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date: 10 April 2021

(p. 819) Index

(p. 819) Index

Tables and figures are indicated by an italic t and f following the page number.

A
Aaltonen, M., 555
Aas, H., 54
ABCD study, 816–17
ABLE projects, 657
“Above the Influence” campaign, 662
abstinence CM, 687 t
academic attitudes/achievement, 218–19, 482–83, 509–10, 516
acculturation, 632–33, 719, 723, 725–32
ACE estimates, 260, 310
acquired preparedness model of risk, 378–80
actor-based models, 399
acute medical stabilization (detox), 768
acute residential treatment, 586 t, 768–69
ADAM program, 555
Adderall, 208, 210, 214, 215 f
addictive behavior self-change, 121–22
addictive potential, 813–15
ADHD
alcohol-associated, 310
assessment of, 609, 613
as comorbidity, 532, 532–33 f, 536–37
marijuana-associated, 179
prescription drug-associated, 219, 222
specificity orientation, 312–13
Adolescent Alcohol and Drug Abuse Involvement Scale (AADAIS), 615
Adolescent Cannabis check-up (ACCU), 667–68
adolescent-community reinforcement approach (ACRA), 641, 679 t, 683–84 t, 700–6, 766, 770
Adolescent Diagnostic Interview (ADI), 617, 618 t
Adolescent Drinking Inventory (ADI), 615
Adolescent Self-Assessment Profile (ASAP), 618 t, 619–20
adolescent socialization theory, 346
advertisements, exposure to, 358–59
advertising restrictions, 791, 794
Agar, M., 93
age-graded theory, 53
age of onset
alcohol, 54–55, 135, 138, 265–66, 267 f, 381–82, 576
alcohol use disorder, 138
anxiety, 293
ATOD, 627–28
behavioral genetics, 265–66, 269–73, 270 f, 271 f
bipolar disorder, 293
depression, 293
development, 20, 26–27, 47, 50–51, 54–55, 61
eating disorders, 293
epidemiology, 54–55
first use definitions, 47
marijuana, 173, 265–66, 267 f, 576
psychopathology, 293
substance use disorders, 293, 301
tobacco/nicotine, 265–66, 267 f, 383
Ageton, S. S., 561
Agrawal, A., 50, 54
AI-SUPERPFP study, 99
Akre, C., 44
alcohol
abstaining/limiting motivations, 137, 665–66
accessibility/availability, 84, 150–51, 791–95
acculturation studies, 512
actor-based modeling, 399
acute drug sensitivity, 237–39
adverse consequences of, 144–46
advertisements, exposure to, 358–59
age-graded patterning, 41–42
age of onset, 54–55, 135, 138, 265–66, 267 f, 381–82, 576
American Indians, 100–1
animal models, 135, 234–35, 237–39, 241–48
assessment, 154
attitudes/perceived risks, 84
availability, in-home, 347–48
availability/cost targeting, 450
BAC limits, 449–50
brain development, 135, 244–45
brain plasticity impairment, 238
brief intervention, 152, 578, 579 t, 581–83, 582 t, 589, 637, 667
candidate-gene associations, 273–75
cascade models, 30, 56–57, 147, 329
circadian rhythms, 134
cognitive deficits, 243–44
cognitive precursors of, 136–37
college status, 57, 85–86 t, 87, 274, 381, 382, 490
common liability model, 306–11, 308–9 f, 322, 536 t, 814
common vs. substance-specific mechanisms, 132
consequences, long-term, 242–45
contexts, 141, 154
continuity/discontinuity, 58–59
cross-national data, 140–41
dating relationships influences, 423
delinquent behavior risks, 9, 554–58, 556–57 f, 562–66
dependence, 48–50, 134, 291, 541–42, 576, 812 ( see also alcohol use disorder)
developmental subtypes, 143
developmental trajectories, 37–38, 40–42 f, 51–53, 131–32, 134–36, 141–43, 258, 305–6, 381–82, 432, 576
development effects on use of, 20, 26–27
disinhibition, 148, 424–26
disorders, heterogeneity of, 304
early initiation as predictive, 138, 142
elementary school children studies, 382
environmental influences on, 134, 146, 154
epigenetic effects, 134, 154, 244
etiologic models, 306
expectancies, experimental manipulation of, 382–83
expectancies, formation, 378–80
expectancies, modeling/observation, 377–78
expectancy measures, 375–76
exposure, later outcomes, 242–43
externalizing behavior, 148, 154, 179, 271–72
family influences, 137, 141, 148–50, 258–59
first use, first full drink, initiation of use, 46–47, 49–51, 49 f, 137–39, 141, 147, 325, 403, 431, 469
gateway hypothesis, 138–39, 271–72
gender differences, 85–86 t, 86, 134–35, 140–43, 145, 147, 484
genetic influences on, 133–34, 143, 147, 150, 154, 314
grade level differences, 84–86, 85–86 t
graduated driver licensing laws, 450
(p. 820)
g x e interaction, 260–65, 266 t
histone acetylation, 244
homotypic continuity, 22–23
initial response as predictive, 138
internalizing pathway, 148, 154, 321–26, 323 f, 336n1
legal age of use, 151
life-span approach, 132
longitudinal studies, 269–71, 270 f, 274, 350–51, 381–82, 518–19
marijuana use cormorbid, 143, 173–74
mass media effects, 136, 149–50, 359, 427–28, 661
measurement, 59
minimum legal drinking age increase, 449
motivations to use, 141, 324–25
motives for abstinence/moderation, 471
MRI studies, 291
negative emotionality, 148
negative urgency, 380
neurocognitive deficits, 148
neurocognitive development effects, 145–46, 763
neuroimaging, 154–55
neurotoxic consequences of, 38, 145–46
neurotransmitters, 244
novelty seeking, 148
P300, 148
parental monitoring, 514
parenting behaviors, 137, 141, 148–51, 221–22, 512
peer relationships, 135, 136, 148–50, 391, 399, 402–3, 405
prevalence, 79–82, 79 f, 81 f, 139, 290, 507–8
prevention, 151–52, 155
progression of use, 47–49, 54, 132–33, 138, 270–71
promotive/protective factors, 146–47, 151
psychopharmacological model, 558–59
psychosocial risk/protective factors, 518–20
puberty, 134–35, 155
public health initiatives, 156
public policy/prevention, 151, 790–96
race/ethnicity, 134–35, 138, 140–42, 145, 147, 381, 489–91, 513–14, 630
relapse contexts, 747
religiosity, 488, 509
resilience, 147, 482–83, 509–11, 514, 516
reward seeking/responsivity, 238–39, 243, 472, 628–30
risk factors, 135, 146–51
role selection, 46
schemas, 136, 377
school-level effects, 150
screening, 152, 578, 578–79 t, 615, 616 t
self-regulatory ability, 132, 134, 148, 151
self-reported reasons for using, 29
sensitivity to effects/sensitization, 135
sexual aggression/relations/risky behavior, 6, 422–23, 426, 435–36, 792
sibling influences, 268, 353–54, 354 f, 632
sipping/tasting, 137
sleep impairment, 8, 595–99
social ecological models, 155–56
social environment influences, 149
social facilitation, ethanol-induced, 238
socialization effects, 46
social lubricating effect, 425, 435–36
sociocultural contexts, 21
socioeconomic status, 140, 150
stage-related development, 42–44
substance-impaired driving, 449, 451–52
subtypes, 143, 304–5
telescoping, 138
tobacco co-occurrence, 115, 123, 133, 143
trajectory/outcome relationships, 142–43
treatment, 152–53, 155
turning points, 142
twin studies, 259–65, 262 t, 269, 273
workforce entry, 46
zero tolerance laws, 449–50
alcohol, tobacco, and other drug (ATOD)
adolescent development, 575–76, 628–29
age of initiation, 627–28
common vs. substance-specific mechanisms, 132
comorbidity, 215–16, 219, 534, 538, 541–42
motivations for use, 630–33
prevalence, 627
prevention programming, 633–41
psychiatric symptoms/disorders, 116
race/ethnicity, 629–30, 637–39
social/health effects/disparities, 629–30
tobacco/nicotine use risk, 115, 123, 143
Alcoholics Anonymous, 12, 543, 743–57, 771
Alcohol Screening Protocol for Youth, 615
alcohol use disorder (AUD)
age of onset, 138
caregiving environment, 331–34
characterization, 144–45
children of alcoholics, 138, 326–34, 336nn4–5, 377
comorbidity, 50
covariates modeling, 60
developmental trajectory, 132–33, 138
gender differences, 145
genetic phenotypes in, 133, 153–54, 307
internalizing pathway, 321–25, 323 f, 326–34, 336nn1–3, 336nn4–5
MHO participation rates, 748–49
nicotine use comorbid, assessment of, 117
race/ethnicity, 145
treatment, 152–53
ALDH2, 133, 150, 273–74, 276
Alegria, A., 541
Alfonso, J., 177
Allen, M., 662
American Indians, 99–104, 145, 491, 510
Ammerman, R. T., 300
amphetamines
administration route, 211
adverse health complications, 218
American Indians, 101
animal models, 234, 240
college academic performance, 218–19
comorbidity, 215
diversion behavior, 220–21
gender differences, 214, 215 f
mental health problems, 220
nonmedical use of, 207 f, 207 t, 208
pathway of use, 814
perceived accessibility, 84
prevalence, 79, 80 f, 82, 83, 220
thought disorders, 542–43
amygdala, 173, 236, 241, 246, 247, 304
analgesics
nonmedical use of, 207 f, 207 t, 208–10, 209 f
perceived harmfulness, 216
prevalence, 220
anandamide, 762–63
Andersen, M. R, 53
Anderson, K. G., 7
Anderssen, N., 54
Andrews, J. A., 353
animal models, 3–4, 234–35
of adolescence, 235–36, 628
amphetamines, 234, 240
binge drinking, 576
cocaine/crack, 234, 240
cognitive maps, 373–74
dependence, 235
ethical issues, 234
generalizability, 240–41
heroin, 234–35
marijuana, 174, 239, 246–48
peer relationships, 236
psychotherapeutics, 239–40
reward seeking, 240–41
reward seeking/responsivity, 234–47
risk-taking, 236
self-administration, 234–35, 237–41
sexual relations, 236
substance use consequences, 241–48
tobacco/nicotine, 239, 241, 245–46
usefulness of, 233–34
validity testing, 234
withdrawal symptoms, 235
(p. 821) Anthony, J. C., 47, 48
antidepressants, 539
antisocial alcoholism, 143, 305
antisocial personality disorder, 196, 310, 482–83, 543–45
Anton, B. S., 656
anxiety
age of onset, 293
alcohol usage and, 324
case, clinical example, 544–45
cocaine/crack, 191
as comorbidity, 532–33 f, 532–34, 540–42
genetic influences, 322
marijuana, 247, 763
prescription drug abuse, 220
race/ethnicity differences, 732
tobacco/nicotine use, 116
anxiolytics, 217 t, 220
Arias, A., 275
Arkowitz, H., 666–67
Arria, A. M., 46, 219
Arthur, M. W., 519
Asscher, J. J., 707
Assertive Continuing Care (ACC), 679 t, 683–84 t
assessment/intervention. see also prevention/intervention
biological testing, 609
biopsychosocial risk/protective factors, 611–13
clinical observation/interview, 610
comorbidity, 613
comprehensive assessment, 617–20, 618–19 t
confidentiality, 578–81, 587, 620
craving, 611
diagnostic interviews, 617–19, 619 t
drug abuse problem severity, 610–11
family history, 612
hazardous use, 611
inpatient/outpatient models, 13
instrumentation, 613–14
multiscale questionnaires, 618–19 t, 619–20
parental reports, 609–10
parenting behaviors, 612
peer relationships, 612–13
principles of, 607–8
problem-focused interviews, 618 t, 619
psychosocial interview, 576–77, 577 t
screening tools, 614–17, 616 t
self-report measures, 77–78, 401, 402, 407, 608–10
standards, 614
tolerance to substances, 611
treatment outcome, 620–21
twelve-step approaches ( see twelve-step approaches)
types of, 607–8
withdrawal symptoms, 611
ASSIST intervention, 635
Association of Recovery Schools (ARS), 774
attentional performance studies, 292
attention control, 466
AUDIT screen, 578 t
Austin, A. M., 701 t
authoritarian parenting style, 612
authoritative parenting style, 612
Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children, 301
Azrin, N. H., 689 t, 700
B
Babor, T. F., 305, 804
Bacallao, M. L., 726
Bachman,J. G., 55
BAC limits, 59, 449–50, 795–96
Baer, J. S., 666
Baezconde-Garbanati, L., 726
Bahr, S. J., 488
Bailey, S. L., 425
Baldwin, S. AS., 700, 701 t
Bancej, C., 43
Banks, C., 732
barbiturates. see sedatives (barbiturates)
Barnes, G., 564
Barnes, G. M., 555
Barratt Impulsiveness Scale, 302
Barrera, M., Jr., 350
Barrett, H., 691 t
Bauer, D. J., 50, 60
Baum, S. K., 731
Bauman, K. E., 353, 402, 407
Beam, M. R., 519
Beauvais, F., 101, 510
Becker, S. J., 702 t
Becker-Blease, K. A., 211
Behar, D., 237
behavioral disinhibition hypothesis, 536 t
behavioral genetics
adoption studies, 259–65, 261–64 t, 266 t, 268–70, 277–78
age of onset, 265–66, 269–73, 270 f, 271 f
background, 4, 258–59
biometrics, 259–60
candidate-gene associations, 273–75, 322
developmental timing, 258
disinhibition, 258, 265, 266 t, 278
epidemiology, 257–58
expectancies in, 5, 258, 265, 266 t, 278
family studies, 258–59
genetic variants, 273–76
genome-wide association studies, 273, 275–76
g x e interaction, 260–65, 266 t, 267–69, 268 f, 276–77, 278 f
heritability, 265, 269–71
parental behaviors, 267–68, 268 f
progression of use, 270–71
sibling influences, 268
social control vs. triggering interactions, 277, 278 f
specificity, 265–66, 266–67 f
substance availability, 269
twin studies, 259–65, 261–64 t, 266 t, 269–73, 270 f, 277–78
behavioral undercontrol, 299–300
childhood disorder, 310, 312
common liability model, 306–11, 308–9 f, 322, 536 t, 814
complex phenotypes, 312, 314–15
decision-making, 303–4
disinhibition, 301, 303, 307–10, 309 f
externalizing pathway, 301, 305, 308–11, 309 f
generality-specificity, 312–13
GWA studies, 314
g x e interactions, 314–15
heritability, 311–12
impulsivity, 301–4, 314
internalizing pathway, 305, 306
literature review, 300–4
mechanistic structures, 304
molecular genetics/genomics, 311–12
parenting behaviors, 305–6
personality, 301–3
resilience and, 510–11
sampling/research designs, 313–14
sensation seeking, 301–4
SNPs, 311–12, 314, 315
temperament, 56, 300–1, 307, 322–23
Behrendt, S., 48, 51
Belgrave, F. Z., 488, 490
Belsky, D. W., 276
Benet-Martínez, V., 728
Bentler, P. M., 28
benzodiazepines, 210, 768
Berchtold, A., 44
Bergen, H. A., 482, 483
Berghuis, J., 669
Berk, R. A., 791
Bernat, D. H., 54
Berry, J. W., 96
“Be Under Your Own Influence” campaign, 661
Bevilacqua, L., 314
biculturalism, 103, 727–28, 733
big data, 816–17
Biglan, T., 793
bilinguality, 99
binge drinking, 139–41, 534–35
adolescence and, 135, 160
animal models, 576
comorbidity, 534–35
consequences of, 144–46, 291–92, 576
decline in frequency of use, 814
expectancies in, 377
fMRI BOLD studies, 291–92
puberty and, 432
risk period 129, 534
targeted prevention, 665
(p. 822) Bingenheimer, J. B., 516
biological testing, 609
bipolar disorder, 293, 538–42, 539
BIS/ BAS scales, 302
Black, C., 793
black sheep effect, 734–35
Blackson, T. C., 300
Blanton, H., 358
Block, J., 304
Blom, R. M., 541
Blomeyer, D., 314
blood alcohol concentrations (BACs). see BAC limits
Boekeloo, B. O., 637–38
Bohman, M., 305
BOLD response, 286–87, 291
bonding theory, 346, 353
Boomsma, D. I., 262 t
borderline personality disorder, 543–45
Borowsky, I. W., 510
Borsari, B., 667
Botvin, G. J., 511, 514, 519
Boustani, M. M., 12
Boyd, C., 211, 220
brain maturation. see neurocognitive development
Breakwell, G. M., 424
Breslau, N., 48
Brewer, M. B., 96
Bricker, J. B., 53
brief intervention, 578, 579 t, 581–83, 582 t, 589, 637, 667
brief strategic family therapy (BSFT), 679 t, 685–86 t, 700, 701 t, 707, 709, 710
Briggs, K. E. L., 7
Brody, J. L., 707
Bronfenbrenner, U., 56, 509
Brook, D. W., 55
Brook, J., 490, 491
Brooks-Gunn, J., 430
Brown, B. B., 494
Brown, J. D., 428
Brown, J. L., 427
Brown, S. A., 375, 748
Brown, T. L., 171
Bry, B. H., 490
Bryant, A. L., 509, 510, 516
BSTAD screen, 578, 578 t
Budney, A. J., 707
Bullock, B., 175
Burchfield, K. B., 555
Burdzovic Andreas, J., 56
Burke, B. L., 666–67
Burmeister, M., 274
Burnside, M., 101
Burvill, P., 792
Bush, N., 466–67
C
Caetano, R., 804
Caldeira, K. M., 219
Caldwell, C. H., 511, 513
Campbell, C. A., 794
Campbell, W., 676
Cance, J. D., 597
cannabis. see marijuana
cannabis dependence syndrome, 48
Cannabis Youth Treatment project, 765–66, 776
Cappella, J., 664
Carey, K. B., 667
cascade models, 30, 56–57, 147, 329
Caspi, A., 301, 323
Cassells, S., 103
Casswell, S., 804
Castro, F. G., 490, 491
Catalano, R. F., 55, 210–11, 561, 702 t
causal structure, cross-domain, 816–17
centralization methodology, 404
cerebral blood flow (CBF), 288
challenge model, 507
Chan, X., 532–34
Chandler, M. J., 509
Chang, S. Y., 702 t
Chapman, J. E., 707
Chassin, L., 46, 50, 325, 350
Chau, N., 50
Chawla, N., 488
Chen, C. S., 519
Chen, C. Y., 51
Chen, K., 49
Chikritzhs, T., 793
Chilcoat, H. D., 211, 212
Child Behavior Checklist, 9
children of alcoholics
alcohol use disorder, 138, 326–34, 336nn4–5, 377
expectancies, 356–57, 377
peer relationships, 327
socialization, 348–51
chippers, 52
chlordiazepoxide, 768
CHOICE intervention, 636
cholinergic system, 275
CHRM2, 275, 277, 311
CHRNA5-CHRNA3-CHRNB4, 275, 277
chronic care model, 779
chronic medical conditions, 588–89
Chung, I. J., 55, 564–65
Chung, T., 565, 610
Cicchetti, D., 509, 523
cigarettes. see tobacco/nicotine
Cillessen, A. H. N., 407
circadian rhythms, 134, 289, 599–600
Clark, D. B., 117, 425
Clemmey, P., 193
Cleveland, M. J., 521
clinical observation/interview, 610
Clinical Practice Guideline for Treating Tobacco Use and Dependence 2008, 121
cliques, 396, 397 t, 400–3, 406, 407, 492–96
Cloninger, C. R., 302, 305
club drugs, 83. see also specific drugs by name
Cluster B personality disorders, 196, 310, 482–83, 543–45. see also specific disorders
clustering methodology, 404
Cocaine Anonymous, 743–44
cocaine/crack
accessibility, perceived, 84
animal models, 234, 240
behavioral alterations, 245
characterization, 190
delinquent behavior risks, 554–58, 556–57 f, 562
gateway theory, 171–72, 273
gender differences, 191
harmfulness, perceived, 216
initiation of use, 47
internalizing pathway, 325–26
marginalization cycle, 191
mechanism of action, 190
predictive factors, 190–91
prevalence, 79, 80 f, 82, 83
protective factors, 191
psychiatric disorder prevalence, 191
race/ethnicity, 191
self-administration, 247
usage rates/patterns, 190, 814
code switching, 727
Coffman, D. L., 657
COGA study, 274
cognitive behavior therapy (CBT), 640, 677, 683 t, 687 t, 700–1, 702 t, 706–7, 773–74
cognitive processing/action. see expectancies
Cohen-Zion, M., 10, 595
Colby, S. M., 636, 637, 638, 667
Colder, C. R., 325, 472
Cole, E. R., 95
Coleman, J. C., 23
College Life Study (CLS), 210, 218–19
Collins, D., 208
Combs, J. L., 380
common cause model, 559–62
common liability model, 306–11, 308–9 f, 322, 536 t, 814
comorbidity
amphetamines, 215
AOD/ATOD, 215–16, 219, 534, 538, 541–42
assessment/intervention, 613
background, 8, 531–32, 815–16
binge drinking, 534–35
case example, 544–45
clinical observations, 545–47
context in, 546
delinquent behavior risks as, 554–58, 556–57 f
depressive disorders, 532–33 f, 532–34, 537–38
disruptive behavior disorders, 536–37
eating disorders, 543
(p. 823)
ecstasy (MDMA), 195–96
etiology, 534–36, 537 t
family-based treatments, 703 t
gender differences, 542
illegal drugs other than marijuana, 534
longitudinal studies, 533–34, 544
marijuana, 196, 215, 534, 535, 541, 763
ODD, 532, 532–33 f, 535, 539, 542
personality disorders, 543–45
prescription drug abuse, 215–16, 219
prevalence, 532–33, 532 f
sleep impairment, 598
thought disorders, 542–43
tobacco/nicotine, 535
twelve-step approaches, 753
twin studies, 544
comparative methodology, 398–99
compensatory model, 506–7
competence model, 482
complementary/alternative medicine, 777
Comprehensive Adolescent Severity Inventory (CASI), 618 t, 619
comprehensive assessment, 617–20, 618–19 t
compromised functioning hypothesis, 271, 272 f
computer-assisted interview (CAI), 608
conditioned place aversions (CPA), 239
conditioned place preference (CPP), 235, 238–40, 245
conditioned taste aversions (CTA), 239, 240, 243
conduct disorder
alcohol-associated, 310
assessment of, 609, 613
as comorbidity, 532, 532–33 f, 535–37, 540
Ecstasy-associated, 196
marijuana-associated, 178–79
puberty/precocious in, 431
specificity orientation, 312–13
twelve-step approaches, 753
confidentiality, 578–81, 587, 620
conflict resolution model, 96, 97 f
conjoint family therapy (CFT), 685 t
Connell, A. M., 55
Connell, C. M., 100
Connor, J. P., 491
Conrod, P., 665–66, 669
CONSORT guidelines, 676
construct validity, 234
contingency management, 679 t, 697 t, 709, 773
contingency management/family engagement (CM-FAM), 687 t
Contract for Life, 583
co-occurring psychiatric disorders. see comorbidity
Cooper, M. L., 375, 381, 425, 426, 485
Copeland, J., 179, 667–68
Corbin, W. R., 380
Corley, R. P., 274
Corneille, M. A., 490
correlative methodology, 398
Costa, F. M., 518
Cotto, J. H., 211–12
counterfactual model of causality, 272
CRAFFT screen, 578 t, 584, 585 t, 615
CRHR1, 314
Croff, S., 328
Cronley, C., 815–16
cross-level effects, 3–5, 816–17
crowds, 396, 397 t, 400–3, 492–96
Cruz, I. Y., 382
Cruz, J. E., 356
crystal meth (ice), 83, 84
culturally informed/flexible family-based treatment for adolescents (CIFTA), 679 t, 688 t
cultural variation/processes. 87–93, 717; see also race/ethnicity
accessibility, 724, 732–34
acculturation, 632–33, 719, 723, 725–32
advocacy, 734–35
affirmation, 729
American Indians, 99–104
artificial group memberships studies, 732
biculturalism, 727–28, 733
conflict resolution model, 96, 97 f
dehumanization, 732, 734
dichotomization, 731–32, 734
discrimination/institutional racism, 719–22, 725, 730–32, 736n4
education disparities, 724
ethnic identities negotiation model, 96, 96 f
exploration, 729
family-level predictors, 724–27
group identities, 732, 734, 735
health disparities/epidemiology by ethnicity, 717–18, 735–36, 736n1
hybrid contexts, 728
identity formation and, 92–99, 95–96 f, 97 t, 98 f, 102–3, 484–86, 497n3, 720–21, 735
immigrant groups context, 723, 730–32, 736n7
individual-level determinants, 727–32
intergroup, population-level, 719–23, 733–34, 736n5
intergroup contact, 734
intergroup dynamics, 723–24, 730
intersectionality, 93–99, 95–96 f, 97 t, 98 f, 102–3
multilevel modeling, 725, 733
parenting behaviors, 725–27, 735
predictive factors, 729–31, 733
prevention/intervention, 726, 732–35
public policy/prevention, 733–34
qualitative methods, 104
racial profiling laws, 722
resolution, 729
social dominance theory, 720–25, 730, 731, 733, 735, 736n4
socioeconomic resources disparities, 722–24, 730–32
statistical models, 103–4
stereotyping, 721–22, 730–32
subjugation, experiences of, 720–23, 736n6
system justification theory, 720–21, 724–25, 731–33, 735, 736n4
terminology, 718–19, 723, 736nn2–3, 736n7
transcultural values/identifications, 728–29
Cummings, E. M., 330
curfews, 794
Curran, P. J., 60, 350, 708
Curry, J. F., 702 t
Curry, S. J., 114
Customary Drinking and Drug Use Record (CDDR), 617–19, 618 t
Cyders, M., 379
Cyders, M. A., 379
CYP2A6, 275–76
D
Dahl, A., 491
Dakof, G. A., 695 t, 704–5 t
Dalton, M., 358
D’Amico, E. J., 11, 636, 638, 639, 669
Damphousse, K. R., 564
Darkes, J., 382
Darling, E., 98
DAT1, 133
dating violence, 432–36
Davies, P. T., 330
Davis, R. C., 803
Dawson, D. A., 46, 258
day hospital, 774
daytime sleepiness, 597–98, 601
Deas, D., 702–3 t
Deater-Deckard, K., 55
DeBellis, M. D., 331
decision making. see self-regulation/decision making
Dee, T. S., 791
default-mode network (DMN), 286–87
Degirmencioglu, S.M., 356
dehumanization, 732, 734
Deković, M., 707
de la Haye, K., 400
delay discounting, 303
delinquent behavior risks, 9, 20–21, 553–54, 556–58
acute associations research, 562–63
adjudicated delinquents studies, 555–56, 556 f, 562, 564
as comorbidity, 554–58, 556–57 f
developmental associations, 563–66
development trajectories, 25–27, 568
drug dealing, 554, 566–68
etiological research, 568–69
explanatory models, 558–62
(p. 824)
family/neighborhood contexts as, 560
fighting studies, 563
gang membership, 554, 566–68
gender differences, 555, 561, 565, 567
individual-level associations, 554–55
latent growth curve modeling, 565, 566
longitudinal studies, 557, 559, 564
parent(ing) behaviors, 25–26, 53, 560, 612
peer relationships, 559, 561
prevention/intervention, 568
property offenses studies, 563, 565
race/ethnicity, 561–62, 565–67
reciprocal relationships, 565–66
reward seeking/responsivity, 393–95
substance abuse, predicting, 564–65
substance use, consequences of, 101
violence, predictors of, 560, 564
violence/violent crime, also predictors of, 560, 562–66
Delva, J., 101
Dembo, R., 566, 690 t
Dennis, M. L., 683 t, 693 t
Denniston, M. M., 360
Dent, C., 793
Denver Youth Study, 567
depression
age of onset, 293
alcohol and, 514
children of alcoholics, 326–34, 336nn4–5
cocaine/crack, 191
Ecstasy, 196
gender differences, 486
genetic influences, 322
irritability and, 539
marijuana, 247, 763
methamphetamine, 192
parental, impacts on children, 330
precocious puberty, 429
sleep impairment, 599
tobacco/nicotine use, 116
depressive disorders, 532–33 f, 532–34, 537–38. see also major depressive disorder
Derringer, J., 269
Derzon, J. H., 660
descriptive norms, 177
detox facilities, 768
detoxification program, 586 t, 587
development, 2–3, 19–20, 22–23, 30–31
age curve, 20
age-related patterns, 41–42, 53, 54–55, 61
cascade models, 30, 56–57, 147, 329
causality/endogeneity, 27–28
consequences, 27–30
continuity/discontinuity, 21–24, 30, 44–46
delinquent behavior risks, 25–27
tasks/transitions, 23–25, 38, 42, 44–46, 55–56, 58, 144
timing, 53–55
ecological-transactional model, 509
epidemiology, 37–39, 40–45 f
equifinality, 55–56, 321, 536
functional discontinuity, 23, 24
life span trajectory, 20, 22
longitudinal research methodology, 57–61
multifinality, 28–29, 55–56, 142, 321, 536
ontogenetic continuity/discontinuity, 22
parent behaviors, 25–26, 53, 56–57
person–context match, 22, 23
polysubstance use, 29
progression of use, 47–51
protective factors, 25–27
rate of escalation, 20, 26–27
risk factors specificity, 53–57
short- vs. long-term effects, 29–30
sociocultural contexts, 20–21
stage-related, 42–44, 53–54
trajectories, 27, 51–53, 55–56
developmental frame of reference, 812, 815–16
developmentally cumulative alcoholism, 143
developmentally limited alcoholism, 143, 305
deviance proneness model, 306, 350
Devos, T., 731
DeWit, D. J., 51
Diagnostic Interview for Children and Adolescents (DICA-R), 617, 618 t
diagnostic interviews, 617–19, 619 t
Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children (DISC-R, DISC-C), 617, 618 t
dialectical behavior therapy, 544
Diamond, G., 703 t
Diaz, T., 514, 519
dichotomization, 731–32, 734
Dick, D. M., 301, 310, 311
Dickens, D. D., 510
Dickman Impulsiveness Scale, 302
Dieterich, S. E., 510
differential acculturation hypothesis, 726–27
differential association theory, 561–62
differential gains model, 378
diffusion of innovations theory, 404
diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), 285–86
DiFranza, J. R., 48
dim-light melatonin onset (DLMO), 599
Dishion, T. J., 55, 175, 431
disinhibition
alcohol, 148, 424–26
behavioral genetics, 258, 265, 266 t, 278
behavioral undercontrol, 301, 303, 307–10, 309 f
expectancies, 379
internalizing pathway, 320
reward seeking/responsivity, 424, 469
in self-regulation/decision making, 469
in sexual relations, 424–26, 435
substance-impaired driving, 452
disruptive behavior disorders, 536–37
disruptive mood dysregulation disorder, 537–39
distal peer networks, 390, 396, 397 t, 403–6. see also peer relationships
Dodge, K. A., 25
Donnelly, J., 483
Donohew, L., 660, 661
Donovan, J. E., 4–5, 306, 307, 357
dopamine
alcohol effects, 133, 244–45, 322
animal models, 235, 236, 241, 244–46
expectancies, 374
externalizing behaviors associations, 133
functions of, 288
in reward seeking/responsivity, 132–35, 154–55, 190–91, 234–36, 244–48, 288
socioemotional system, 303
tobacco/nicotine, 246
Doran, N., 380, 383
Dow, S. J., 754
Dowling, K., 220
DRD2, 244
DRD4, 133
drug abuse problem severity, 610–11
Drug Abuse Screening Test-Adolescents (DAST-A), 615, 616 t
Drug Abuse Warning Network (DAWN), 169–70, 193, 195, 217
drug dealing, 554, 566–68
drug-specific influences, 813–15
Drug Use Screening Inventory-Revised (DUSI-R), 616 t, 617
DSM-IV/V substance dependence criteria, 117, 144, 610–11
dual diagnosis programs, 546
dual systems model, 303, 472, 473, 628
Duncan, S. C., 513
Duncan, T. E., 354, 513
Dunedin longitudinal study, 275–76
Dunn, M. E., 177, 382
DuPont, R. L., 211
Durant, R. H., 427
Durlak, J. A., 656
Dussault, G.F., 48
E
eating disorders
age of onset, 293
as comorbidity, 543
expectancies, experimental manipulation of, 383
expectancies for reinforcement, 378
(p. 825)
expectancy measures, 375–77
gender differences, 543
negative reinforcement expectancies, 380
negative urgency as predictive, 380
Eaton, D. K., 39
e-cigarettes, 114–15, 124. see also tobacco/nicotine
Eck, J. E., 803
ecologically based family therapy (EBFT), 679 t, 688–89 t, 701–2 t, 770
ecological theory, 509
ecological-transactional model, 509
economic motivation model, 559
ecstasy (MDMA), 194
adverse reactions, 195
behavioral correlates, 196
comorbidity, 195–96
dependence, 195, 196
family/neighborhood contexts, 196–97
gateway hypothesis, 196
gender differences, 195
initiation of use, 195
mechanism of action, 194
mental health effects, 196
motivational factors, 196
peer relationships, 196–97
perceived accessibility, 84
prevalence, 82, 194–95
race/ethnicity, 195
withdrawal symptoms, 195
Eddy, J. M., 726
Edelbrock, C., 609
Edwards, G., 117, 804
EEG studies, 289
effectiveness studies, 677, 686 t, 687 t, 694 t, 697 t, 777–78
efficacy studies, 677, 683 t, 685 t, 687–96 t, 698–99 t
Ehlers, E. L., 101
Ehlinger, E., 598
Eiden, R. D., 328
Eiser, J. R., 483
Elder, R. W., 792
elevated plus maze (EPM), 247
Elkins, I. J., 313
Elliott, D. S., 561, 562
Embry, D., 192
emerging adulthood, 41–42, 45, 57, 97
Emery, R. E., 356
emotional security hypothesis, 330–31
energy drinks, 83
Ennett, S. T., 402, 406, 407
Ensminger, M. E., 325
Environmental similarity, assumption of, 259
Epidemiologic Catchment Area study, 305
Epidemiology, 3, 77–78
age of first use, 54–55
age-related patterns, 53
attitudes/perceived risks, 83–84
behavioral genetics, 257–58
college plans, 85–86 t, 87–88, 88 f
cross-substance associations, 50
development, 37–39, 40–45 f
developmental timing, 53–55
developmental trajectories, 51–53
emerging adulthood trends, 41–42, 45, 57
first use/heavier use association, 49–51
gender differences, 86, 88, 88 f
grade level differences, 84–86, 85–86 t, 89
maturing out trends, 42
parent education, 85–86 t, 87–88, 88 f
population age curve, 21
prevalence, 79–81 f, 79–83
race/ethnicity differences, 85–86 t, 87–88, 88 f
risk factors specificity, 53–57
stage-related development, 42–44
episodic alcoholism, 143
Epstein, J. A., 519
equal environmental similarity assumption, 259
equifinality, 25, 55–56, 321, 536
Erickson, D. J., 794
Esbensen, F. A., 567
Escobar-Chaves, S. L., 427
ESPAD data, 140
Esposito-Smythers, C., 692 t
ethnic identities negotiation model, 96, 96 f
ethnographic approach, 402
EUREKA grant, 664
Evans, W. N., 791
event-level predictors, 812–13
executive functioning studies, 292
expectancies
anticipation in successful functioning, 373–74
ATOD motivations to use, 632
background, 5, 373–74
in behavioral genetics, 5, 258, 265, 266 t, 278
in binge drinking, 377
children of alcoholics, 356–57, 377
developmental emergence of, 376–81
disinhibition, 379
event-level predictors, 812–13
experimental manipulation of, 382–83
formation influenced by personality, 378–80
formation via experience, 378
formation via modeling/observation, 377–78
functional role of, 381–83
g x e interactions, 56
longitudinal studies, 381–82
marijuana, 177, 471–72
measurement of, 375–76
neurobiological mechanisms, 374, 378
outcome, 471
peer relationships, early childhood, 323–24, 336n3
prescription drug abuse, 216–17
race/ethnicity, 381
reasoned action theory, 376, 394
in reward seeking/responsivity, 373–75, 379–80, 472
in self-regulation/decision making, 470–72
sexual relations, 426–27, 436
sociodemographic factors influencing, 380–81
stage-related patterns, 53–54
substance-impaired driving, 452–53
substance-specific beliefs internalization, 356–57
substance use applications, 374–75
Extended-ELM (E-ELM), 659–60, 663
extended trading permits (ETPs), 792–93
externalizing pathway
alcohol, 133, 148, 154, 179, 271–72
assessment/intervention, 609, 613
behavioral undercontrol, 301, 305, 308–11, 309 f
comorbid disorders, 532–33 f, 532–34, 537–38, 546
genetic liability, 133
liabilities, hierarchical structure, 322
marijuana, 178–79
in reward seeking/responsivity, 613
tobacco/nicotine, 179
Eysenck Impulsiveness Scale, 302
F
face validity, 234
Fagerstrom Tolerance Questionnaire (mFTQ),modified 112
Falconer estimates, 260
Falissard, B., 50
familismo/familism, 98, 632
family-based treatments, 11–12, 675–76
abstinence CM, 687 t
ACRA/ACC, 641, 679 t, 683–84 t, 700–6, 766, 770
BSFT, 679 t, 685–86 t, 700, 701 t, 707, 709, 710
CFT, 685 t
CIFTA, 679 t, 688 t
clinical practice, 709–10
CM-FAM, 687 t
community-based, 677, 682, 705 t, 709
comorbidity, 703 t
CONSORT guidelines, 676
contingency management, 679 t, 697 t, 709, 773
drug court/multisystemic therapy (DC/MST), 697 t
EBFT, 679 t, 688–89 t, 701–2 t, 770
effectiveness studies, 677, 686 t, 687 t, 694 t, 697 t, 700–7, 701–6 t, 777–78
(p. 826)
efficacy studies, 677, 683 t, 685 t, 687–96 t, 698–99 t
evidence base definition, 676–78, 678 t, 710nn1–2
externalizing behaviors and, 707–8
FBT, 680 t, 689 t, 704–6 t
FDA model, 710
FEI, 680 t, 690 t
FFT, 680 t, 691 t, 700, 701 t, 703 t, 770
FSN, 680 t, 690 t
FST, 680 t, 691 t, 702–3 t
group treatments vs., 692–95 t, 707, 775–76
hybrid studies, 677, 683–84 t, 686 t, 688 t, 690–91 t, 693 t, 695 t, 697 t
in-/outpatient programs, 776–77
integrated family CBT, 680 t, 692 t
juvenile justice/Teen Court, 638–40, 687 t, 697 t
MDFT, 640, 681 t, 683 t, 692–95 t, 700, 701–3 t, 706–8, 766
mechanisms of action, 707
MET/CBT, 677, 683 t, 687 t, 700–1, 702 t, 706–7, 765–66, 773–74
models of, 676, 710
MST, 681 t, 696–97 t, 700, 701 t, 703 t, 707, 709, 770
multidimensional treatment foster care, 681 t, 695 t
PST, 681 t, 698 t
Purdue brief family therapy model, 681 t, 698 t
race/ethnicity, 692–94 t, 697 t, 701 t, 707–8
RCTs, scientific advances in, 682–700
replications, independent, 708
research synthesis, 708
residential programs, 677, 695 t, 768–71
SET, 685 t
7 Challenges, 677, 699 t
SOFT, 681 t, 699 t, 703 t
treatment effects moderators, 707–8
usual care settings, 677, 683 t, 709
family behavior therapy (FBT), 680 t, 689 t, 704–6 t
family-checkup programs, 637
family empowerment intervention (FEI), 680 t, 690 t
family/neighborhood contexts. see also parenting behaviors
alcohol, 137, 141, 148–50
ATOD motivations to use, 631–32
background, 11–12
as delinquent behavior risks, 560
ecstasy (MDMA), 196–97
emotional security hypothesis, 330–31
family functioning in resilience, 515
father presence in resilience, 513
internalizing pathway, 331–34
marijuana, 174–75
resilience promotive factors, community-level, 515–17
resilience promotive factors, familial/parental, 512–15, 520, 523
in self-regulation/decision making, 466–67, 473
substance-impaired driving, 450–51
tobacco/nicotine, 120
youth–parent relations in resilience, 512–13
family support network (FSN), 680 t, 690 t
family systems therapy (FST), 680 t, 691 t, 702–3 t
family therapy, 586 t
Farrell, A. D., 513, 518
Farrington, D. P., 565
Feinberg, M. E., 521
Feldstein, S. W., 432
Feldstein-Ewing, S. W., 11, 639, 777
Felix-Ortiz, M., 517
Felson, R. B., 555, 563
Fergusson, D. M., 172
Finch, A. J., 774–75
FinnTwin12 study, 310, 311
first use/heavier use association
alcohol, 49–51, 49 f
development, 49–51, 49 f
epidemiology, 49–51
marijuana, 49–51
tobacco/nicotine, 49–51
Fisher, C. B., 490
Fitzpatrick, K. M., 510, 514
5-HTTLPR, 133
Flannery, W. P., 728
flashbacks, 197
Flay, B. R., 43–44, 428
Fleming, C. B., 512
Flicker, S. M., 707
fling trajectory, 52
Flory, K., 55, 170
Flynn, B. S., 428
Forbes, E. E., 290
forced swim testing, 247
Forster, J. L., 54, 100
Foshee, V. A., 353, 436
Fothergill, K. E., 325
Fowler, T., 271
fractional anisotropy (FA), 285–86
Free Talk, 639
French, D. C., 431
Freng, A., 567
Friedman, A. S., 691 t
Fromme, K., 457
Frone, M. R., 381, 425
functional family therapy (FFT), 680 t, 691 t, 700, 701 t, 703 t, 770
funding, 779
G
GABAergic system, 288
GABRA2, 133, 143, 274, 276, 311
GAIN-Short Screener (GSS), 578 t, 615, 616 t
Galanter, M., 703 t
Galen, L. W., 488
Gallagher, M., 374
Gallet, C. A., 791
Galliher, R. V., 491
gang membership, 554, 566–68
Gans, J., 614
Gao, W., 425
Garnier-Dykstra, L. M., 219
gateway theory
alcohol, 138–39, 271–72
cocaine/crack, 273
comorbid substance use, 535
ecstasy (MDMA), 196
illegal drugs other than marijuana, 171–72
marijuana, 171–72, 247, 273
opioids, 273
principles of, 44, 273, 536 t
Gaudineau, A., 432
Gavin, K., 731
Gazis, N., 491
gender differences
academic achievement as protective, 482–83
alcohol, 85–86 t, 86, 134–35, 140–43, 145, 147, 484
alcohol use disorder, 145
cocaine/crack, 191
comorbidity, 542
delinquent behavior risks, 555, 561, 565, 567
depression, 486
eating disorders, 543
ecstasy (MDMA), 195
epidemiology, 86, 88, 88 f
expectancies, sociodemographic factors influencing, 380–81
father presence in resilience, 513
heroin, 193–94
identity formation, 484–86, 499n3
marijuana, 85–86 t, 86, 170, 173–77, 247
methamphetamine, 192
neurocognitive development, 287
in parenting behaviors, 450–51
peer relationships, 398, 408
peer relationships, early childhood, 323–24, 336n3
prescription drug abuse, 214, 215 f
puberty, 431
sexual relations, 422, 425–27, 434, 436, 437
sleep impairment, 598
substance-impaired driving, 449, 451
tobacco/nicotine, 85–86 t, 86, 115, 245, 484
twelve-step approaches, 750
generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), 540–42. see also anxiety
general strain theory, 561
genetic/environmental influences. see g x e interactions
genetics. see behavioral genetics
genetic vulnerability hypothesis, 536 t
(p. 827) Gervais, A., 43
Gest, S. D., 401
Ghandour, L. A., 211, 212
GHB, 83, 198–99
Gil, A. G., 639, 726, 727
Gilbert, L. R., 330
Gillespie, N. A., 269
Gil-Rivas, V., 519
Glickman, L., 703 t
Glisson, C., 709
Global Adult Tobacco Survey, 801
Global Appraisal of Individual Needs (GAIN), 615, 618 t, 619
Global Tobacco Epidemic report, 800–1
Glover-Reed, B. G., 101
glutamate, 288
Godley, M. D., 683 t, 684 t
Goldman, M. S., 382
Goldstein, D. B., 311
Golub, A., 171
Golub, M. S., 431
Goodman, R., 537
Gordon, R., 655–56
Gotham, H. J., 46, 54
Graber, J. A., 430
Grace-Bishop, K., 211
graduated licenses, 450, 796
Grant, B. F., 51, 258
Gray, E., 668
Greek organizations, 57, 210
Green, L. W., 13, 14, 803
Greenberger, E., 519
Greenfield, V. A., 803–4
Grella, C. E., 704 t
Griffin, K. M., 465
Griffin, K. W., 514, 519
Gross, M. M., 117
group therapy, 586 t, 692–95 t, 707, 775–76
growth mixture modeling techniques (GGMM), 52
Grube, J., 793
Grube, J. W., 793, 794
Gruenewald, P. J., 793–94
Gryczynski, J., 488
Guller, L., 378, 383
Gulley, B. L., 354
Gunnar, M. R., 329
Guo, J., 422
Guterman, N. B., 512
Guttmanova, K., 271
g x e interactions
accentuation effect, 57
behavioral genetics, 260–65, 266 t, 267–69, 268 f, 276–77, 278 f
behavioral undercontrol, 314–15
developmental outcomes, 56–57
marijuana, 174
sensation-seeking temperaments, 56, 300–1, 307, 322–23
social control vs. triggering, 277, 278 f
socialization, 277
stage-related patterns, 54
on tobacco/nicotine, 120
H
Hahm, H. C., 512
Hahn, R. A., 793
hair analysis, 609
halfway houses, 771
Haller, M., 57
hallucinogen persisting perception disorder, 197
hallucinogens
American Indians, 101
perceived accessibility, 84
prevalence, 79, 80 f, 82–83
thought disorders, 542–43
Hammer, T., 46
Han, C., 261–63 t
Hance, J., 51
Haney, C., 732
Hansell, S., 563
Hanson, K. L., 173
harm reduction, 53, 791, 795–96
Hawken, A., 804
Hawkins, E. H., 703 t
Hawkins, J. D., 55, 519, 561, 564–65, 702 t
Hazelden, 744
health beliefs model, 749
heavy episodic drinking. see alcohol; binge drinking
Hecht, M. L., 485
HEEADSSS mnemonic, 576–77, 577 t
Heinz, A. J., 513
Heitzeg, M. M., 274
Hendershot, C., 274
Henderson, C. E., 12
Henggeler, S. W., 687 t, 696–97 t, 709
Hennessy, M., 303, 304
Henry, K. L., 510
Hernandez, L., 514
heroin, 192–93
animal models, 234–35
attitudes/perceived risks, 83–84
correlates of use, 193
ED episodes, 193
gender differences, 193–94
prevalence, 79, 80 f, 82, 193
race/ethnicity, 193–94
route of administration, 193, 194
self-administration, 247
Herrenkohl, T. I., 564–65
Hersh, M. A., 334
Hertz, M. F., 360
Hicks, B. M., 4, 148, 264 t, 265, 277, 308
hierarchical linear modeling, 506, 507
Higgins, E. T., 464
Hill, K. G., 55, 564–65
Hilson Adolescent Profile (HAP), 618 t, 620
hippocampus, 173, 174, 244, 246, 247, 291
Hipwell, A., 565
Hiripi, E., 48
HIV/STI prevention, 641, 686 t, 709
Ho, R., 491
Hofer, S. M., 277
Hoffmann, J. P., 488, 564
Hogue, A., 704 t
Hohlstein, L. A., 375
Holder, H. D., 13, 14, 793–94
Holland, P. C., 374
homeless shelters, 640–41
homeorhesis, 23
homotypic continuity, 22–23
Hong, S., 512–13
hookah, 114
Hooked on Nicotine Checklist (HONC), 118
Hopfer, C. J., 262 t
Hops, H., 707
Horn, K., 637
Horwood, L., 172
hospital/primary care settings, 636–38
Howard, M. O., 702 t
Hoyle, R. H., 660, 661
HPA axis dysregulation, 329–31
Hser, Y- I., 704 t
HTR2B Q20*, 314
Hu, M., 48
Huey, S. J., Jr., 701 t
Huizinga, D., 561, 562, 567
Hurd, N., 7
Hurrelmann, K., 392
Huselid, R. F., 485
Hussong, A. M., 4, 50, 305, 334, 708
hydrocodones, 101
I
Iacono, W. G., 264 t, 272, 307–8, 313
Iannotti, R. J., 428
identity formation, 7, 479–81, 481 f, 495
affirmation, 729
cultural variation, 92–99, 95–96 f, 97 t, 98 f, 102–3, 484–86, 499n3, 720–21, 735
cultural variation and,
developmental tasks, 24–25, 30
exploration, 729
gender differences, 484–86, 499n3
identity integration, 92–99, 95–96 f, 97 t, 98 f
ideological, 97
integration of, 495–96
intersectionality and, 102–3
mediation/moderation effects, 483, 488, 490, 491, 495
model, 480, 481 f
peer relationships and, 7, 30, 398, 480, 481, 492–97
perceived control, 482
personal identity, 480
prevention/intervention, 496–97
professional achievement model, 98, 98 f
puberty, 486
(p. 828)
race/ethnicity, 92–99, 95–96 f, 97 t, 98 f, 483, 485, 489–91
racial/ethnic identity ( see race/ethnicity)
religiosity, 7, 487–89, 509
religious identity ( see religiosity)
resolution, 729
schemas, 136, 377
self-concept, 7, 480
self-esteem, 480–84, 496, 499n2
in self-regulation/decision making, 467–69
sexual relations, 96, 103, 484
twin studies, 488
identity moratorium/achievement, 97
illicit drugs other than marijuana. see also specific drug by name or class
comorbidity, 534
delinquent behavior risks and, 554–58, 556–57 f
expectancies, 471
gateway theory, 171–72
grade level differences, 84–86, 85–86 t
g x e interaction, 260–65, 266 t
internalizing pathway, 325–26
prevalence, 189, 507–8
race/ethnicity, 199
twin studies, 259–65, 261 t, 263 t
usage rates, 189–90
IMAGEN study, 155
impulsivity
behavioral undercontrol, 301–4, 314
marijuana, 425
in reward seeking/responsivity, 302–4, 469
in self-regulation/decision making, 469
measurement of, See Barratt Impulsiveness Scale,302
sexual relations, 424–26
substance-impaired driving, 452
INCANT study, 640
incentive reactivity system, 304
Inciardi, J. A., 566
increased substance use hypothesis, 271, 272 f
indomethacin, 244
infancy, behavioral inhibition in, 34, 322–23
informed consent, 580
inhalants, 83, 84, 101, 484
initiation of use
alcohol, 46–47, 137–39, 141, 147, 325, 403, 431, 469
cocaine/crack, 47
development, 46–47
ecstasy (MDMA), 195
marijuana, 47, 170–71, 173, 178–79, 196, 469, 662
peer relationships, 390–91
tobacco/nicotine, 47, 348, 351, 390, 403, 431, 469, 797–98
injunctive norms, 177
inoculation, 507
in-/outpatient programs
abstinence rates, 751
acute medical stabilization (detox), 768
acute residential treatment (ART), 768–69
adolescent development, 575–76, 628–29, 761–63
background, 761
behavioral therapies, 772–73
CAM approaches, 777
Cannabis Youth Treatment project, 765–66, 776
chronic care model, 779
continuum of care, 765
counseling, individual, 775
day hospital, 774
dose–response relationship, 751–52
family therapy, 776–77 ( see also family-based treatments)
funding, 779
group therapy, 692–95 t, 707, 775–76
halfway houses, 771
intensive outpatient, 774
level of care, 772–74
meta-analytic/systematic reviews, 766–67
MHO participation rates, 748–49, 751
patient-centered medical home, 778–79
questions to be asked, 772
referrals, 765
residential treatment, long-term, 769–70
sober houses, 771
sobriety schools, 774–75
strengths/limitations of, 777–78
support groups, 777
therapeutic communities/schools, 770–71
treatment gap, 764–65
treatment principles, 779–80
treatment/research goals, 763–64
wilderness program/boot camp, 771–72
integrated CBT, 680 t, 692 t
integrated family CBT, 680 t, 692 t
integrative data analysis, 708
intensive outpatient program, 586 t
interactional theory, 346
internalizing pathway
alcohol, 148, 154, 321–26, 323 f, 336n1
behavioral undercontrol, 305, 306
caregiving environment, 331–34
child maltreatment, 329–30
children of alcoholics, 326–34, 336nn4–5
cocaine/crack, 325–26
comorbid disorders, prevalence, 532–33 f, 532–34, 537–38
coping motives, 324–25
developmental pathways, 320–21
disinhibition, 320
genetic influences, 322
heterotypic continuity, 319–20
interpersonal skill deficits, 324
marijuana, 178, 325–26
parental behaviors, 328–35
peer relationships, 323–24, 336n3
positive expectancies, 324, 327
in prevention, 334–35
protective mechanisms, 321
race/ethnicity, 335
risk markers, 327–34, 336nn4–5
social withdrawal, 324–25
stress exposure/response, 328–31, 335
vulnerability mechanisms, 321
Ireland, M., 510
Irons, D. E., 274
item response theory (IRT), 43
Iyer, P., 815–16
J
Jackson, K. M., 55, 485, 566
Jacobsohn, L. S., 662
Jakobsen, R., 54
Janoff, M., 815
Jeannin, A., 44
Jessor, R., 306, 509, 518, 559
Jessor, S. L., 306, 509, 559
Jester, J. M., 537
jingle/jangle constructs, 304
Joanning, H., 691 t
Johnson, B. D., 171
Johnson, E., 48
Johnson, K. L., 427
Johnson, T. J., 488
Johnston, L. D., 55
Johsi, V., 704 t
Jones, D. E., 521
Jones, M. D., 491
Joseph, S., 302
Josephson, J., 703 t
Jo Wilson, S., 700, 707
Jumper-Thurman, P., 101
Juon, H. S., 325
Juvenile Automated Substance Abuse Evaluation (JASAE), 619 t, 620
juvenile justice/Teen Court, 638–40, 687 t, 697 t
K
Kameoka, V., 94
Kaminer, Y., 619
Kandel, D. B., 46, 48, 49, 119, 171, 346, 356
Kang, S. Y., 190
Kaplan, H. B., 564
Kaplow, J. B., 324
Kaprio, J., 310
Karatzias, A., 483
Kazdin, A. E., 710
Kearns, M., 664
Keepin’ it REAL, 634–35
Keller, P. S., 330
(p. 829) Kelley, S., 379
Kelly, G. A., 94
Kelly, J. F., 12, 748, 751, 754
Kelly-Baker, T., 792
Kendler, K. S., 265, 270–73, 310–11, 322
Kessler, R. C., 48
ketamine, 83
Keulers, E. H., 287
Keyes, M., 267
Kilgus, M. D., 191
Kim, I. J., 512–13
Kim, S. K., 274
Kim, W., 669
Kindermann, T. A., 401
King, S. M., 178–79
Kirillova, G. P., 431
Kivlahan, D. R., 666
Klein, E. G., 54
Kliewer, W., 521
Knight, J. R., 13, 210, 215
Kokkevi, A., 354
Koning, I. M., 656
Koopmans, J. R., 261 t, 262 t
Korhonen, T., 261 t, 263 t
Koss, K. J., 330
Kosterman, R., 175
Kovacs, E. A., 466–67
Kraus, D., 382
Krishnan-Sarin, S., 211
Kristeller, J. L., 488
Krueger, R. F., 322
Kuhns, J. B., 564
Kvemmo, S., 491
L
Labouvie, E. W., 57
Ladd, B. O., 676
LaFond, C., 796
LaFontana, K. M., 407
Lahiff, M., 512
Laird, R. D., 455, 488
Larimer, M. E., 667
Laska, M. N., 598
Latendresse, S. J., 350
Latimer, L. A., 597
Latimer, W. W., 692 t
Laub, J. H., 53
Lawler, J., 211
Lazuras, L., 483
learning theory, 455
Lee, M. R., 46, 325
Legleye, S., 50
Leigh, B. C., 54
LeMaster, P. L., 100
Lengua, L. J., 466–67
Leonardi-Bee, J., 351
Lewinsohn, P. M., 430
Lewis, A., 328
Lewis, R. A., 698 t
Liddle, H. A., 12, 640, 692–95 t, 704–5 t, 704 t, 705–6 t
life course theory, 56
likeability measures, 406–7
limbic system, 26, 145
limited resource model, 465
Lipsey, M. W., 660, 700, 707
lithium chloride, 240
Livingston, J. A., 435
Living With Alcohol Program, 791
Lloyd-Richardson, E. E., 43–44
Loeber, R., 300, 561–62, 563, 565, 566
Long, A. C., 466–67
longitudinal research methodology
continuity/discontinuity, 58–59
covariate modeling, 60
cross-sectional designs, 57–58
daily self-monitoring, 58
measurement, 59
prospective designs, 57–58
real-time self-assessment, 58
temporal issues, 58–59
theory/method mismatch, 59–60
trajectory modeling, 60–61
within-person inferences, 57, 61
Lorcet, 101
Lorch, E. P., 660, 661
Lovallo, W. R., 330
LSD
characterization, 197
drug use comorbid with, 198
motivations for use, 197
negative effects of, 197
perceived accessibility, 84
perceived risks, 197
prevalence, 79, 80 f, 82–83, 197
race/ethnicity, 197–98
sexual orientation correlates, 198
thought disorders, 542–43
Luo, Q., 356
Lurigio, A. J., 803
Lust, K., 598
Luthar, S. S., 523
Lynam, D. R., 302
Lynch, M., 509
Lynne-Landsman, S. D., 431
Lynskey, M. T., 273
Lytle, L. A., 597
M
Macgowan, M. J., 701 t
Mackenzie, M. J., 523
MacKinnon, D., 46
MacLeod, J., 172
Maes, H. H., 261 t
Maggs, J. L., 392
major depressive disorder
as comorbidity, 532–33 f, 532–34, 537–38
identity formation in, 481
prescription drug abuse, 220
tobacco/nicotine use, 116
Manders, W. A., 707
Manson,S. M., 100
Manuel, J. K., 676
MAOA promoter, 133
Marcia, J., 97
marijuana
accessibility, 176, 269
adverse outcomes, 170–72
age of onset, 173, 265–66, 267 f, 576
alcohol use cormorbid, 143, 173–74
American Indians, 101
anandamide, 762–63
animal models, 174, 239, 246–48
availability, in-home, 348
brain development effects, 173–74, 178
brief intervention, 578, 579 t, 581–83, 582 t, 589, 637, 667
cannabinoid system, 762–63
case example, 544–45
chronic use and adverse outcomes, 170–71
cognitive effects, 172–73, 178, 246
college academic performance, 219
college status, 57, 178, 490
comorbidity, 196, 215, 534, 535, 541, 763
delinquent behavior risks, 554–58, 556–57 f, 564–66
dependence, 48–49, 54, 169, 174
developmental trajectories, 38, 39, 45 f, 51–53, 56, 143, 170–71, 576
expectancies, 177, 471–72
externalizing behaviors, 178–79
family influences, 174–75
family studies, 258–59
father presence in resilience, 513
first use/heavier use association, 49–51
gateway hypothesis, 171–72, 247, 273
gender differences, 85–86 t, 86, 170, 173–77, 247
genetic influences, 174
grade level differences, 84–86, 85–86 t
g × e interaction, 260–65, 266 t
harmfulness, perceived, 216
imaging studies, 291–92
impulsivity, 425
initiation of use, 47, 170–71, 173, 178–79, 196, 469, 662
internalizing pathway, 178, 325–26
longitudinal studies, 352
mass media campaigns targeting, 661–63
mental health effects, 178–79, 246–47, 629
motivations for using, 29, 177–78
neurocognitive development, 173–74, 178, 247–48, 762–63
parental monitoring in resilience, 514
parenting behaviors, 46, 175, 352
peer relationships, 172, 175–77, 246–47, 352, 399–400, 405, 662
perceived accessibility, 84, 662
personal competence in resilience, 511
popularity, 176
population age curve, 21
prevalence, 79, 80 f, 82, 169–70, 507–8, 627
problem behavior theory, 172
(p. 830)
psychosocial risk/protective factors, 518–20
public policy/prevention, 180–81, 804
race/ethnicity, 170, 171, 630, 669
relapse contexts, 747
religiosity as buffering effect, 509
resilience, academic attitudes/achievement in, 482–83, 509–10, 516
reward seeking/responsivity, 763
risk perception, 179–80
risky sexual behavior, 422–23
screening, 578, 578–80 t
sibling influences, 354, 632
sleep impairment, 595–99
social norms approach, 176–77
stage-related development, 44
substance-impaired driving and, 6, 172, 180, 448, 451–52, 455, 763
synthetic, prevalence, 83
thought disorders, 542–43
twin studies, 174, 259–65, 261 t, 263 t, 270, 273
use decline, 814
Marijuana Anonymous,