Abstract and Keywords
Glassmaking and glassworking coexisted as two separate crafts throughout antiquity. The division into primary workshops for making the glass and secondary workshops for working and shaping it affected not only the structure of the glass industry, but also early theories about the nature of glass. Glass is the earliest man-made, artificial material. In antiquity, the process of making glass from basic ingredients involved two or more stages, each requiring a different furnace. A salient difference between ancient and modern glassworking is the limited use of molten glass in antiquity. Colored and colorless glasses are described. It is suggested that several important discoveries regarding the properties of glass and the development of new glassworking techniques originated in Greece. Techniques for glass pottery include mold-pressing, double mold-pressing, rotary pressing, winding, sagging, tooling, and free shaping. Furthermore, a discussion on glassblowing tools and equipment, and mold-blowing is presented.
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