Abstract and Keywords
This article examines the nature of agriculture in the Mediterranean epicenter, considering the combination of arboriculture and arable agriculture typical of the region. It also reports the developments on the periphery of that world that led to a range of enduring innovations in agricultural technology. The evidence from texts and archaeology draws repeatedly on ethnographic observation of more recent small-scale Mediterranean agriculture. The importance of water management and irrigation on the cultivation of vines and olives in Greece and Rome is described. The dynamics of change through time owed much to the economic structures of the classical world. Some of the most enduring legacies of classical agriculture particularly extensive water management and the heavy plow, owe much to the interaction between agricultural technologies in the Mediterranean heartland of the classical world and long-standing practices in the geographical regions to which classical influence subsequently spread.
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