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date: 26 February 2021

Abstract and Keywords

Schizotypal personality disorder (SPD) first appeared in the American Psychiatric Association diagnostic nosology in 1980. However, its roots stretch back more than 100 years under the guise of labels such as borderline, ambulatory, and latent schizophrenia. It is currently characterized as involving marked interpersonal deficits, cognitive and perceptual distortions, and odd and eccentric behaviors. SPD stands at a unique crossroads in the characterization and treatment of psychopathology in that it is conceptualized both as stable personality pathology and also as a milder manifestation of schizophrenia. SPD’s etiological relation with schizophrenia is supported by extensive genetic, neurobiological, neurocognitive, psychosocial, and clinical research. However, research has also identified biopsychosocial factors that differentiate SPD from schizophrenia and may protect SPD patients from deteriorating into psychosis. The chapter reviews this literature and current controversies surrounding SPD in light of the upcoming release of DSM-5.

Keywords: schizotypal personality disorder, schizophrenia, schizotypy, classification, personality, prodrome, schizophrenia-spectrum disorders

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