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date: 12 November 2019

Abstract and Keywords

Speech production is marked by rapid, coordinated movements of the vocal articulators. This is an impressive feat given the large number of muscles involved in producing even the simplest monosyllable. Yet, fluent speakers meet these demands with relative ease, producing as many as four to seven syllables per second. By 2 years of age, children learning American English have typically mastered the fine articulatory distinctions that differentiate the consonants /b/ and /d/ and the fine timing control that differentiates /b/ and /p/. By grade school they have mastered nearly the full inventory of phonemes, which they can combine in any syllable structure to produce long, complex, intelligible utterances. This article explores how the integration of auditory and somatosensory feedback with motor commands contributes to learning and maintaining these skills.

Keywords: articulation, somatosensory feedback, motor planning, motor learning

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