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date: 10 April 2021

Abstract and Keywords

This chapter considers how identity-related variables operate as risk or protective factors for substance use/dependence in adolescence. We discuss theoretical work that has distinguished between identity and self-concept and present a model of personal identity as a second-order concept based on self-perceptions in specific areas. We then consider research on identity development in adolescence, including self-esteem, gender identity, religious identification, ethnic identity, and identification with particular peer groups or “crowds.” Finally, we discuss the relation of each aspect of identity to substance use and the probable mediators and moderators of the relationship. A final section summarizes the implications of our model of adolescent identity for prevention and treatment and provides suggestions for further research in this area.

Keywords: identity, substance use, adolescents, self-esteem, gender, ethnicity, religiosity, peer group, mediation, moderation

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