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date: 10 April 2021

Abstract and Keywords

Accumulating evidence suggests that early emerging pathways to substance use and disorder may have identifiable markers in children as young as ages 3–6 years. Although most research has focused on the externalizing pathway, the current chapter describes an internalizing pathway to substance use and disorder. We consider potential mechanisms underlying early emerging risk related to this pathway that may emanate from responses to early stress exposure and the caregiving environment. We also discuss implications of the pathway for early prevention programming, particularly that targeting children of parents with substance use disorders.

Keywords: internalizing symptoms, alcohol, drug use, pathway, children, adolescence, substance use disorder

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