Abstract and Keywords
Evidence for the study of ancient Greek warfare is not distributed evenly across all periods. In the course of the eleventh, tenth, and ninth centuries bc, iron was gradually adopted as a metal for making tools, ornaments, and, above all, weapons. The hoplite panoply seems to have been adopted in all parts of the Mediterranean where the Greeks settled, but its relative popularity and importance varied from place to place. As hoplite warfare became common, so the typical hoplite seems to have become less of a bronze armored elite warrior and more of an ordinary soldier. The aspects of ancient Greek fortifications and siege warfare are described. The tactical, technical, and engineering achievements of the ancient Greeks in the sphere of warfare were impressive, but not outstanding. Greek achievements in fortifications and siege warfare were similarly modest.
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