- Oxford Library of Psychology
- Oxford Library of Psychology
- About the Editors
- Message Encoding
- Syntactically Speaking
- Neural Bases of Sentence Processing: Evidence from Neurolinguistic and Neuroimaging Studies
- Computational Models of Sentence Production: A Dual-Path Approach
- Word Production: Behavioral and Computational Considerations
- Neural Bases of Word Representations for Naming
- Organization and Structure of Conceptual Representations
- Giving Words Meaning: Why Better Models of Semantics Are Needed in Language Production Research
- The Morphology of Words
- Speech Planning in Two Languages: What Bilinguals Tell Us about Language Production
- Bilingual Word Access
- Phonology and Phonological Theory
- The Temporal Organization of Speech
- Phonological Processing: The Retrieval and Encoding of Word Form Information in Speech Production
- Phonetic Processing
- Phrase-level Phonological and Phonetic Phenomena
- Neural Bases of Phonological and Articulatory Processing
- Spontaneous Discourse
- Producing Socially Meaningful Linguistic Variation
- Writing Systems, Language Production, and Modes of Rationality
- Representation of Orthographic Knowledge
- The Role of Lexical and Sublexical Orthography in Writing: Autonomy, Interactions, and Neurofunctional Correlates
- The Structure of Sign Languages
- Sign Language Production: An Overview
- Monitoring and Control of the Production System
- Language Production and Working Memory
- Production of Speech-Accompanying Gesture
- Perception-Production Interactions and their Neural Bases
Abstract and Keywords
What is it that we know when we know the spellings of words? This chapter reviews current understanding of the answer to that question, focusing on evidence from written word production (spelling) and briefly reviewing convergent evidence from reading. We first establish that orthographic knowledge is independent from spoken word knowledge. With regard to the nature of orthographic representations, evidence indicates that orthographic knowledge is represented in a modality-independent code organized into units corresponding to morphemes, digraphs, and letters. Furthermore, a detailed examination of the representation of letter units reveals that they are multidimensional feature bundles specifying letter identity, consonant-vowel status, syllabic role, and letter position. This chapter shows that to know the spellings of words is to learn and process orthographic representations that are abstract, complex, and richly structured mental objects.
Brenda Rapp is Professor and Department Chair, Department of Cognitive Science, Johns Hopkins University.
Simon Fischer-Baum is Assistant Professor, Department of Psychology, Rice University.
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