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date: 16 February 2020

(p. xxi) Abbreviations

(p. xxi) Abbreviations

Throughout this volume, the following abbreviations will be used.

M. =

Mishnah. This will be followed by the name of the specific tractate (book) of the Mishnah being referred to and the chapter and specific clause (“mishnah”) number—e.g., M. Sanhedrin 4:5.

T. =

Tosefta (edited c. 200 c.e. by Rabby Hiyya and Rabbi Oshaya).

J. =

Jerusalem Talmud. This will be followed by the name of the tractate, the chapter and clause of the Mishnah where the quoted or intended material appears, and sometimes the page and column number (there are four columns on each page, two on the front side and two on the back) in the one-volume edition, e.g., J. Sanhedrin 1:1 (2a).

B. =

Babylonian Talmud. This will be followed by the name of the tractate and the folio page and side (front side or back) in the standard, multivolume edition of the Talmud—e.g., B. Sanhedrin 32a.

M.T. =

Maimonides’ Mishneh Torah. This will be followed by the section, chapter, and clause numbers—e.g., M.T. Laws of Testimony 1:3.

S.A. =

Joseph Karo’s Shulhan Arukh. This will be followed by the name of the part of the code that is being cited (there are four parts, each with its own name), the chapter, and law number—e.g., S.A. Hoshen Mishpat 125:7. Where the reference is to Moses Isserles’ comments, this will be followed by “(gloss).”

(p. xxii)