of requisite variety, 421
leader-member exchange (LMX) theory, 318, 323
developing high-quality relationships, 324–325
inclusive work climate, 325–326
relational leadership, 325
transformational leadership, 324
leadership
accountability
boundary spanning, 327–328
concept of shared, 317
diversity, 8
diversity-leadership mindset, 334–335
diversity management, 247
effective, 317–318
intersection of, and diversity, 315–317
leading others, 321–329
leading self, 318–321
leading the organization, 329–334
managing relationships, 316
power differentials, 319–320
relational, in context of diversity, 335
research and theory, 316–317
self-management, 316
setting agenda for future research, 334–336
social identity conflict, 327
social identity theory of, 322–323
socially constructed nature of, 318
strategies for developing, 336
strategies for enhancing, 323–328, 331–333
leaky pipeline, vocational choice, 303–304
learning
career development, 310
culture of, in organizations, 333
diversity training design, 344
global diversity management, 432
learning-and-effectiveness paradigm
legal approach, diversity, 10
legal-behavioral science. See also law and diversity
assessing bias, 448–450
bias, 444
colorblindness, 452–453
counteracting bias, 450–453
future directions, 454–455
jury selection, 450–451
voir dire, 451
legitimacy threats, identity work, 85–87
lesbian, gays, bisexual and transgender (LGBT)
gender identity, 402–403
self-affirming, 82
social change, 78
workers, 28
lifestyle heterogeneity, conflict, 185–186
line-management, diversity, 247
literacy rates, education, 404, 407
looking-glass self, 119
M
McCleskey v. Kemp (1987), 443, 445
McReynolds v. Merrill Lynch (2005), 449
majority influence, 167
manageable, diversity, 220
management
bureaucratic hiring and promotion, 261–263
diversity training impact, 355–356
workforce diversity, 413–414
managing difference, organizational leadership, 330–331
mandatory training, diversity, 351
manifestations, stigmatization, 123–124
market culture, organization, 245
marketing
masculinity vs. femininity, culture, 36
maternity leaves, 270
Matthew Shepard and James Byrd Jr. Hate Crimes Prevention Act (HPCA), 402
maximum separation diversity, 55
maximum variety diversity, 55
measurement
cultural diversity, 45
diversity beliefs and attitudes, 222–225
diversity climate, 228–230
faultline, 65–66
separation, variety, and disparity, 22
shared climates, 231
membership
beliefs and behaviors, 37–38
culture, 36
mentoring
career development, 8, 302, 307–310
cross-cultural barriers to, 309–310
diversity management, 267–268
importance of, 308–309
stages, 308
workforce diversity, 268–269
meritocracy
hierarchy-enhancing ideology, 134
structure, 137–138
Merrill Lynch, class-action lawsuit against, 448–449
meta-stereotypes, meta-perceptions, 119
Mexico, 368, 406
Miller-El v. Dretke (2005), 449
minorities
antidiscrimination policies, 256
career development, 310–311
discrimination and isolation, 307
diversity attitudes, 226–227
diversity staff and evaluation, 261
firms with training programs, 258
human resources, 228
identity development, 83
mentoring, 309–310
program effects on management diversity, 269
recruitment of, 284–285, 294
similarity perceptions, 305–306
status, 171
stereotype threat, 306
vocational choice, 304
work-family programs and opportunities, 271–272
minority influence, 163, 167
minority recruiters, 285, 286
mission statements, 266
Miville-Guzman Universality-Diversity Scale, 344
moderate variety diversity, 55
moderation model
business strategy, 244
current research, 243–246
design features, 246
diversity advantage, 242–243
human resource management, 245–246
organizational culture, 244–245
moderators, faultlines-outcomes relationship, 60–61, 65
monolithic organizations
motherhood, 167
Multi-City Study of Urban Inequality, 258–259
multicultural approach, workgroup model, 18–19, 25
multiculturalism, 167
bias in organizations, 107–108
hierarchy-attenuating ideology, 135, 141
ideology research, 148
intergroup relations, 226
structure, 139
multicultural teams
collaboration, 41–42
cultural intelligence, 42
information processing perspective, 41
international relations between countries, 42–43
potential, 46
status of nations, 43
task, 42
team conflict, 43
multinational corporations (MNCs), diversity management, 422, 424, 426, 431
multinational teams
cultural diversity salience, 40–42
deep-level components, 41–42
social categorization, 41
social distance perceptions, 41
mutable traits, 26
mutual differentiation, categorization, 105, 107
N
narrative-as-identity, navigating the self, 75, 82–83
National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP), (p. 479) 257
nationality, cross-cultural teams, 45
National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, 276
National Organization for Women, 257, 269
National Organizations Survey (1997), 161, 275
national origin, 44–45, 167
National Voting Rights Acts of 1965, 452
navigating the self
critical identity theory, 75, 80–82
cultural diversity influence, 90–91
future inquiry, 87–92
identity conflicts, 73–74
identity work, 75, 83–87
implications for actors, observers and intergroup relations, 88–90
narrative-as-identity, 75, 82–83
performance on work-related tasks, 89–90
phrase, 74
positive relational identities, 91–92
proactive identity construction, 73
psychological well-being, 89
role identity theory, 75, 78–80
segmentation and integration, 79–80
social identity theory, 74, 76–78
theoretical perspectives on, 74, 75
understanding complex identities, 88
needs assessment, diversity training, 342–344
negative stereotypes, strategy of dispelling, 85–86
negative views, identity group, 118
network connections
age similarity, 197–198
demographic diversity, 196
demographic similarity, 193–195, 196–197
diversity and team performance, 202–203
diversity as connections, 193–195
diversity-performance debate, 198–199
future directions, 195–198
homophily, 193–195, 196
knowledge management, 192–193
propinquity, 195, 196–198
social networks, 199–202
structural hole research, 200
team performance, 198–199
transactive memory system (TMS), 202–203
networking programs, 267, 268
niche markets, globalization, 4
normative diversity context
categorization- and elaboration-based effects, 212, 213–214
conceptualization, 211
norms, behavior, 38–39
North America
diversity management theorization outside, 420–421
domestic diversity, 419–420
education, 406, 407
population by age, 396
North Carolina Racial Justice Act, 450
O
Office of Federal Contract Compliance Programs, 266
openness to diversity, climate, 229
openness to experience, 61, 227
operations analysis, diversity training, 343
oppressed minority ideology, 135
optimal distinctiveness theory, 56
optimism
diversity-performance debate, 199
network connections, 199–201
Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), 408–409
organizational capital resources, 241
organizational citizenship behaviors (OCBs), 373
organizational climate, 228, 229, 234
organizational culture
learning, 333
moderation model, 244–245
normative diversity context, 213–214
work-life interface, 374
organizational demography, 13
diversity, 230, 233–234
structural context, 212, 214–215
organizational diversity, 240
Organizational Diversity Needs Analysis, 342
organizational groups, faultlines, 57–58
organizational success, group diversity, 52
organizations
advantages of diversity, 98–99
attitudes, 103–104
decategorization, 105–106
design features, 246
developing a meta-narrative, 330
discrimination, 119
diversity crises, 332
diversity training impact, 355–356
foundations of leadership, 329–331
future research, 334
globalization, 4
implementing human resources practices, 332–333
intergroup bias, 103–108
leadership of, 329–334
managing difference, 330–331
managing faultlines, 331–332
mentoring importance, 308–309
messages of, during staffing, 285–286
multiculturalism vs. colorblindness, 107–108
mutual differentiation, 107
needs assessment of diversity training, 342–343
recategorization, 106–107
recruiting applicants, 284–285
research vs. practice of diversity training, 358–359
staffing for diversity, 283–284
teams and diversity, 157–158
organization status (ORG), 17–19
outcomes
positive vs. negative, 233
reward systems, 245–246
outsourced jobs, socioeconomic trend, 398–399, 411
P
Parents Involved in Community Schools v. Seattle School District No. 1 (2007), 452
peer mentoring, 308
people-based integration, global diversity, 436
perceived surface-level dissimilarity, 38
perception
actual vs. perceived diversity, 184, 186–187
diversity training, 350–351
performance. See also identity performance
evaluations, 263, 264–265
expectations, 165
faultlines, 59, 60
outcomes, 44
work-related tasks, 89–90
personal identity, self-perception, 318
personality and cognitive behavior styles (PCB), 17–19, 25
personality diversity, beliefs in value, 226
personality factors, diversity beliefs and attitudes, 227–228
person analysis, diversity training, 343–344
personnel selection
competitive advantage, 282
diversity, 289–291
pessimism
diversity-performance debate, 198–199
network connections, 200–201
Pew Forum on Religion & Public Life, 404, 407
phenotypes
philosophy, global diversity management, 433
physical capital resources, 241
physical environment, cultural diversity, 35
pipeline program, vocational choice, 302–303
Plans for Progress, 256, 266
Pluralistic organizations
political conservatism, hierarchy-enhancing ideology, 133–134, 136, 138
political liberalism, hierarchy-attenuating ideology, 135, 138, 139
political systems, cultural diversity, 35
politicized collective identity, 135
population growth, world, (p. 480) 395, 396
Positive Climate for Diversity Scale, 342
positive identity
developmental perspective, 91
evaluative perspective, 90–91
structural perspective, 91
virtue perspective, 90
positive identity construction, cultural diversity influence, 90–91
positive relational identities, navigating the self, 91–92
positive views, identity group, 118
power
critical identity, 80, 82
definitions, 165
differentials, 319–320
distance, 36, 44, 65
diversity, 186
dynamics, 82
global diversity management, 432
practice perspectives, diversity, 7
Pregnancy Discrimination Act of 1978, 126
prejudice
attitudes, 116
decategorization, 105–106
existence, 109
justification-suppression model (JSM), 122
social categorization, 99
Price Waterhouse v. Hopkins (1989), 446
prisoners’ dilemma situations, 161
problem solving, network connections, 199–202
process conflict, team, 180, 181
process model, global diversity management, 425, 426–428
propinquity, network connections, 195, 196–198
protean careers
proactivity and resilience, 83
self-directed career models, 79
protégés, mentoring importance, 308–309
Protestant Work Ethic (PWE)
ideology, 133, 134, 140, 147
origin of ideology, 136, 137
structure, 138
proximity, demographic similarity, 195, 197–198
psychological diversity, climates, 233–234
psychological perspectives on diversity, 5
psychology, competence expectations, 166
Q
qualitative research, context, 216
R
race, 167
Batson v. Kentucky (1986), 447
critical identity, 80–81
cultural diversity, 35
faultline activation, 64
socially constructed term, 14
vocational choice, 304
racial diversity, socioeconomic trend, 401–402, 412
racio-ethnic diversity
diversity climate, 244
socioeconomic trend, 401–402, 412
racio-ethnicity, applicant recruiting, 284–285, 287
racioethnic research, 14
racism, ambivalence aversive, 104
rational choice theory, network closure, 199
Reaction-to-Diversity Inventory, 343
realistic, investigative, artistic, social, enterprising, and conventional (RIASEC), vocational choice, 302
recategorization, group-level thinking, 106–107
recruiters
campus, 284–285
minority, 284–285
recruiting, Internet, 287–289
recruitment
definition, 282
diversity, 287–289
diversity staffing, 283–284
integration with selection, 294
locations, 287–289
messages, 285–286
programs, 257–258
recruiters, 284–285
sources, 287–289
redefinition, mentoring, 308
Reeves v. Sanderson Plumbing (2000), 445
relational demography, 13
diversity, 230, 232, 233–234
faultlines, 331
relational diversity context
categorization- and elaboration-based effects, 212–213
conceptualization, 211
relational leadership, 325, 335
relational self-construal (RSC), 335
relationship conflicts
demographic faultlines, 182, 183
intragroup, 180
team viability, 181
relations-oriented diversity, 158
religious diversity, 167, 404, 407–408, 412
religious minorities, recruiting, 286
remediation, stigmatization, 125–126
research, cultural diversity, 43–46
resistance
affirming identities, 82
global diversity management, 431–432
uncertainty quotient, 435
resource acquisition
resource-based view (RBV), competitive advantage, 241–242
resource drain, work-life interface, 371
responsibility, global diversity management, 430–431
reward structures, faultline trigger, 58
reward systems, outcome interdependence, 245–246
Ricci v. DeStafano (2009), 452
Robbers Cave study, 15–16
role congruity research, 78–79
role identity theory
navigating the self, 75, 78–80
segmentation and integration, 79–80
Rowe v. General Motors Corp. (1972), 263
S
salary classification, 263, 265
satisfaction, faultlines, 59, 60
schools, diversity mindset, 336
science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM), vocational choice, 303
segmentation
role identity, 79–80
work-life interface, 371
selection process
integration with recruitment, 294
literature, 293–294
recruiting for diversity, 285–286, 289–291
self. See also navigating the self
individuals navigating, 5
psychology well–being, 140–141
workplace, 145
self-awareness, social identity, 320–321
self-categorization theory, 15, 56
self-concept, structural perspective, 91
self definition, critical identity, 81
self-disclosure, trait, 26
self-enhancement, social identity, 76–77
self-esteem, stigma, 118
self-knowledge, training design, 346
self-management, 316
others’ perceptions, 319–320
self-perception, 318–319
strategies for enhancing, 320–321
theoretical foundations, 318–320
separation
definition, 55
diversity, 19–21, 55–56, 67n.2
measurement, 22, 45
mentoring, 308
September 11, 2001, 216
service organizations, human resources, 243
sexual harassment, 253, 272, 273
sexual orientation, 167
discrimination, 228
socioeconomic trend, 402–403, 412
shared cognition, climate strength, 231, 235
shared diversity climate
assessment, 234–235
climate strength, 231, 235
consequences, 232
determinants of, 232–233
information elaboration, 232
inter-subgroup sharedness, (p. 481) 235
measurement, 231
relational demography, 232
shared leadership, concept of, 317–318
Shultz v. Wheaton Glass Co. (1970), 263
similarity-attraction paradigm
diversity research, 14–15, 38
recruitment, 285, 293
social identity, 76
subgroups, 56
similarity-attraction perspective
context, 464–465
understanding diversity, 159, 160–161
similarity perception, vocational choice, 305–306
situational judgment tests (SJTs), 290
situational strength perspective, normative diversity context, 212, 213–214
situational triggers, cultural identities, 38–39
skills, evaluation of diversity, 353
“smoking gun” evidence, 444, 446
social behavior, role identity, 78
social capital theory, relational context, 212–213
social categorization perspective
categorical thinking, 99–103
consequences, 100–102
context, 464–465
diversity, 159, 463
diversity training design, 345–346
faultlines, 54, 56–57
grouping of people, 99–100
heterogeneity, 181
integrating with information processing, 162, 172–173
intergroup bias, 102–103
minority influence, 163
subgroupings, 221
teams, 41
theory, 159, 160–161, 210
social competition, social identity, 77–78
social creativity, social identity, 77
social distance, 56–57, 301–302
social dominance theory
hierarchy-enhancing ideologies, 143, 147
structure of ideology, 138
social exchange theory, mentoring, 308
social identity theory
conflict, 327
cycle of influence, 322, 329
diversity disadvantage, 240
diversity of groups, 160
diversity research, 15–16
future research, 87–88
invisible, 23–26
leadership, 322–323
navigating the self, 74, 75, 76–78
self-leadership, 318, 320–321
subgroups, 56
social justice
social learning theory, training, 347–348
social media, innovations, 410, 411
social minorities, information processing, 162
social mobility, social identity, 77
social networks
brokerage and creative problem solving, 199–202
career development, 311
closure and collective action, 199
diversity, 199–202
diversity-performance relationship, 6–7
social psychological distance theory, in-group/out-group, 56–57
social structures, cultural diversity, 35
Society for Human Resource Management (SHRM), 423
sociodemographics, cultural diversity, 35–36
socioeconomic status (SES), 167
socioeconomic trends
disability estimates, 409
education, 403–404, 412
Education For All (EFA), 407
employer migration, 398–399, 411–412
global education statistics, 405–406
health care, 395–397
HIV/AIDS, 396–397
human rights based on sexual orientation and gender identity, 402–403, 412
immigration, 397–398, 411
inflows of foreign workers, 398
innovations for virtual workplace, 410–411
outsourcing jobs, 398–399
people with disabilities, 408–410
racial and ethnic groups in workplace, 401–402
religious diversity, 404, 407–408, 412
women’s and men’s economic activity rates, 400
women’s labor force participation, 399–401, 412
world’s population growth, 395, 396
sociofunctional approach, stigmatization, 122
sociological approach, diversity programs, 255–256
sociology, competence expectations, 166
South and West Asia, education, 406, 407
Southeast Asia and Pacific, 400
spillover, work-life interface, 371
spirals of silence, 23
staffing. See diversity staffing
status, 167
categorization of articles, 168
competition within group, 195
definitions, 165
diverse groups, 164–167
expectations states theory, 165
information processing, 166
multicultural teams, 43, 44
performance expectations, 165
status characteristics theory, 165–166
violations influencing information processing, 166–167
vs. power, 165
status characteristics theory, 165–166
status hierarchies, dominance and submission, 89
step-ahead mentoring, 308
stereotype content model (SCM), stigmatization, 121–122
stereotypes
beliefs, 116
career development barrier, 301, 304
coping strategies, 120–121
sticky floors
equal opportunities, 401
expectations of success, 306
vocational choice, 302
stigma
aesthetics, 117
antecedents, 123
concealable, 116–117
consequences, 124–125
controllability, 117
coping strategies, 120–121
definition, 116
devalued differences, 115
dimensions, 116–117
disruption, 117
future research directions, 126–127
hereditary-based, 116
intergroup emotions theory, 121
interpersonal experiences, 119–120
intrapersonal experiences, 117–118
justification-suppression model (JSM), 122
managing impressions, 119–120
manifestations, 123–124
remediation, 125–126
stereotype content model (SCM), 121–122
stigmatizers’ perspectives, 121–126
system justification, 122
targets’ perspectives, 117–121
targets’ self-esteem, 118
strategic human resource management (SHRM), 294
strategic model, global diversity management, 424–426
strategy theory, diversity, 7
strength, faultline, 53, 54
structural diversity context
categorization- and elaboration-based effects, 212, 214–215
definition, 211–212
structural integration
structural perspective, self-concept, 91
subgroup categorization, faultline, 59, 62–63
subgroup climate, demography, 232
subgroup thinking, demographic diversity, (p. 482) 221
sub-Saharan Africa, 400, 406, 407
success, understanding, 274
superordinate categorization, social identity, 77, 88
Support Our Law Enforcement and Safe Neighborhoods Act, 447
suppression, justification-, model (JSM), 122
Supreme Court, 442, 443, 445, 452
surface-level display cues, identity work, 84–85
surface-level diversity
conceptualization, 15, 16
mapping, 20–21
teams, 40–41
Swain v. Alabama (1965), 449
system justification, 122, 148n.2
systems perspectives, diversity, 9
T
targeted recruitment programs
Blacks and women, 257
gender and racial diversity, 273–274
targets of influence, leadership, 316–317
task, cultural diversity, 42
task analysis, diversity training, 343
task conflicts
demographic faultline, 59–60
intragroup, 180
performance, 181
team viability, 181
task content, faultline, 58, 61
task experience, status hierarchy, 166
task-oriented, diversity, 158
team diversity
beliefs in value, 226
cross-level context, 215–216
diversity training, 358
perspectives, 229–230
structural context, 214–215
team entitlement, faultline, 59, 60–61
team performance
diversity and, 202–203
diversity climate, 232
ethnic diversity, 210
information elaboration, 224–225
multiple teams, 203
network connections, 198–199
social networks, 200
teams
advantages of diversity, 98–99
communication, 34–35
cultural differences within, 40–42
cultural diversity, 39–46
deep-level cultural components, 41–42
diversity-performance debate, 198–199
Fortune 100 companies, 166
multinational, and cultural diversity salience, 40–42
national differences across, 39–40
performance of multiple, 203
surface-level diversity, 40–41
top management teams (TMT), 241, 242
turnover, 65
viability, 180–181
work of organizations, 157–158
technological innovations, workplace, 410–411, 412–413
temporal effects, diversity context, 216
terrorists attacks, 216
Theory of Planned Behavior, 344
“think manager, think male” phenomenon, 319
third-culture building, diversity and unity, 435–436
Threats, identity work, 84, 85–87
Top management teams (TMTs)
trainer demographics, diversity training, 349
training. See also diversity training
demographics of group, 349–350
design, 8–9
sexual harassment grievance, 272, 273
targeted recruitment programs, 258
trait approach, workgroup model, 17–19
traits, 26
transactive memory system (TMS), 202–203
transfer, diversity training, 353–355
transformational leadership, 247, 324
translation, global diversity management, 430–431
triggers, active faultline, 58–59, 63–64
Turkey, gender equality, 423
turnover rates
high-quality relationships, 325
team, 65
women and people of color, 307
U
UNAIDS Report on the Global AIDS Epidemic, 397
uncertainty avoidance, culture, 36
uncertainty quotient, resistance, 435
University of Michigan, affirmative action, 454
upper-echelons theory, 241
Urban League, 257
U.S. General Social Survey, 376
U.S. Office of Personnel Management, outreach, 288
V
value-in-diversity
diversity advantage, 240–241
human capital, 242
value-in-diversity hypothesis, 161
values
behavior, 38–39
beliefs, and attitudes (VBA), 17–19, 25
cultural diversity, 36
driving behavior, 37
national origin, 44–45
variation, 13
cultural diversity, 32–33
measurement, 45
variety
diversity, 19–21, 55–56, 67n.2
measurement, 22
virtual workplace, technological innovations, 410–411, 412–413
virtue perspective
positive identity, 90
positive relational identity, 91–92
visible attributes, diversity advantage, 240–241
vocational choice
ambient cues and traditional representation, 304–305
discrimination and isolation, 307
drivers of, 302–303
expectations of success, 306–307
gender and, 304
gender/race valuation, 306
identity, 303–304
ongoing, 306
perceived similarity, 305–306
race and, 304
Realistic, Investigative, Artistic, Social, Enterprising, and Conventional (RIASEC), 302
voir dire, counteracting bias, 451
voluntary training, diversity, 351
W
Walking Through White Privilege, self-awareness, 346–347
“war for talent,” disembodied worker, 368–369
Washington v. Davis (1976), 445
weight discrimination, 26–27, 28
Western Europe, education, 406, 407
women
antidiscrimination policies, 256
career development, 310–311
discrimination and isolation, 307
diversity attitudes, 226–227
diversity staff and evaluation, 261
entry into paid labor force, 367–369
firms with training programs, 258
labor force participation, 399–401, 412
mentoring, 309–310
program effects on management diversity, 269
recruitment, 294
similarity perceptions, 305–306
stereotype threat, 306
targeted recruitment programs, 257
work-family programs and opportunities, 271–272
workplace ideologies and attitudes, 144–145
women’s issues
child-care programs, 271
diversity management, 273–274
flextime programs, 270–271
grievance procedures and training, (p. 483) 272
maternity leaves, 270
opportunities for women and minorities, 271–272
rise of, in 1990s, 269–272
sexual harassment grievance systems, 272, 273
work-family programs, 270–271
work environment munificence
integrated model, 383
variables, 379, 381
work-life interface, 382
work-family facilitation, 371
work-family interface. See also work-life interface
gender roles, 377–378
work-family programs, women’s issues, 270–271, 273–274
Workforce 2000, Hudson Institute, 3
workforce diversity
definition, 395
diversity programs and, 268–269
drivers for change, 434
ecosystem, 393–394
global, 9, 394–395
globalization and global competition, 239–240
inclusion, 413–414
leadership, 315–317
recruiting and selecting diverse, 291–292
sociological approach, 255–256
top management teams (TMTs), 242
Workforce Diversity Questionnaire, 342
workgroup models, diversity research, 17–19
workgroup outcomes, conflict, 179–180
work interference with family (WIF), 372, 377–378
work-life conflict
antecedents and outcomes of, 372–373
definition, 370
work-life interface, 369–371
work-life facilitation
antecedents and outcomes of, 373
disembodied worker, 367
interface research, 371
work-life flexibility
disembodied worker, 369
environmental support, 373
impact of supports, 373–375
interacting practices, 375
practices, 374–375
synergy between formal practices and managerial support, 375
work-life interface
antecedents and outcomes of, 370
buffering model, 372
changing gender role attitudes, 376–377
compensation, 371
conflict, facilitation, flexibility, 9
cross-cultural differences and similarities, 384–385
definition, 366
entry of women in paid labor force, 367–369
external situational effects, 382–383
future research, 383–385
gender impact, 375–378
gender role behaviors in family, 376
gender roles and, 377–378
independent-effects model, 371–372
individual differences, 375
integrated model of, 378–383, 385
intersection of paid work with outside areas, 384
key constructs and models, 369–372
labor force participation rates, 368
models of, 371–372
organizational culture, 374
research, 367, 372–375
resource drain, 371
segmentation, 371
spillover, 371
term, 383
theoretical mechanisms affecting, dynamics, 379
variables linked to constructs, 379, 381
work-life conflict, 369–371, 372–373
work-life facilitation, 371, 373
work-life flexibility supports, 373–375, 384
workplace. See also corporate diversity programs
ideologies, 139–140
implications of ideologies, 145–145
stigmatized or devalued attributes, 115
technological innovations for virtual, 410–411, 412–413
women in, 144–145
workplace diversity, 167, 220
diversity advantage, 240–241
diversity disadvantage, 240
human capital perspective, 241
human dignity, 437
human resources, 242
United States, 44
workplace support, 373–374
work resource gains/losses, variables, 379, 381
work resource investments, variables, 379, 381
work role demands, variables, 379, 381
work role performance, variables, 379, 381
work styles, culture-specific, 39–40
work-to-family enrichment (WFE), 373
work values, faultline composition, 63
World Education Forum, 403–404
World Health Organization (WHO), disabled individuals, 408
worldview, ideology, 133