- Abbreviations and Spelling Norms
- Ancient Written Sources for Engineering and Technology
- Representations of Technical Processes
- Historiography and Theoretical Approaches
- Mining and Metallurgy
- Quarrying and Stoneworking
- Sources of Energy and Exploitation of Power
- Greek and Roman Agriculture
- Animal Husbandry, Hunting, Fishing, and Fish Production
- Greek Engineering and Construction
- Roman Engineering and Construction
- Hydraulic Engineering and Water Supply
- Tunnels and Canals
- Machines in Greek and Roman Technology
- Food Processing and Preparation
- Large-Scale Manufacturing, Standardization, and Trade
- Metalworking and Tools
- Textile Production
- Tanning and Leather
- Ceramic Production
- Glass Production
- Land Transport, Part 1: Roads and Bridges
- Land Transport, Part 2: Riding, Harnesses, and Vehicles
- Sea Transport, Part 1: Ships and Navigation
- Sea Transport, Part 2: Harbors
- Greek Warfare and Fortification
- Roman Warfare and Fortification
- Information Technologies: Writing, Book Production, and the Role of Literacy
- Technologies of Calculation
- Gadgets and Scientific Instruments
- Inventors, Invention, and Attitudes toward Technology and Innovation
- Expanding Ethnoarchaeology: Historical Evidence and Model-Building in the Study of Technological Change
Abstract and Keywords
This article first divides the various categories of measurements (volumes: dry or wet, etc.) over a wide geographical and chronological span. The close connection between the coinage system and daily weighing activities is reflected in the names for denominations of coins. The carefully calculated weight standards behind Athenian coinage in the fifth century bc and behind the coinage of Alexander in the fourth century helped promotes trade and prosperity in both periods. The advent of coinage led to an important monetary development in the form of fiduciary financial instruments, although there were, in fact, much earlier precedents. Coinage had given Romans and Greeks that freedom and was the most potent of all ancient technological advances. It is often claimed that mathematics and technology were unconnected in antiquity and that this separation barred progress. Geometrical techniques and proofs for measuring heights, areas, and volumes are employed in a number of technical disciplines.
Andrew Meadows is Deputy Director of the American Numismatic Society.
Dr. Karin Tybjerg, Department of History and Philosophy of Science, University of Cambridge.
Prof. Charlotte Wikander, Lunds Universitet, Klassiska Institutionen.
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