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date: 16 February 2020

Abstract and Keywords

The nineteenth century witnessed the dramatic growth of Jewish thought and activity spurred by the increasing civic and intellectual freedoms that emancipation and the Enlightenment brought to Jews. This chapter traces the challenges that this new modernity posed to Jews and how they responded. It considers scholars such as Moses Mendelssohn, Samuel David Luzzato, Elijah Benamozegh, Nachman Krochmal, Samson Raphael Hirsch, Hermann Cohen, and Israel Lipkin's Mussar Movement. Although they variously retained traditionalism, their responses were all reforms insofar as they each created “what might be called an indigenous Jewish response to modernity.”

Keywords: Jewish thought, modernity, Jews, Moses Mendelssohn, Samuel David Luzzato, Elijah Benamozegh, Nachman Krochmal, Samson Raphael Hirsch, Hermann Cohen, Israel Lipkin

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