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date: 10 April 2021

Abstract and Keywords

This chapter focuses on adolescent brain development and associated functional implications. We focus on changes in brain tissue composition, fiber architecture and circuitry, and neurochemistry and discuss how these maturational processes affect adolescent brain functioning, sleep, cognition, and behaviors. Given the substantial developments that occur during adolescence, the effects of puberty and sex hormones on brain structure and function are reviewed, and literature on the effects of substance use on the adolescent brain are covered. The chapter reports on recent neuroimaging studies suggesting that atypical and/or asynchronous maturation patterns may contribute to adolescents’ proclivity for risk taking, heightened emotionality, and the emergence of psychopathology. Finally, future research opportunities are discussed.

Keywords: adolescence, development, neuromaturation, risk taking, functional connectivity, neural networks

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