Show Summary Details

Page of

PRINTED FROM OXFORD HANDBOOKS ONLINE (www.oxfordhandbooks.com). © Oxford University Press, 2018. All Rights Reserved. Under the terms of the licence agreement, an individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a title in Oxford Handbooks Online for personal use (for details see Privacy Policy and Legal Notice).

date: 20 February 2020

(p. 807) Index

(p. 807) Index

abduction, 149–150
causation and, 149–150
explanation and, 268
inconsistency resolution and, 150
similarity assessment and, 163, 164
abductive inferences, 268
model for, 269
reasoning and, 270–271
abductive reasoning
in medical reasoning, 739
in scientific thinking and reasoning, 707
absolute truth, in argumentation, 279
abstraction, in creativity, 468, 469
abstract selection task, 438
accounting. See behavioral accounting
accuracy, in outcome-motivated thinking, 398–399
circumstance distinction for, 399
cognitive-resource constraints on, 398
for nondirectional outcomes, 395, 405
reasoning and, 398–399
achievement, as genius, 493–494
acquire-a-company problem, 352
activation spreading, in formal thought disorder, 681–682
ACT-R computer model, 82
knowledge transfer with, 793–794
in modular components,793–794 philosophy tenets for, 793
Adams v. New Jersey Steamboat Company, 727
adaptation, in analogical inference, 250
ad baculum argument, 282–283
additional intelligences, in general intelligence perspective, 497
additive counterfactuals, 401–402
ad hominem argument, 282
adjustment heuristic, 332. See also anchoring
Administrative Behavior (Simon), 756
ad populum argument, 282
ad verecundiam argument, 282
affect displays, 632
affect heuristic, 339. See also emotion, decision making and
aggregate field theory, 68
aging, thinking and
age-related cerebral atrophy and, 653
analogical reasoning and, 657–658
associative memory and, 660
cognitive theories for, 650–653
decision making and, 653–656
educational factors for, 657
episodic memory and, 660
expertise and, 663–664
explicit memory and, 660
false memories with, 660–661
framing effect and, 655
in general slowing theory, 651
IGT and, 654–655
induction and, 658–659
in inhibit deficit theory, 652
JOLs and, 662–663
judgment and, 653–656
memory and, 660–662
metacognition and, 662–663
metamemory and, 662–663
motivational factors for, 655
own-age bias and, 657
positive feedback and, 657
prefrontal theories for, 652
for problem solving, 656–657
reasoning and, 657–658
in reduced resources theory, 651
RPM test and, 657
semantic memory and, 660
set-shifting and, 659
Skinner on, 666
in SOC theory, 652–653
in SST, 653, 661
successful, 665–666
time assessment with, 655–656
training and, 664–665
with Wisconsin Card Sorting Task, 659
wisdom from, 665–666
working memory and, 660
Aha! reaction, 476
as unconscious, 479
algebra, as symbolic language, 798, 803, 803
algorithms
of analogical inference, 249
analogical reasoning models, 253–254
in analogy models, 240
explanations and, 265
in problem solving, 419
representations and, 37
Alighieri, Dante, 494
alignment-based models, for similarity assessment, 155, 165–167
alignable differences in, 167
feature matching in, 165
non-alignable differences in, 166–167
SIAM, 166
structural accounts of, 167
transformational models and, 168–169
allocentric representations, 614
alternating-offer bargaining, 353–355
anagrams, 482
analogical inference, 249–251
adaptation processes and, 250
algorithm of, 249
causal model integration with, 249–250
computational level analysis of, 253
as false memories, 250–251
function of, 249
representations and, 250
analogical reasoning
aging and, 657–658
in AI, 238, 238
algorithmic model development, 253–254
analogical inference, 249–251
analog retrieval in, 241
case-based reasoning as, 238
component processes of, 243–253
computational level analysis of, 253
definition of, 234
explicit processing in, 245
functions of, 235
implicit processing in, 245
by judges, 731
in legal reasoning, 727–728
with LISA, 241, 241
in long-term memory, 244–245
mapping in, 46, 235, 246
memory activation in, 245–246
neural implementation of, 254
processes of, 235
relational priming in, 245–246
relational structure in, 244–245
representations in, 253–254
retrieval gaps in, 244
schemas in, 251–253
in scientific thinking and reasoning, 709, 708–709
source analogs in, 243–244
sources in, 709
in structured relational representations, 45–46
targets in, 709
transfer paradigms in, 243–244
translational research for, 254–255
verbal, 242
working memory and, 240–241
analogic problem solving, 421
analog mental representations, 39
analog presentations, in symbolic arithmetic, 599–600
analog representations, 39
mental, 39
analogy, 45–46
algorithmic models of, 240
applications for, 235
asymmetry in, 234
in cognitive psychology, 238
comparison in, 234
components of, 234
in consumer behavior research, 759
in creativity, 469
definition of, 234
empirical, 234
expert recognition of, 423
4-term, 236
as induction process, 235
knowledge representation and, 238–239
in mental model theory, 136
metaphor and, 236–238
multiconstraint theory and, 239
for number-line estimations, 598
parallel connectivity and, as constraint, 46
problem solving applications for, 238–239, 254
proportional, 236
in psychometric tradition, 236
relational reasoning and, 239–243
relationships in, 234
research history for, 236–239
in role-based relational reasoning, 235
in scientific thinking and reasoning, 709, 708–709
symbolic connectionism and, 240
systematicity principle and, 46
theories of, 46
analogy recognition, 423
analysis, computation level of, 4
analytic solving, 475, 478. See also problem solving
anchoring
numeric priming from, 333
paradigms for, 332
in positive model, for heuristics and biases approach to judgment, 328, 332–333
psychological processes from, 332–333
semantic activation from, 333
Anderson, John, 3, 53, 793
anger
decision making and, 314
as moral emotion, 369
animals
magnitude processing by, 589–592, 601
relational reinterpretation hypothesis for, 536, 537
in spatial orientation models, 558–559
teaching among, 533–534, 534
visuospatial thinking in, 606–607
anti-representationalism
in cognitive psychology, 49
in embodied cognition, 48–49
in knowledge representation, 48–49
in situated cognition, 48–49
aphasia, 678
apologist position, 447
arationality, 434
argumentation
absolute truth in, 279
ad baculum, 282–283
ad hominem, 282
ad populum, 282
ad verecundiam, 282
applications of, 290–292
argument quality, 280–282
Bayes theorem for, 280, 292, 292
circular, 282
claims in, 278–279
for cognitive psychologists, 281
coherence in, 292
computer science applications for, 278
conditionals in, 286–290
content as factor in, 279–280
definition of, 277
in developmental psychology, 277–278
dialectical model of, 279
epistemic, 278, 282
with equivocation, 282
evaluation norms for, 291
external aspects of, 277
fallacies of, 282–290
function of, 277, 277
future research applications for, 292–293
from ignorance, 282, 283–284
inference in, 278
legal applications of, 279, 291–292, 293
logic in, 278
norms for, 278
in persuasion research, 277
philosophical foundations for, 278
pragma-dialectical theories of, 279
procedural aspects of, 281–282
psychology of, 280–292
theoretical frameworks of, 278–280
two-sided arguments, 281
Aristotelian explanations, 265
Aristotle, 236
rationality for, 434
arithmetic
for infants, 592–593
neuroimaging for, 592
non-symbolic numerical processing and, 594
symbolic, 599–600
artifacts, in mental model theory, 136
artificial categorization, 180
artificial intelligence (AI)
analogical reasoning in, 238, 238
case-based reasoning, 238
medical reasoning with, 737–738
normative reasoning theories and, 19
in transformational models, 167
associative approach, in causal learning, 213–215
augmented variants of, 213
Bayesian inferences compared to, 224–225
blocking in, 214–215
causal power theory and, 223
comparator hypothesis in, 215
contingency contrast in, 213–214
as intuitive, 213
with multiple causes, 214–215
with RW model, 214
sometimes-opponent-process model, 215
statistical model for, 213–214
associative memory, aging and, 660
asymmetric analogy, 234
asymmetric dominance, 307
asymmetric matching pennies game, 351
payoff predictions for, 351–349
asymmetric predictions, for similarity assessment, 162
asymmetric similarity, from contrast models, 162 (p. 808)
asymmetry predictions, for causality, 215–216
atomistic concepts, 192–193
compositionality in, 192
comprehension and interpretation in, 193
attention
ANT for, 98
bounded, 3
cholinergic gene systems and, 100
cognitive neurogenetics for, 98–100
context, 682–683
in directional outcomes, 393–394
dopaminergic components of, 99–100, 98–99
glutamatergic genes and, 100
in inhibit deficit theory, 652
for insight problems, 484
for language of motion, 554
MSIT for, 105
for music, 784
neural architecture for, 98
in reduced resources theory, 651
selective, 682–683
serotonergic genes and, 100
visual, 339–340
to visual imagery, 611
working memory and, 98
attentional defocusing, 466
attentional processes, in moral judgment, 375
Attention and Effort (Kahneman), 339–340
Attention Network Test (ANT), 98
attributes, 43
directional outcome-motivated thinking influenced by, 392
in nondirectional outcomes, 395–396
attribute evaluation, in decision making, 309–311
for compatibility, 309–310
evaluability effects in, 310
inconsistency in, 310–311
separate and comparative, 310–311
attribution substitution account, 340, 340–341
in heuristics, 373
auditory perception principles, 783
auditory scene analysis, 776
auditory sequence discrimination, 587
under Weber-Fechner law, 587
auditory stream segregation, 776
authority of law, for judges, 731–732, 731–732
authority/respect domain, in moral judgment, 365
autism, diagnosis of, 635
The Autonomous Set of Systems (TASS), 440
availability heuristic, 330–331
backward blocking, 215
backward-driven reasoning. See hypothesis-driven medical reasoning
BACON program, 500–501
basic level categories, 180
basic level categorization, 180
Bayesian inferences, 23, 223–224
applications for other disciplines, 31–33
associative approach to, causal learning compared to, 224–225
bias-variance tradeoff and, 27
casual support models for, 223, 223–224
in causal power theory, 223
in cognitive modeling, 25
computational levels of, 24–25
future applications for, 33
HBMs, 29–30
heuristics and, 25, 26
inductive inferences and, 22–23, 29
intervention in, 226–227
JDM view for, 25–26, 26, 27
levels of, 23–25
mechanistic level of, 24–25
methodological applications of, 223
Monte Carlo methods for, 33
normative models for, 25
parsimony in, 224
probability theory and, 16, 22, 23
in rational models, 324
rational process models for, 25
in reasoning, 27–28
reverse engineering and, 25, 26–27
solution deviations for, 27
statistics in, integration of, 28
symbol integration in, 28
in thinking, 27–28
Bayes theorem, for argumentation, 280, 292, 292
in arguments from ignorance, 284, 285
in epistemic arguments, 284–285
in medical reasoning, 737
probability in, 293
rationality and, 438
BDNF gene, 100–101
Beethoven, Ludwig van, 492
behavioral accounting, 767–768
expertise in, 767–768
fact presentation in, 768
knowledge transfer prediction for, 768
numerical cognition for, 768
research goals for, 767
Behavioral Decision Theory, 326
behavioral finance, 765–767
decision making for, 765–767
expertise in, 767
goals of, 765
judgment for, 765–767
learning in, 767
in prediction markets, 766–767
for retirement, 765–766
in stock markets, 766
vivid information for, 766
behavioral game theory, 359
repeated play in, 360
beliefs
culture and, 578–579
essentialism, 196–197
explanation and, 261
in featured representations, 42–43
logic and, 12, 18
probability and, 12, 16
sortalism, 197–198
belief bias
in dual-process theory for deductive reasoning, 120, 123, 127–128
effect studies for, 81
Bell, Victoria, 144
Berliner, Hans, 493
Bernoulli, Daniel, 302
Berra, Yogi, 322
bias. See also belief bias
cognitive, intelligence and, 122
confirmation, 577
in culture, as sampling bias, 573–574
in domain-general cognitive theories, 374
intention and, in moral judgments, 381
in judgments, 322–323
in MDS models, 161
in organizational behavior, 760
own-age, 657
in reasoning, 514
in representation of culture, 573
from status quo, 306
in transmission of culture, 573
in type 1 processes, 126
bias-variance tradeoff, 27
The Big Book of Concepts (Murphy), 177
big ideas, in knowledge transfer, 791–793, 798
vertical transfer of, 793
binary predicates, 43
birds-and-trains problem, 415
bistable mapping, 247
Bleuler, Eugen, 678–679
conceptualization of psychosis pathology, 679
blind variation perspective, for genius, 501–504
advantages of, 502–503
creativity and, 501
cultural influences on, 502–503
domain expertise and, 503
empirical research on, lack of, 503–504
explanatory power of, 502
ideational variants in, 501
as integrative, 502, 503
limitations of, 503–504
predictive value of, 503
underdevelopment of, 502
Blink (Gladwell), 128 (p. 809)
blocking, 214–215
backward, 215
board games. See number board games
Bohr, Niels, 322
Bonaparte, Napoleon, 494
Boroditsky, L., 561, 563
bounded attention, 3
bounded rationality, 324, 324, 327
Bovens, Luc, 292
Boyd, R., 533
Boyle’s law, 218–219
Brahe, Tycho, 148, 707
brain. See also prefrontal cortex, of brain
domain specificity in, 199–200
facial recognition domain in, 199–200
under fMRI, 79–80
frontal lobes, role in intelligence, 84–85
hippocampal volume, schizophrenia and, 688–689
insight in, regional activation for, 476
insula, 355
memory domains in, 200–201
in monkeys, 530
place and landscape recognition domain in, 200
precuneus, 355
temporal lobe abnormalities, schizophrenia and, 688–689
Braine, Martin, 118
brain size
encephalization and, 530
in humans, 530–531
in monkeys, 530
neocortex and, 531
in primates, relative to other species, 530
social brain hypothesis and, 531
brainstorming, 465
Brander, James, 351
brand extension, 758
Broca, Paul, 68
Broca’s area, 68
Bromberger, Sylvain, 230
Bruner, Jerome, 4, 703
Buonarroti, Michelangelo, 492
burden of proof, 279
for juries, 729
Burns, Robert, 494
business, reasoning in
in behavioral accounting, 767–768
for behavioral finance, 765–767
in business schools, 755
future applications for, 769
in management science, 763–765
in marketing, 756–759
in organizational behavior, 759–763
business schools, 755
future research goals for, 769
Cage, Nicholas, 576
Campbell, Donald, 501–502
candle problem, 417
capacity, in children’s developmental thinking, 518–520
abstract conceptualization, 519–520
event representation, for infants, 518–519
learning concepts in, 520
methodology for, 518
object representation in, 518–519
capacity allocation, 683–684
schizophrenia and, 684
speech disorders and, 684
Carey, Susan, 198
Carlyle, Thomas, 494
Carruthers, P., 704
case-based reasoning, 238
casual support models, in Bayesian inferences, 223, 223–224
categorical induction, 707
categorical reasoning, 619
categorization
artificial, 180
basic level, 180
causal learning and, 230
characteristic comparisons within, 180
cognitive neuroscience and, 187–189
within concepts, 178
connectionist models for, 185
in consumer behavior, 757–759
creativity and, 457–459
decision bound models for, 184–185
distortions within, 183–184
exemplar views of, 184, 184
explanation in, 261, 270
feature learning from, 187
features of, 187–189
for goal planning, 178
of graphical displays, 620
implicit learning from, 186
inference and, 183
language function and, 189, 545
learning from, 178, 179
in legal reasoning, 725–726
mixed models for, 185–186
multiple function sensitivity with, 202
multiple systems for, 185–186
neuropsychological studies of, 187–188
in number-line estimation, 598–599
of numbers, 598–599
of objects, in visuospatial thinking, 608
of objects, language for, 551
in organizational behavior, 761–762
perceptual fluency and, 186
perceptual-functional hypothesis and, 187–188, 188
prototypes for, 183–184
psychology of, in medical reasoning, 741–742
rational models for, 184
reasoning and, 189
in semantics, 182–183
sortalism and, 197
of substances, language for, 551
in surface-based problems, 423
visual agnosia and, 187–188
Cattell, Raymond, 236
Cattell/Horn/Carroll (CHC) theory of intelligence, 443
causal approach, in causal learning, 218–224
acyclic constraints in, 218
causal power theory for, 218–220
ceiling effects in, 220–221
experimental tests of, 221
independent assumption effects in, 221–223
normative models for, 221–222
variants in, 218
causal explanations, 265
causal inference, 215–218
Bayesian inferences and, 223–224
causality in, as concept, 215–216
ceiling effects in, 216–217
diagnostic, 226–227
experimental design principles with, 217
inhibitory cues in, 216
intervention in, 216, 217–218, 226–227
invariances in, 217
placebo effects with, 216
causality, as concept, 215–216
asymmetry predictions in, 215–216
in children’s developmental thinking, 521
causal learning. See also associative approach, in causal learning; causal approach, in causal learning
associations compared to, 211
in associative world, 210–211
assumptions in, 212
Bayesian inferences and, 223–224
category formation and, 230
causality constraints in, 227–229
cause and effect variables in, 211–212, 227–228, 228–229
ceiling effects in, 220–221
contiguous events in, 228
definitions in, 211
domain integration functions, 225–226
domain-specific biases in, 212
explanations for, 211
function of, 210–211
Hume and, 213
hyperbolic discounting in, 228
hypothesis revision for, 230
independent causal assumptions in, 225–226
intervention in, 213 (p. 810)
judgments from, 230
in non-associative world, 210
parsimony in, 230
psychological theories for, 227
time constraints in, 227–229
time frame variability in, 228
universality of explanations from, 211
causal maps, for inductive inferences, 28
causal model theory, for moral judgment, 374–375
causal power theory, 218–220
alternative causes in, 219
associative approach in causal learning and, 223
Bayesian inferences in, 223
belief assumptions in, 219–220
Boyle’s law and, 218–219
confounding conditions in, 220
multiple causes in, 219
nonconfounding conditions in, 220
processing capacity for, 219
causal thinking, 706–707
mechanism in, 706
in medical reasoning, 744–746
for unexpected findings, 706–707
ceiling effects
in causal inference, 216–217
in causal learning, 220–221
CHC theory of intelligence. See Cattell/Horn/Carroll theory of intelligence
children. See also capacity, in children’s developmental thinking; developmental thinking, in children
egocentrism in, 515, 516
as geniuses, 495
gesture for, 633
language development for, gesture and, 633–634, 634–635
mathematical equivalence by, through gesture, 636
physics for, 711
scientific thinking and reasoning in, 710–712
similarity assessment among, 171
in SMPY, 505
task mastery by, gesture and, 635–636
theory change for, 521
cholinergic gene systems, attention and, 100
Chomsky, Noam, 532
universalist perspective on language, 544
chords, 775
chromatin, 94
chromosomes, schizophrenia and, 688
circular argument, 282
as conditional, 289–290
dependency in, 289
equivalency in, 289
probability theory and, 290
circumstance distinction, in outcome-motivated thinking, 399
civil law nations, 733
cladograms, 426
claims, in argumentation, 278–279
clinical knowledge, in medical reasoning, 742, 745
closure motivations
for nondirectional outcomes, 397
in outcome-motivated thinking, 399
co-construction of knowledge, for culture, 573
in history, 573
reproduction of, 573
code-switching, 561
cognition. See also creativity, cognition and; implicit cognition, creativity and; process models, of higher cognition
cultural cognition, evolution of, 576–577
for culture, 576–579
through culture, 571–576
culture and, 569–570
embodied, 47–48
explanation and, 261
extended mind hypothesis and, 575
group, 763
language and, 531–532, 543
music as influence on, 779
neurogenetics for, 94–98
situated, 48
structural mapping theory for, 465
working memory and, 95
cognition as proof theory, 15
cognitive-affective theory, 368
Cognitive Basis of Science (Carruthers/Stich/Siegal), 704
cognitive bias, intelligence and, 122
type 1 processes and, in dual process theory, 126
cognitive control, in schizophrenia, 681
cognitive deficits, in formal thought disorder, 684
cognitive development
ACT-R computer model for, 82
explanation in, 267, 268
gesture and, 633
inductive inferences and, 29
theoretical history of, 3
cognitive division of labor, 576
cognitive economy, 179
cognitive hierarchy (CH) model, 347–348, 348–358
advantages for, 348
applications for, 348
for asymmetric matching pennies game, 351
for entry games, 351–352
eye-tracking evidence for, 353–355
field data for, 356–358
fMRI imaging for, 355–356
individual differences in, 355–356
individual game structures and, 355–356
payoff predictions in, 350–351
for PBC games, 348–351
for private information games, 352–353
cognitive illusion paradigm, 327
in positive model, for heuristics and biases approach to judgment, 329
cognitive illusions, 468
cognitive impairment. See thought disorders
cognitive load theory, 797
in data-driven reasoning, 741
cognitive maps, 614
cognitive miser model, for cognition, 337–338
Cognitive Models of Science (Giere), 704
cognitive neurogenetics
for attention, 98–100
in cognitive neuroscience, 92–103
in complex cognition, 94–98
development of, 90
DNA and, 94
epigenetic influences on, 94
future applications for, 103, 104
intermediate phenotype approach in, 92
interpretive issues in, 92–94
for language cognition, 102–103
for long-term memory, 100–102
methodology issues with, 93–94
molecular biogenetic data integration in, 104
molecular-biological sequence in, 91–92
neuroimaging and, 104
new data for, 103–104
nucleotides in, 91–92
path-analytic approach in, 105
phenotypes in, 92
polygenicity in, 92
psychological theory and, 104
sample size guidelines for, 104
systems approach in, 105
in working memory, 94–98
cognitive neuropsychology, 68–73
aggregate field theory in, 68
behavioral study in, 68–72
with brain-damaged patients, 72–73
localizationism theory in, 68
cognitive neuroscience, 3
academic development of, 67–68
categorization and, 187–189
cognitive neuropsychology, 68–73
creativity and, research applications of, 470–471
experimental methods for, 69–72
mental model theory and, 136
for multiple memory systems, 185
neurogenetic research in, 92–103 (p. 811)
with neuroimaging, 73–81
similarity assessment in, 156–157, 170–171, 171–172
terminology for, 86
cognitive psychology
analogy in, 238
anti-representationalism in, 49
argumentation in, 281
knowledge representation in, 47
cognitive science
children’s developmental thinking and, 524
Great Rationality Debate in, 433, 435–436
irrationality and, 434
cognitive support systems, in management science, 763–764
Cognitive Tutors systems, 793
Cohen, Jonathan, 325, 679
psychological probability study, 329
coherence
in analogical mapping, 247
in argumentation, 292
multiconstraint theory for, 247
in rational models, 323
Coke, Edward, 719
collaborative cognition, 470
collaborative memory, 571–572
Collins, Allan, 181
color perception, in language, 549–550
cross-linguistic commonalties for, 550
labeling of, 549–550, 563
common law nations, 733
communication, concepts and, 178
communication deviance, 690–691
comparative attribute evaluation, in decision making, 310–311
comparator hypothesis, 215
compatibility, in decision making, 309–310
preferences for, 309
response modes and, 309–310
competence/performance distinction, for rationality, 448
compiled causal knowledge, 746
complete explanation, 261–262
selected compared, 262
compositionality, 192
compound premises, in deductive reasoning, 143
compound remote associate (CRA) problems, 476
compromise effect, 307–308
computation
analysis and, 4
function of, 4
computational models. See also process models, of higher cognition
ACT-R, 82
for concepts, future applications of, 202
for knowledge transfer, 793–794
of neural systems, 82–84, 85
for symbolic languages, 795
computer axial tomography (CAT), 73–74
computers, for scientific thinking and reasoning, 712
computer science, argumentation applications in, 278
computer simulations, for human thinking, 3
concepts
abstract, in children’s developmental thinking, 519–520
atomic, 192–193
brain region domains for, 199–201
categorization within, 178
causality, 215–216
cognitive divisions between, 195–196
combination of, 178, 190–192
communication and, 178
comprehension of, 178
creativity for, 457–459
definition of, 177
development of, as process, 180–181
domain specificity for, 198
early research history on, 179
essentialism, 196–197
evidentiality, language, 555–556
facial recognition, 199–200
family resemblance between, 180, 180
in folk biology, 198–199
formation of, 457–458
functions of, 178–179
future applications, through computational models, 202
generic noun phrases, 193–194
gesture and, demand for, 639
hierarchical structure of, 458
inferences from, 458–459
inferential, 192–193
interdomain differences for, 199
knowledge elements in, 710
language function and, 189
in long-term memory, storage of, 201
memory organization and, 178–179
in memory structures, 189–190
modality specificity for, 188
motion, language for, 553–554
neuroimaging studies for, 188–189
number, language for, 557–558
object, 188
organization of, 458
participant population diversity, for research applications, 202
path-of-least-resistance theory and, 459
polysemy, 194–195
prediction from, 178
psycholinguistic research and, 202
psychological study of, 177
in psychometaphysics, 178, 195, 202
in riskless decision making, 306
in scientific thinking and reasoning, development of, 709–710
semantic memory and, theories for, 179–182
sortalism, 197–198
spatial frames of reference as, language for, 554–555
spatial orientation as, language for, 558–561
spatial relationships as, language for, 552–553
substances, language for, 550–552
in thinking, 1
time, language for, 556–557
concept combinations, 178, 190–192
distinctions within, 192
predictions for, 192
selective modification model for, 193
theory development for, 191–192, 191
typicality of structures in, 190–192
conceptual combination, 178, 190–192
in creativity, 464–465, 469
emergent properties in, 465
conceptual knowledge, through gesture, 633
conceptual processing, in embodied cognition, 48
conditional inference, 118, 122–123
in mental model theory, 119
conditionals
in argumentation, 286–290
circular argument as, 289–290
deontic, 288
in fallacies, 286–290
SSA as, 288–289
utility, 288
confirmation bias
culture and, 577
in hypotheses testing, 705
legal reasoning and, 720–721
variants for, 705–706
conflicts
decisional, 307–308
in decision making, 306–309
reason-based choice and, 308–309
conformity, in creativity, 468
confounding conditions, in causal power theory, 220
congruency effect, 608
conjunction fallacy, for judgment heuristics, 337
probability theory and, 337
conjunction rule, 337
conjunctive coding, 58
in vector addition symbolic-connectionist models, 62
connectionist models
for categories, 185
meaning-based memory in, 201–202
symbolic, 60–64
vector addition, 61–63
vector multiplication, 60–61 (p. 812)
connectionist neural-network models, 55–60
auto-associative networks in, 57
conjunctive coding in, 58
connections in, 56–57
degradation within, 57
degrees of freedom in, 58
disadvantages of, 58–60
distributed representations in, 56, 56
feed-forward networks in, 57
future applications of, 64
individual mapping in, 58
input/output units in, 59
integration within, 57
localist representations in, 56
mathematical simplicity of, 57
processes in, 56–57
query units in, 59
recurrent networks in, 57
relational processing in, 59
representations in, 56
strengths of, 57
Connery, Sean, 576
consciousness
private body, 368
thinking and, 2
consequence, from logic, 14
consistency
in logic, 12, 14–15, 18
model-theoretic, 14
proof-theoretic, 14
as static, 15
consistent equations, 425
constructivist science education, 713
consumer behavior, marketing and, 756–759
analogy research for, 759
brand extension in, 758
categories in, 757–759
context for, 757
creativity and, 759
decision making in, 756–757
expertise in, 757
learning in, 757
preferences in, 758–759
research on, 758
similarity research for, 759
contemporary recognition, posthumous vs., 494
context attention, in formal thought disorder, 682–683
contingent negative variation (CNV), 76
contradictions, in logic, 13, 13
contrast models, in similarity assessment, 161–163
asymmetric similarity predictions with, 162
common features in, 162, 162–163
computational development of, 163
premise of, 163
conventional morality, 366
convergence schemas, 251–252
convergent thinking, 465
cooperation, in organizational behavior, 762
correlational psychology, genius study within, 505
counterfactual effects, on strategy-motivated thinking, 401–402
counting systems, cross-linguistic differences in, 557–558, 563
cover and differentiate model, in medical reasoning, 739
Craik, Kenneth, 3, 135
creativity, cognition and. See also metrics, of creativity; music; music composition
abstraction in, 468, 469
aids to, 469–470
analogy in, 469
in blind variation perspective, for genius, 501
categorization and, 457–459
cognitive illusions and, 468
cognitive neuroscience applications, 470
collaborative cognition and, 470
conceptual combination in, 464–465, 469
conceptualization and, 457–459
consumer behavior and, 759
CQ test for, 495–496
creative cognition approach to, 456
Darwinian model of, 466
digital tools for, 470–471
domains of, 456, 457–464
expertise from, 471
false memories and, 457
as genius, 494
genius and, 494
idea roadmaps theory for, 467
ideation in, 465
impediments to, 468–470
implicit assumptions and, 468
implicit cognition and, 463, 464
implicit memory and, 459, 464
inadequate knowledge and, 468
influential factors for, 456
insight and, 487–488
intuition in, 464
knowledge storage in, 457, 469–470
in marketing, 759
measurement tests for, 495–496
memory and, 459–462
noticing in, 469
opportunistic assimilation theory of, 466
in organizational behavior, 762–763
path-of-least-resistance theory and, 459
premature conceptualization and, 469
prepared mind theory for, 466
problem solving and, 461, 462–463, 471
remote association theory for, 465–466
sketching and, 470
structured imagination theory for, 457, 465
support technologies for, 470–471
as unexpected, 457
wisdom and, 665, 665
creativity quotient (CQ) test, 495–496
Crick, Francis, 701
Cromwell, Oliver, 494
Cross, Ian, 774
cross-linguistic differences, in language
for counting systems, 557–558, 563
for evidentiality, 556
through gesture, 641
for motion, 553–554, 554, 563
for number, 557–558, 563
for spatial frames of reference, 554–555
for spatial relationships, 552–553
cross-mapping, in analogical reasoning, 247
cross-modal mapping, by infants, 588–589
preferences in, 588
crystallized intelligence, 84, 443
mindware and, 446
cultural cognition, 576–577
mind-reading and, 576
neural systems for, 576–577
cultural distribution, across peoples, 571–572
collaborative memory and, 571–572
with transactive memory, 571
cultural intelligence hypothesis, nonhuman primates and, 534–535
culture
belief systems and, 578–579
blind variation perspective on genius and, 502–503
co-construction of knowledge for, 573
cognition and, 569–570
cognition for, 576–579
cognition through, 571–576
collaborative memory and, 571–572
confirmation bias and, 577
cultural cognition, evolution of, 576–577
definition of, 570
developmental thinking in children and, 517
distributed across peoples, 571–572
dual-process theories influenced by, 124
dynamic social impact process in, 573
group polarization in, 574
human mind influenced by, 533–534
imitation as learning tool in, 572
information cascades in, 573–574
isolation costs, 574–575
knowledge in representation of, 572 (p. 813)
knowledge transmission of, 572
through language, 543
macropsychology and, 579–580
moral grammar theory and, 372
moral judgment influenced by, 365, 385–386
motivated reasoning and, 577
neural systems for cognition of, 576–577
organizational behavior and, 762, 762
pluralistic ignorance in, 574
prediction games in, 574
predispositions to, 577–578
in rationalist theory, 367
relational models theory and, 577
relationship regulation theory and, 577
representation and, across time, 572–573
research models, 579
sacred and protected values and, 382
sampling biases for, 573–574
SNPs and, susceptibility of, 580
social-functional aspects of, 577–578
technology and, 575–576
thinking and, 570
transactive memory and, 571
transmission of, across time, 572–573
Curie, Marie, 500
Darwinian model of creativity, 466
data-driven medical reasoning, 740–741
cognitive load in, 741
data mining, 712
for knowledge transfer, 799–800
decisional conflicts, 307–308
asymmetric dominance in, 307
compromise effect in, 307–308
default alternatives in, 307
among experts, 307
influences on, 308
status quo from, 307
decision analysis, in medical reasoning, 737
decision bound models, for categories, 184–185
decision making. See also moral judgment
aging and, 653–656
anger and, 314
for behavioral finance, 765–767
compatibility in, 309–310
components of, 747
conflicts in, 306–309
in consumer behavior, 756–757
decision maker competence, 303
definition of, 301
descriptive models for, 316
disgust and, 314
domain specificity for, 200
drive and, 314–315
emotion and, 314–315
empathy gaps in, 315
explanations in, 270
frame of mind and, 313–315
framing effect and, with aging, 655
functions of, 301
for future events, 313
future research applications for, 316
global perspectives for, 311–315
identity and, 314
IGT and, aging as influence on, 654–655
influential factors for, 301
in intensive care units, 747
by juries, psychological model for, 730
local perspectives for, 311–315
in marketing, 756–757
in medical reasoning, 746–747, 747–748
mental accounting in, 312
metacognitive influences on, 315
monetary outcomes and, 303
motivational factors for, with aging, 655
NDM, 747
nonmonetary outcomes and, 303
normative theories and, as standard, 11–12
for organizational behavior, 760
preferences in, 316
properties of, 2
rational theory of choice and, 12, 16–18, 18, 301–302
reason-based choice in, 308–309
riskless, 305–306
sadness and, 314
under uncertainty, 302–305
weighting of attributes in, 309–311
decision support systems, in management science, 764
dedicated neural systems, 79
deduction
inferences in, 2
in medical reasoning, 738
in mental model theory, 136–140
in thinking, 2
deductive inferences, explanations and, 271
deductive-nomological (DN) explanation, 262
deductive reasoning
compound premises in, 143
conditionals in, 144
dedicated neural systems for, 79
dual-process theories for, 115, 119–120, 117–121
error prediction in, 141
experimental studies of, 140–144
fallacies in, 117, 124–129, 117–130
fMRI and, 78–79
illusory inferences in, 142–143, 143
inconsistencies in, 147–148
invalid inferences, 141–142
mental logic and, 118
mental model theory for, 118–119, 134
with multiple models, 140–141
by naïve individuals, 143–144
PPA and, 78–79
predictions for, 140–144
psychology of, 115–116
with quantifiers, 144
relational, 144
in scientific thinking and reasoning, 707–708
suppositions in, 143–144
visuospatial thinking in, 618–620
Dehaene-Changeux model, 590
deictic gestures, 639
delayed feedback, 764–765
deliberation instructions, for juries, 729
delusions, in schizophrenia, 675
dementia, 684–685
Dennett, Dan, 441
density estimation, 31
deontic conditionals, in fallacies, 288
deontic logics, 15
deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)
chromatin, 94
as epigenetic influence, in cognitive neurogenetics, 94
histones, 94
dependency circularity, 289
Descartes, René, 1, 492, 492
developmental psychology. See also capacity, in children’s developmental thinking; children; infants; learning from others, among children
analogical mapping in, 248–249
argumentation in, 277–278
gesture and, 633
inductive inferences in, 32–33
knowledge representation in, 47
numerical symbol comprehension, 594–601, 601–602
rationalist theory in, 366
similarity assessment in, 169–170
sortalism in, 197
spatial orientation in, language for, 560–561
spatial relationships in, language for, 563
developmental thinking, in children
causality in, 521
causal reasoning in, 520–521
change stages in, 514–518
cognitive science applications for, 524
cultural variation in, 517
domain general principles for, 516–517
domain specificity in, 516–517
early capacity in, 518–520
egocentrism and, 515, 516
experience effects on, 517–518
expertise and, 516 (p. 814)
incremental changes in, 515–516
individual variation in, 517
knowledge evolution from, 513
language development in, 513–514
in learning from others, 521–524
as methodological tool, 514
modularity in, 516
for number, 557
ontological commitment in, 520–521
perceptual narrowing in, 517–518
qualitative changes in, 515–516
reasoning biases and, 514
research goals for, 513–514
reverse patterns for, 516
skills assessment from, 513
task analysis for, 515–516
theory change in, 521
training effects on, 517–518
underestimation of abilities for, 515
Devi, Shakuntala, 493, 498
diagnostic causal inference, 226–227
diagnosticity effect, 170
diagrams, in problem solving, 425, 426–427
cladograms, 426
in perceptual principle, 426
dialectical model, of argumentation, 279
Dickinson, Emily, 494
diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), 74
dilemmas. See also moral dilemmas
Heinz, 366
high-conflict, 370
trolley, 377–379
directional outcomes, in motivated thinking, 391, 391–395
attentional effects on, 393–394
attribution effects on, 392
information search effects on, 393–394
knowledge activation effects on, 394–395
legitimacy effects on, 393
memory effects on, 395
organization effects on, 395
recall effects on, 394–395
truth evaluation effects on, 393
discourse, in mental model theory, 136
Discourse on Method (Descartes), 492
discovery, intervention in, 213
discovery learning approach, in science education, 713
Discovery of Relations by Analogy (DORA), 62–63
disgust, decision making and, 314
dishabituation paradigm, 548
disorientation, 616
cues after, 616
distributed representations, in connectionist neural-network models, 56, 56
divergent thinking, 465
doctrine of double effect (DDE), 372
causal processes in, 379
intention and, 380
trolley dilemma and, 378, 379
Doherty, Michael, 704, 706
domain expertise, for genius, 498–499
advantages of, 498
in blind variation perspective, 503
development of, 498
empirical research for, 498
limitations of, 498–499
nature vs. nurture debate for, 498–499
prodigious performance and, 498
domain-general cognitive theories, for moral judgment, 374–375, 384
causal model theory, 374–375
contemporary research on, 385
excessive mental stimulation and, 375
fluency processing in, 375
framing effects in, 374
JDM, 374
motivational systems, 375
outcome bias in, 374
domain specificity, for concepts, 198
in brain regions, 199–200
for decision making, 200
in essentialism, 198
for general-purpose decision making, 200
in learning, 198
for memory, 200–201
dominance solvable game, 351
“do no harm” heuristic, 373–374
dopamine-system-related genes
in attention, 99–100, 98–99
in long-term memory, 101
dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), 355
dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (DMPFC), 355
double causal contrast theory, 379–380
drive, decision making and, 314–315
dual-process theories, for deductive reasoning, 117–121. See also type 1 processes, in dual process theory; type 2 processes, in dual process theory
automatic/shallow information processing in, 115, 116
belief bias in, 120, 123, 127–128
cognitive architecture within, 125
conditional inference in, 118, 122–123
conscious processing in, 116
contemporary research on, 129
cross-cultural influences on, 124
development of, 115, 119–120
distinctions within, 124–125
evidence sources for, 120
fallacies in, 117, 124–129, 117–130
future applications for, 129–130
in heuristics and biases approach to judgment, 328
hypothesis testing for, 118
in judgment, 339–341
origins of, 117–121
ratio bias in, 340
received view of, 121, 116–117
selection tasks and, 119
social knowledge in, 115
specificity of proposals in, 125
two systems in, 117, 130
type 1 processes, 121–124
type 2 processes, 121–124
working memory and, 121–122
dual-process theories, for moral judgment
consequentialist responses with, 370
critiques of, 370–371
deontological responses with, 370
evidence for, 370
for high-conflict dilemmas, 370
versions of, 371
dual-process theories, for rationality, 438–441
secondary presentations in, 441
TASS, 440
type 1 processing in, 439–441
type 2 processing in, 439–441
ubiquity of, 438–439
Duncker, Karl, 3, 413, 416. See also Gestalt psychology
dynamic attending, 776
dynamic causal modeling (DCM), 80
dynamic social impact process, 573
Edelman, Shimon, 158
educational data mining, for knowledge transfer, 799–800
Edwards, Ward, 325
egocentric representations, 614, 615
egocentrism, in children, 515, 516
Eimas, Peter, 548
Einstein, Albert, 497, 703
electrocorticography (ECOG), 75
electroencephalography (EEG), 73, 75
gesture under, 637–638
insight activation under, 476–478
mental number line under, 591–592
electrophysiological functional neuroimaging, 74–77
ECOG, 75
EEG, 73, 75
EROs, 76–77
single and multiunit recording, 74–75
Eliot, T.S., 497
emblems, 632
embodied cognition, 47–48
anti-representationalism in, 48–49
conceptual processing in, 48
for vision, 47
emergence, in creativity, 468
emotions
moral, 369, 369–370
in PG framework, 358–359
in response to music, 778–779, 786
emotion, decision making and, 314–315
affect heuristic for, 315
anger, 314, 369
disgust, 314
empathy gaps from, 315
guilt, 369–370
inconsistency from, 315
insight and, 484
mood maintenance, 314
for moral dilemmas, 380
moral judgment and, 368–370, 384
motivated thinking and, 404–405
neuroimaging for, 369
neuropsychological studies for, 369
on prefrontal cortex, 369
sadness, 314
sentimental rules theory and, 369
in SST, 653
thin and thick moral concepts, 369
emotion-focused problem solving, aging and, 657
empathy gaps, in decision making, 315
empirical analogies, 234
empiricism, 30
empiricist perspective, on language, 544
emulation, imitation compared to, 522
encephalization, brain size and, 530
social complexity and, 531
encoding, in language, 547–548
endophenotype, for schizophrenia, 685, 685, 689–690
endowment effects, 305, 306
English common law, 723–724
entry games, 351–352
coordinating issues in, 351
Nash equilibrium in, 352
environmental space, 607, 613–618. See also orientation, in environmental space
allocentric representations in, 614
cognitive processes for, 613
egocentric representations in, 614, 615
navigation through, 613
perspective taking for, 615
spatial layout knowledge and, 616–617
spatial representations in, 614–615
vision and, 613
wayfinding through, 617–618
episodic memory
aging and, 660
genetic polymorphisms in, 98
retrieval of, in prefrontal cortex, 85
schizophrenia and, 688–689
epistemic argumentation, 278, 282
Bayes theorem in, 284–285
logic in, 282
epistemic rationality, 434–435
equations, in problem solving, 425–426
consistent, 425
fluency in, 426
grouping of, 426
inconsistent, 425
perceptual learning modules and, 425–426
equilibrium points, 347
equiprobability principle, 144–145
for naïve reasoners, 144
equivalency circularity, 289
equivocation argument, 282
errors
classification of, 746
fundamental attribution, 733
in goals, 746–747
heuristics as source of, 746–747
of intention, 746–747
in medical reasoning, 746–747
prediction of, in deductive reasoning, 141
essentialism, 196–197
causal structures for, 197
classifications within, 196
domain specificity in, 198
foundational philosophy of, 196
indirect evidence for, 196
induction potential of, 196
sortalism and, 197–198
ethics, in organizational behavior, 760
evaluability effects, 310
event-related optical signal (EROS), 81
event-related oscillations (EROs), 76–77
applications for, 76–77
in time-frequency analyses, 77
event-related potential (ERPs), 75–76
applications for, 76
CNV and, 76
insight and, 480
event representation, for infants, 518–519
evidentiality, language for, 555–556
cross-linguistic differences in, 556
evolution, 436–437
natural selection and, 436
of rationality, among humans, 436, 436–437, 437
evolutionary psychology, subset principle in, 145
exaggerated imitation, 522
excessive yielding to normal biases, in formal thought disorder, 683
expected utility (EU)
in prospect theory, 302–303
in rational theory of choice, 17, 301–302
SEU, 323
expertise, problem solving and, 421–423
aging and, 663–664
analogy recognition and, 423
in behavioral accounting, 767–768
in behavioral finance, 767
children’s developmental thinking and, 516
in consumer behavior, 757
from creativity, 471
in marketing, 757
pattern recognition and, 422
problem structure knowledge and, 422
in SOC theory, 664
stored solution plans and, 422
explanations
abduction and, 268
abductive inferences and, 268
adaptive behavior support from, 263–264
in AI, 260
at algorithmic level, 265
Aristotelian, 265
in categorization, 261, 270
causal, 265
for causal learning, 211
causal mechanisms for, 263, 267
causal theories for, 262–263, 263
classifications for, 265
cognition and, 261
in cognitive development, 267, 268
complete, 261–262
at computational level, 265
contrast in, 262
as control mechanism, 263
in decision making, 270
deductive inferences and, 271
definition of, 261–262
DN account of, 262
empirical support for, within psychology, 263
events in, 267
feature support for, 270
functions of, 263–264
future applications for, 271–272
future learning and, 263
generation of, 266–267, 272
as heterogeneous, 271
at implementational level, 265
inductive inference and, 271
inference and, 268–270
during interactive cognitive activity, 266
judgments and, 270
language and, separation from, 272
in learning, 265–268
mechanistic, 264 (p. 816)
as phenomenologically satisfying, 263
prior beliefs and, 261
probability and, 268–269
as process, 261, 262
as product, 261, 262
properties in, 267
purpose of, 260
questions and, 266
reasoning and, 261, 270–271
for recipients, 266
research theory on, 261
seeking of, 266
selected, 262
self-assessment of, 270
self-explanation, 267, 268
structure of, 262–263
subsumption and, 267–268
taxonomies in, 264
teleological, 264
types of, 264–265
unification from, 267–268
explanatory coherence model, for juries, 730
explicit inductions, 146
explicit memory, aging and, 660
explicit reasoning
processing speed for, 128–129
selection tasks for, 120
Exploring Science (Klahr), 704
extended mind hypothesis, 575
extensional reasoning, 144
extension effect, 170
external representations, 425
extreme Panglossianism, 447. See also apologist position
eye-tracking measures, for CH game model, 353–355
alternating-offer bargaining and, 353–355
Mouselab, 353, 360
eye-tracking technology, for fixations, 484
facial recognition, brain region for, 199–200
facts
in behavioral accounting, 768
for juries, 721–722
law and, distinction between, 721–722
psychology of determination for, 722
fact finding, legal reasoning and, 728–731
by judges, 730–731
by juries, 729–730
fairness/reciprocity domain, in moral judgment, 365
fallacies
of argumentation, 282–290
conditional, 286–290
in deductive reasoning, 117, 124–129, 117–130
planning, in judgment heuristics, 336
subjective degree of belief in, 286–287
false memories, 457
with aging, 660–661
false memories, analogical inferences as, 250–251
recognition paradigm for, 250
source analogs in, 251
Faraday’s Law, 80
featural models, for similarity assessment, 155, 160–161
abduction reasoning and, 163, 164
bias in, 161
geometric models and, 163–165
hierarchical cluster analysis in, 163–164
hierarchical representations in, 164
minimality assumption in, 160
propositions in, 164
symmetry assumption in, 160
triangle inequality assumption in, 160–161
unstructured representations in, 164
featured representations, 42–43
degrees of belief in, 42–43
elements of, 42
information in, augmentation of, 42
for similarity studies, 42
for speech perception, 42
feature learning
in categorization, 187
similarity and, 187
Fermat’s Last Theorem, 13
fetal hypoxia, 685
figural space, 607
finance. See behavioral finance
fixation
eye-tracking technology for, 484
in idea roadmaps theory, 467
insight and, 480
in insight problems, 483–484
Fleming, Renée, 780
floating intentionality, of music, 775
fluency heuristic, 339
definition of, 339
information processing influenced by, 339
for moral judgment, 375
fluid intelligence, 84
folk biology, concepts in, 198–199
interdomain differences in, 199
reasoning influenced by, 199
foresight, thinking and, 1
forgetting fixation theory, 459–461
incubation effects in, 459
reminiscence in, 459–461
formal operations theory, 118
formal thought disorder, 675. See also thought disorders
activation spreading in, 681–682
capacity allocation in, 683–684
cognitive deficits and, integration of, 684
communication deviance, 690–691
context attention in, 682–683
as etymologically precise labeling, 676
excessive yielding to normal biases in, 683
historical distinctions for, 675
idea disassociation in, 675
information processing deficits in, 681–684
in new populations, 691
normal speech production model and, 676–678
ratings of, 675
selective attention in, 682–683
semantic memory retrieval deficits in, 682
speech abnormalities as, 675
word substitution in, 678
forward-driven medical reasoning, 740
Fosbury, Dick, 496
4-term analogies, 236
frame of mind, decision making and
drive, 314–315
emotion, 314–315
identity and, 314
metacognitive influences, 315
priming and, 314
framing effect, aging and, 655
Frederick the Great, 494
Freud, Sigmund, 3, 497
unconscious thought for, 3
frontal lobes. See prefrontal cortex, of brain
frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD), 72–73, 86
symptoms of, 72–73
Frost, Robert, 238
functional fixedness, 417
functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), 73, 78–80
advantages of, 78
brain networks under, 79–80
for CH game model, 355–356
gesture under, 637
for insight activation, 476–478
mental number line under, 591–592
multiple memory systems under, 186
numerical symbol development under, 595
of PBC game, 355
functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS), 80–81
for belief-bias effect studies, 81
functional optical imaging, 80–81
EROS, 81
fNIRS, 80–81
fundamental attribution error, 733
future research applications
for argumentation, 292–293
for Bayesian inferences, 33 (p. 817)
for business, reasoning in, 769
for business schools, goals for, 769
for cognitive neurogenetics, 103, 104
for computational models, for concepts, 202
for connectionist neural-network models, 64
for decision making, 316
for dual-process theories, for deductive reasoning, 129–130
for game theory, 359–360
for gesture, in thought, 644
for heuristics and biases approach, to judgment, 341
for inductive inferences, 33
for learning from others, among children, 523–524
for mental model theory, for deductive reasoning, 151
for motivated thinking, 403–404
for neuroimaging, 85
for non-symbolic quantitative thinking, 602
for normative theories, of reasoning, 18–20
for problem solving, 428–429
for process models, of higher cognition, 64
for similarity assessment, 169–172
for symbolic-connectionist models, 64
for symbolic process models, 64
for symbolic quantitative thinking, 602
for visuospatial thinking, 624
fuzzy set theory, 182
Galton, Francis, 492–493. See also genius
game theory. See also Nash equilibrium
as abstract, 346
alternating-offer bargaining in, 353–355
asymmetric matching pennies game, 351
behavioral, 359
belief-dependent utility for, 360
CH model for, 347–348, 348–358
components in, 347
definition of, 347
dominance solvable games, 351
entry games in, 351–352
epistemic requirements, 347
equilibrium points in, 347, 360
function of, 346–347
future research applications for, 359–360
insula imaging and, 355
PBC games, 348–351
PG model for, 346, 348, 358–359
player knowledge as part of, 347
precuneus imaging and, 355
rational choice theory and, 18
strictly dominant strategy in, 349
weakly dominant strategy in, 349–350
Gandhi, Mahatma, 497
Gazzaniga, Michael, 68
gender
genius and, 505
wayfinding by, 617
general intelligence perspective, genius and, 496–499
additional intelligences in, 497
advantages of, 496–497
intelligent personality in, 497
limitations of, 497–498
General Problem Solver (GPS), 419
means-end analysis with, 419, 420
subgoals with, 419, 419–420
general slowing theory, 651
limited time in, 651
simultaneity in, 651
The General Theory of Employment, Interest and Money (Keynes), 348–349
generic memory, 201. See also semantic memory
generic noun phrases, 193–194
Genetic Studies of Genius (Terman), 493
genius
blind variation perspective for, 501–504
during childhood, 495
contemporary vs. posthumous recognition of, 494
within correlational psychology, 505
CQ test for, 495–496
definitions of, 492, 493–496, 496, 504
domain expertise perspective for, 498–499
etymology of, 493
exceptional leadership as, 494
future research applications on, 504–505
gender and, 505
general intelligence perspective for, 496–499
heroes as, 494
heuristics perspective for, 499–501
historic research on, 492, 492–493, 505
historiometric methods for, 493
for Kant, 494
lab experiments for, 493
magnitudes of, 494
nature vs. nurture debate for, 498–499
outstanding creativity as, 494
phenomenal achievement as, 493–494
prodigious performance and, 495
savants and, 495
within scientific psychology, 504–505
superlative intellect and, 495–496
theory of relativity as, 494
wisdom and, 665
geometric models, in similarity assessment, 155, 157–160
abduction reasoning and, 163, 164
augmentation of, 161
featural models and, 163–165
hierarchical cluster analysis in, 163–164
hierarchical representations in, 164
limitations of, 160, 161
propositions in, 164
unstructured representations in, 164
Gestalt psychology, 7
candle problem in, 417
functional fixedness in, 417
grouping principle, 426
in heuristics and biases approach to judgment, 327
insight in, 475, 478, 479
insight problems in, 423
for mathematical problem solving, 417–418
nine-dot problem in, 417
perceptual principle, 426
problem isomorphs in, 420–421
in problem solving, 3, 416–418
representation formation, for problem solving, 421
solution searching in, 420–423
two ropes problem in, 417
gesticulation, 632
gesture, in thought, 631–632
action roots for, 642–643
in adults, 633
affect displays, 632
autism and, diagnosis of, 635
in children, 633
cognitive development and, 633
communication through, 636–638
conceptualization demands for, 639
conceptual knowledge through, 633
cross-linguistic differences in, 641
deictic, 639
EEG imaging for, 637–638
emblems in, 632
evolutionary time span for, 641–642
under fMRI, 637
functions of, 632, 636–640
future research applications for, 644
ideation from, 640
illustrators, 632
intention of, 638
internal representations and, 639–640
knowledge activation through, 640
language development and, 633–634, 634–635
learning and, 634–636, 644
lexical access facilitation, 638–639
for listener, 636–638
mathematical equivalence through, 633, 636
motor imagery and, 642–643
as nonverbal behavior, 631
for persistent delay diagnosis, 635
potential function of, 631
production of, 640–643 (p. 818)
prosodic level of, 641
regulators, 632
self-adaptors, 632
for speaker, 638–640
speaker knowledge and, 631
without speech, 637
speech roots for, 640–642
synergistic effects of, 644
at syntactic level, 641
task mastery and, in children, 635–636
teaching applications for, 637
Tower of Hanoi problem and, 632, 643
translation into speech, 636–637
as unspoken communication, 632–634
visuospatial metaphors and, 642
visuospatial thinking and, 639, 642, 644
working memory and, 639
Giere, R., 704
Gigerenzer, G., 128
Gladwell, Malcolm, 128
global perspectives, on decision making, 311–315
for decision framing, 311
for decisions regarding future, 312–313
frame of mind and, 313–315
for future events, 313
for mental accounting, 312
for repeated decisions, 311–312
for temporal discounting, 312–313
goal errors, 746–747
heuristics as source of, 746–747
goal paths, in inhibit deficit theory, 652
goal planning, categorization for, 178
Goldberg, E. (Goldman), 665
Gooding, D., 704
Goodman, Nelson, 171
Gorman, M.E., 704
Gould, Stephen Jay, 514
Graham, Martha, 497
grammar theory, 372–373
graphical displays, 620–623
categorization of, 620
for cognitive enhancement, 620
comprehension of, 621–623
format choice for, 621
iconic, 620
individual knowledge of, 623
information layout in, 622–623
interactions with, 623
production of, 620–621
relational, 620
graph matching, 53
Great Rationality Debate, 433, 435–436
individual differences in rationality, 437–438
irrationality in, 434
Meliorists in, 435–436, 449
Panglossians in, 436, 447
group cognition, 763
grouping principle, 426
for objects, in language, 551
for substances, in language, 551
group polarization, 574
guided activation model, 679–681
prefrontal cortex role in, 679–680
GUIDON program, 738
guilt
as moral emotion, 369–370
in PG model, 346, 358
Gut Feelings (Gigerenzer), 128
Handbook of Consumer Psychology, 756
hard cases, legal reasoning for, 722–724
decisions for, 724–725
multiple and inconsistent rules in, 723–724
selection effect in, 724–725
unclear rules in, 722–723
wrong answers from rules in, 724
harm/care domain, in moral judgment, 365
harmonicity, 783–784
harmony, in music, 776
melody and, 776
Hartmann, Stephan, 292
Heinz dilemma, 366
Hereditary Genius (Galton), 492–493
heroes, as geniuses, 494
Hesse, Mary, 238
heuristics
attribution substitution in, 373
Bayesian inferences and, 25, 26
bias-variance tradeoff with, 27
catalog of, 374
classification model, in medical reasoning, 739
for emotion, decision making and, 315
goal errors from, 746–747
intention errors from, 746–747
for judgments, 322–323
in moral judgment, 373–374
in moral reasoning, 373
for physicians, 373–374
in problem solving, 419
for sacred and protected values, 383
heuristics, for genius assessment, 499–501
advantages of, 500–501
BACON program, 500–501
individual difference variables, 501
limitations of, 501
research applications for, 500–501
Simon on, 500
heuristics and biases approach, to judgment, 322–323
aspiration levels in, 325
attribution substitution account for, 340
bounded rationality in, 324, 324, 327
causal base rate issue in, 336
cognitive illusion paradigm in, 327
conjunction fallacy and, 337
critiques of, 326
development history for, 341
under dual-process theory of reasoning, 328
future applications for, 341
Gestalt psychology as influence on, 327
historical antecedents to, 324–326
intuitive conceptions in, 325
logic of, 327
negative model for, 333–336
perception principles in, 326
positive model for, 328–333
probability in, 326
prospect theory and, 327
psychological structure of, 328
psychophysics principles in, 326
satisficing in, 325
signal detection model and, 325
surface structure of, 328
visual illusion paradigm in, 326–327
Hierarchical Bayesian models (HBMs), 29–30
for abstract causal knowledge theories, 30, 30
for empiricism, 30
for language, 30
for nativism, 30
hierarchical cluster analysis, 163–164
high-conflict dilemmas, 370
hints
implicit, 485
for insight, 485
hippocampal volume, schizophrenia and, 688–689
histones, 94
Hobbes, Thomas, 3
Holmes, Oliver Wendell, 725
horizontal precedent, in legal reasoning, 727
How to Solve It (Polya), 416
humans
prosocial tendencies among, 533, 534, 535
rationality and evolution for, 436, 436–437, 437
human mind
brain size as influence on, 530–531
cognitive ability of, 529
cognitive uniqueness of, 530–531
cultural influence on, 533–534
future research applications for, 537–538
historical research on, 529
language development and, 531–532, 533
Machiavellian intelligence of, 530 (p. 819)
module hypothesis for, 535–536
nonhuman minds compared to, 529–530
prosocial tendencies as influence on, 533, 534, 535
relational reinterpretation hypothesis for, 536–537, 537
role-based relational reasoning and, 536–537, 537
in social brain hypothesis, 530
in theory of mind, 534–535
Human Problem Solving (Newell/Simon), 418, 756
human society. See society, human
Hume, David, 3
causal learning for, 213
moral judgment for, 368–369
Hutcheson, Joseph, 723
hypermnesia, 459
hypotheses testing, 703–704, 705–706
confirmation bias in, 705
hypothesis-driven medical reasoning, 740, 740
hypothetico-deductive model, in medical reasoning, 737
iconic displays, 620
production of, 621
iconicity, principle of, 136–137
advantages of, 137
visual images and, 136
idea disassociation, in formal thought disorder, 675, 675–676
idea roadmaps theory, 467
fixation in, 467
path-of-least-resistance theory and, 467
problem solving and, 467
ideation, 465
brainstorming and, 465
convergent thinking and, 465
divergent thinking and, 465
from gestures, 640
identical knowledge components theory, 800
identity, decision making and, 314
tension from, 314
ignorance, arguments from, 282, 283–284
Bayes theorem for, 284, 285
inferences from nothing in, 286
pragma-dialectical theories for, 283
silence in, 285
ill-defined problems, 463
illusory inferences, in deductive reasoning, 142–143, 143
principle of truth and, 142, 142
illustrators, 632
imagery. See visual imagery
imaging genetics. See cognitive neurogenetics
imagining objects, in visuospatial thinking, 608–611
attention allocation for, 611
characteristics of, 608–609
in complex spatial tasks, 611–613
interaction of hands in, 610–611
mental precepts and, 609
mental rotation strategies for, 610, 610–611
nature of representations in, 609
neural basis for, 609–610
neuroimaging for, 609
object interaction and, 610–611
tacit knowledge in, 609
transformation of, 610
visual imagery in, 608–612
Imhotep, 492
imitation, as learning tool, 522
cultural transmission and, 572
emulation compared to, 522
exaggerated, 522
of intentional actions, 522
impasses, in insight problems, 483
implicit cognition, creativity and, 463–464
below-threshold activation in, 463–464
intuition and, 463
implicit hints, 485
implicit knowledge, for spatial tasks, 612–613
implicit learning, 803. See also non-language-mediated learning
from categorization, 186
neuroimaging for, 186
implicit memory, creativity and, 459, 463–464
for music, 778
inconsistency, in normative reasoning theories, 19
paraconsistent logics, 19
inconsistent equations, 425
incremented difficulty approach, 664–665
incubation, of insight problems, 483
incubation effects, of memory, 459
forgetting fixation theory and, 459
TOT resolution and, 461–462
individual differences
in CH model, 355–356
in connectionist neural-network models, with mapping, 58
in developmental thinking, in children, 517
in heuristics, for genius assessment, 501
in organizational behavior, biases in, 760
for spatial layout knowledge learning, 617
in visuospatial thinking, 619–620
individual differences, in rationality, 437–438, 448–449
for Panglossians, 438
for tripartite theory of rationality, 441–445
individual knowledge, 570
induction, 145–147
aging and, 658–659
analogy and, 235
categorical, 707
conditionals in, 146, 146–147
definition of, 145
essentialism and, 196
explicit, 146
inferences in, 22
intuitive, 146
as knowledge-dependent, 146
model representations of, 147
modulation principle in, 146
of schemas, 251–252
in scientific thinking and reasoning, 707
semantic information in, 145–146
inductive inferences, 2, 22. See also Bayesian inferences
abstract learnability questions, 29
applications for other disciplines, 31–33
with Bayesian methods, 22–23, 29
causal maps for, 28
cognitive development and, 29
constraints on, 29–30
in developmental psychology, 32–33
explanations and, 271
future applications for, 33
HBMs for, 29–30
iterated learning and, 29
origins of, 28–30
prior distributions in, 29
symbolic representations and, 30
inductive reasoning, in medical reasoning, 738
infants
arithmetic for, 592–593
auditory sequence discrimination by, 587
cross-modal mapping by, 588–589
event representation for, 518–519
magnitude processing by, 589–592, 601
mental number line origins in, 589
non-numerical cues for, 587–588
number representation by, 587–589, 588–589
numerical discrimination by, 586–587
numerical expectations of, 592–593
numerical quantities for, 587–588
object representation for, 518–519
quantitative thinking for, 586–593
inferences. See also analogical inference; Bayesian inferences; causal learning
abductive, 268
background knowledge and, in problem solving, 428
category learning and, 183, 186–187
causal, 215–218
from concepts, 458–459
conditional, 118, 122–123 (p. 820)
in deduction, 2
deductive, explanations and, 271
explanations and, 268–270
illusory, 142–143
inductive, 2, 22
intentions as, 382
invalid, in deductive reasoning, 141–142
language and, 546
in medical reasoning, 737
in mental model theory, 139–140
in principle of truth, 139–140
in rational models, 324
in reasoning, 2
inference learning, 183, 186–187
inferential concepts, 192–193
compositionality in, 192
comprehension and interpretation in, 193
information cascades, 573–574
information processing
context attention in, 682–683
in directional outcomes, 393–394
in dual-process theories, for deductive reasoning, 115, 116
fluency heuristic and, 339
in formal thought disorder, 681–684
in medical reasoning, 737
in mental representations, 37
in nondirectional outcomes, 396
selective attention in, 682–683
semantic memory retrieval deficits in, 682
in strategy-motivated thinking, 402, 402–403
with technology, 750
information systems, 764
in-group/loyalty domain, in moral judgment, 365
inhibit deficit theory, 652
attentional resources in, 652
goal paths in, 652
inhibitory cues, 216
inquiry learning approach, in science education, 713–714
insight. See also insight problems
“Aha” reaction, 476
analytic solving and, 475, 478
brain regional activation for, 476
conscious analysis of, 478, 478–479
through counterfactual mindsets, 488
CRA problems and, 476
creativity and, 487–488
current perspectives in, 486–487
definition of, 475
EEG imaging for, 476–478
enhancement of, 488
ERPs and, 480
fixation and, 480
under fMRI, 476–478
future research applications for, 487–488
in Gestalt psychology, 475, 478, 479
hints for, 485
historical research on, 476
knowledge selection and, 479–481
methodological developments for, 486, 486–487
neurofacilitation of, 488
neuroimaging studies of, 487
NRT and, 480
positive emotion and, 484
in prefrontal cortex, activation of, 477
after preparatory brain state, 485
problem solving and, 462–463, 475–478
productive thought in, 479
in real-world innovations, 487
at resting brain state, 485–486
unconstrained hypothesis generation for, 478
verbal overshadowing of, 478–479
warmth ratings and, 464
insight experiences, 462
insight problems, 423, 423–424
anagrams as, 482
attentional resources for, 484
classic, 486
fixation in, 483–484
in Gestalt psychology, 423
impasses in, 483
with implicit hints, 485
incubation of, 483
neural activity during, 482
nine-dot problem as, 417, 479
progress monitoring theory for, 481
radiation problem, 479–480
representational change theory and, 423, 481
restructuring of, 481–483
solving of, 462–463, 475–478
training intervals for, 484–485
working memory in, 483
instructional strategies, for knowledge transfer, 796–797
goals of, 796
instrumental rationality, 435
insula, in brain, 355
intellect, genius and, 495–496
IQ tests, 495–496
measurement of, 495–496
intelligence. See also general intelligence perspective, genius and; genius
CHC theory of, 443
cognitive bias and, 122
crystallized, 84, 443
early studies of, 3
fluid, 84
frontal lobes and, role in, 84–85
genius and, 496–499
IQ tests, 443–444
Machiavellian intelligence, 530
rationality and, 438
in tripartite theory of rationality, 443, 443
type 2 processes and, in dual-process
theory, 122
visuospatial thinking and, 606
intelligence quotient (IQ) tests, 443–444
false outcomes from, 497
genius level on, 495–496
reliability of, 495
intelligent personality, 497
intensional reasoning, 144
intensive care unit, decision making in, 747
intention, moral judgment and, 380–382
DDE and, 380
definition of, 380–381
as inferences, 382
moral luck and, 381
outcome bias and, 381
side-effect effect and, 381–382
intentional actions, imitation of, 522
intention errors, 746–747
heuristics as source of, 746–747
intermediate effect, in medical reasoning, 743–744
task recall in, 744
intermediate phenotype approach, in cognitive neurogenetics, 92
intermediate phenotypes, in schizophrenia, 688
internal representations, 424–425, 639–640
The International Handbook of Research on Conceptual Change, 710
intervention, 213
in Bayesian inferences, 226–227
in causal inference, 216, 217–218, 226–227
observation compared to, 217–218
placebo effects and, 216
intuition
in creativity, 464
implicit cognition and, 463
warmth ratings and, 464
intuitionist theories, for moral judgment, 367–370, 384
social institutionist model, 367–368
intuitive induction, 146
intuitive judgment, 128, 128–129
in heuristics and biases approach, 325
support theory and, 338
invalid inferences, in deductive reasoning, 141–142
Iowa Gambling task (IGT), 654–655
irrationality, 12
cognitive science and, 434
in Great Rationality Debate, 434
mindware and, 446
isolation costs, 574–575
rapid population change and, 574–575
iterated learning, 29
James, William, 41, 169
Jansky, Karl, 498
Jen wu chih (The Study of Human Abilities) (Liu Shao), 505
Johnson, Samuel, 496
Johnson-Laird, Philip, 3
judges
analogical reasoning by, 731
authority of law and, 731–732, 731–732
expertise of, 731–732
fact finding by, 730–731
precedent for, 727
unclear rules for, 723
on US Supreme Court, 733
judgments. See also heuristics and biases approach, to judgment; moral judgment
aging and, 653–656
attribution substitution account in, 340, 340–341
for behavioral finance, 765–767
from causal learning, 230
conjunction fallacy for, 337
dual-process theories for, 339–341
explanations and, 270
fluency heuristic for, 339
framing effect and, with aging, 655
heuristics research for, 336–337
IGT and, with aging, 654–655
intuitive, 128, 128–129
motivational factors for, with aging, 655
planning fallacy for, 336
properties of, 2
psychology of, development history of, 4
ratio bias in, 340
rational model for, 323–324
similarity assessment and, 170
support theory and, 338–339
thinking and, 1
judgment and decision making (JDM) view, 26, 27
for Bayesian inferences, 25–26, 26, 27
for moral judgment, 374
judgments of learning (JOLs), 662–663
juries
burden of proof, 729
decision making by, psychological model of, 730
deliberation instructions for, 729
explanatory coherence model for, 730
fact finding by, 729–730
facts for, 721–722
story model for, 730
trial instructions for, 729
Kahneman, Daniel, 4, 326, 339–340. See also heuristics and biases approach, to judgment
on conjunction fallacy, 337
entry games for, 351
judgment heuristics for, 322–323
visual attention for, 339–340
Kant, Immanuel, 3
genius for, 494
moral judgment for, 368
Keller, Helen, 543
Kepler’s Third Law of Planetary Motion, 500
Keynes, John Maynard, 348–349
Kincannon, A., 704
Kinds of Minds (Dennett), 441
Klahr, D., 704
Knobe effect, 381–382
knowledge
of basic science, in medical reasoning, 742, 745
in behavioral accounting, transfer prediction for, 768
clinical, in medical reasoning, 742, 745
compiled causal, in medical reasoning, 746
in creativity, cognition and, 457, 469–470
individual, 570
insight and, 479–481
medical, 738, 742, 742, 743–744
organizational structure of, 458
in representation of culture, mediation of, 572
tacit, 609
in transmission of culture, mediation of, 572
knowledge activation
in directional outcomes, 394–395
through gesture, 640
in nondirectional outcomes, 396–397
knowledge effects, in problem solving, 424–428
background, 427–428
inferences in, 428
organization of, in medical reasoning, 738, 742, 743–744
semantic alignment and, 428
knowledge encapsulation, in medical reasoning, 745
knowledge-learning-instruction (KLI) framework, 791
knowledge representation
anti-representationalism in, 48–49
in cognitive psychology, 47
content in, 47
in developmental psychology, 47
embodied cognition in, 47–48
featured representations, 42–43
knowledge transfer and, 802–803
mental representations, 36–39
situated cognition in, 48
spatial representations, 39–42
structured representations, 43–44
structure in, 47
knowledge transfer
with ACT-R, 793–794
of algebra, as symbolic language, 798, 803, 803
big ideas as part of, 791–793, 798
in cognitive load theory, 797
components of, 791–793
component testing of, 793–794
computational models for, 793–794
difficulty factors assessment for, 799
with domain-general approaches, 795–801
with domain-specific approaches, 795–801
educational data mining for, 799–800
element discovery for, 798–801
empirical analysis for, 798–799
identical knowledge components theory of, 800
instructional strategies for, 796–797
with KLI framework, 791
knowledge-based dependencies in, 797–798
knowledge representation and, 802–803
learning to think as, 789
methods for, 798–801
modularity of, 793–794
in pieces, 789
scope of, 789
small ideas in, 791–793, 798
for symbolic languages, 789
vertical transfer in, 793
Köhler, Wolfgang, 3
Krumhansl, Carol, 161
labeling, in language in, 562
for color, 549–550, 563
landmarks, wayfinding with, 617
language
in alignment-based models, structural accounts with, 167
arbitrariness of meaning in, 547–548
Broca’s area and, 68
categorization and, 189, 545
child development of, gesture and, 633–634, 634–635
in children’s developmental thinking, 513–514
code-switching in, 561
cognitive neurogenetics for, 102–103
color perception in, 549–550
concepts and, 189
core knowledge of, 545
cultural definitions with, 543
dedicated neural systems for, 79
development of society through, 577 (p. 822)
direct effects of, 548
dishabituation paradigm for, 548
empiricist perspective on, 544
for evidentiality, 555–556
explanations and, 272
generic noun phrases, 193–194
genetic polymorphisms and, 102
genotypic mutations and, 102
gesture and, 633–634, 634–635
HBMs for, 30
human cognition and, 531–532, 543
human mind development and, 531–532, 533
inconsistent encoding in, 547–548
indirect effects of, 548
inference and, 546
as innate, in humans, 532
interpretive flexibility of, 548
iterated learning for, 29
labeling in, 562
language-on-language effects and, 562, 563
learning to think with, 794–795, 801
linguistic intrusion and, 562
linguistic-relativistic view of, 544–545
memory and, for word meaning, 181
in module hypothesis, 536
for motion, 553–554
multiple interpretations within, 546–547
for number, 557–558
for objects, 550–552
permanent effects of, 548
phonetic restructuring of, 548–549
polysemy, 194–195
priming, with memory, 181
relational, in mapping, 247
relativity of, 548, 549
reorganization of thought and, 548–561
richness of, compared to thoughts, 547
similarity tests for, 563
for spatial frames of reference, 554–555
for spatial orientation, 558–561, 563
for spatial relationships, 552–553
for substances, 550–552
symbolic, 789
thinking and, 1, 801–802
as thought, 544–546, 546–547
for time, 556–557
transient effects of, 548
universalist perspective on, 544
varieties of, 532–533
Whorf-Sapir hypothesis for, 544–545, 561, 562
language-on-language effects, 562, 563
language-on-language interpretation
for objects and substances, 552
for spatial relationships, 553, 552–553
law, argumentation in, 279, 291–292, 293
burden of proof in, 279
dialectical model of, 279
facts and, distinction between, 721–722
pragma-dialectical theories of, 279
testimony and, 292
leadership, as genius, 494
learning. See also causal learning; feature learning; implicit learning; inference learning; iterated learning; learning from others, among children
in behavioral finance, 767
from categorization, 178, 179
in consumer behavior, 757
domain specificity in, 198
explanation in, 265–268
gesture and, 634–636, 644
intervention in, 213
learning to think compared to, 789
in marketing, 757
in organizational behavior, 760–761
Learning and Inference by Schemas and Analogies (LISA), 61–62, 82–84
analogical reasoning with, 241, 241
analog retrieval by, 241
behavioral data simulations by, 241
mapping connections in, 241
learning by doing principle, 797
learning from others, among children, 521–524
benefits of, 521–522
flexibility of, 523
future research on, 523–524
through imitation, 522
pedagogical goals in, 522
through social interaction, 524
through testimony evaluation, 523–524
learning from worked-out examples principle, 797
learning systems, in management science, 764–765
delayed feedback in, 764–765
learning to think, as knowledge transfer, 789
components of, 790–791
language development and, 794–795, 801
with NLM learning, 801
with symbolic languages, 790
legal categories, 725–726
legal decisions, 733
for hard cases, 724–725
legal procedures, 732–733
structural differences in, 732
Legal Realists, 720–721
unclear rules for, 723
legal reasoning. See also judges; juries
analogical reasoning in, 727–728
as artificial reason, 719
authority of law in, 731–732, 731–732
categorization in, 725–726
in civil law nations, 733
in common law nations, 733
confirmation bias and, 720–721
decisions under, 733
definition of, 720
distinction within legal system, 720
under English common law, 723–724
explanatory coherence model in, 730
fact finding and, 728–731
fundamental attribution error in, 733
for hard cases, 722–724
law and fact in, distinctions between, 721–722
legal categories in, 725–726
legal procedures and, 732–733
Legal Realists and, 720–721
moral intuitionist model for, 733
parameters of, 720
precedent in, 726–727
relational categories for, 726
rules for, 722–725
selection effect in, 724–725
in stare decisis, 727
story model in, 730
legitimacy effects, on directional outcomes, 393
lemma retrieval, 677
speech disorders and, 678
Leviathan (Hobbes), 3
Lewis, C.I., 211
linear presentations, in symbolic arithmetic, 599
linear reasoning, in visuospatial thinking, 619
linguistic intrusion, 562
linguistic-relativistic view, of language, 544–545
cues in, 545
Liu Shao, 505
localist representations, in connectionist neural-network models, 56
localizationism theory, 68
local perspectives, on decision making, 311–315
for decision framing, 311
for decisions regarding future, 312–313
frame of mind and, 313–315
for future events, 313
for mental accounting, 312
for repeated decisions, 311–312
for temporal discounting, 312–313
logic, 12–16. See also mental logics
account of consequence in, 14
in argumentation, 278
belief and, 12, 18
completeness of, 14
contradictions in, 13, 13
deontic, 15
in epistemic argumentation, 282
Fermat’s Last Theorem and, 13 (p. 823)
of heuristics and biases approach to judgment, 327
languages, 13
local consistency in, 12, 14–15, 18
modal, 15
in normal speech production model, 677
paraconsistent, 19
precision of intuitions in, 13
psychological role of, 15
as semantically valid, 14
soundness of, 14
as syntactically valid, 14
temporal, 15
thinking and, 2
truth functional connectives in, 147
logic problems, 3
long-term memory
analogical reasoning in, 244–245
BDNF gene in, 100–101
cognitive neurogenetics for, 100–102
concepts in, storage of, 201
dopaminergic genes in, 101
genetic polymorphisms in, 101–102
genotype scores in, 101
neurotransmitter-related polymorphisms in, 101
relational structure in, 244–245
retrieval gaps in, 244
schizophrenia and, 686, 689
loss aversion, 305–306
endowment effects and, 305, 306
research on, 306
status quo and, 305–306
trade reluctance in, 305
luck. See moral luck
Luther, Martin, 494
Machiavellian intelligence, 530
macropsychology
culture and, 579–580
definition of, 569–570
magical realism, 2
magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), 74
magnetoencephalography (MEG), 80
under Faraday’s Law, 80
magnitude processing, 589–592, 601
math proficiency and, 600
mental number line in, 589–590
management, in business. See organizational behavior
management science, 763–765
groups under, 765
information systems in, 764
learning systems in, 764–765
research for, 765
support system design, 763–764
mapping, in analogical reasoning, 46, 235, 246
alignability in, 246–247
analogical goals as influence on, 247
attentional focus in, 246–247
bistable, 247
coherence in, 247
complexity in, variability of, 249
computational level analysis of, 253
cross-mapping, 247
cross-modal, by infants, 588–589
developmental changes in, 248–249
in LISA, 241
relational language in, 247
relational shift and, 248
working memory and, 248
marker passing, 44
marketing, in business, 756–759
analogy research for, 759
brand extension in, 758
consumer behavior, 756–759
context for, 757
decision making in, 756–757
expertise in, 757
learning in, 757
preferences and, 758–759
research in, 758
similarity research for, 759
Marr, David, 4
analysis for, 4
computation for, 4
representation and algorithm for, 4
matching pennies game. See asymmetric matching pennies game
mathematical equivalence
for children, 636
gesture and, 633
mathematical problem solving, 417–418
math proficiency, magnitude processing and, 600
meaning, in mental representations, 38
grounding and, 38
from semantic networks, 38
sources of, 38
means-end analysis, in problem solving, 419, 420
measurements, numerical symbols for, 598
mechanistic explanations, 264
medical outcomes, status quo and, 306
medical reasoning
abductive models of, 739
abstraction in, 739
with AI models, 737–738
Bayes Theorem for, 737
causal reasoning as part of, 744–746
with clinical knowledge, 742, 745
clinical reasoning in, 740
compiled causal knowledge in, 746
cover and differentiate model in, 739
data-driven, 740–741
decision analysis approach in, 737
decision making in, 746–747, 747–748
deductive models of, 738
definition of, 736–737
early research on, 738, 737–738, 751
in educational settings, 748–749
errors in, 746–747
forward-driven, 740
future research applications for, 750–751
goal errors in, 746–747
GUIDON program for, 738
heuristics classification model in, 739
hypothesis-driven, 740, 740
hypothesis testing phase in, 739, 739–740
hypothetico-deductive model, 737
inductive models of, 738
inferential reasoning in, 737
information processing approach in, 737
in intensive care units, 747
intention errors in, 746–747
intermediate effect in, 743–744, 744
knowledge encapsulation as part of, 745
knowledge organization in, 738, 742, 743–744
medical knowledge and, nature of, 742
mental models in, 745–746
models of, 738–739
MYCIN program for, 738
NDM as part of, 747
NEOMYCIN program for, 738
PBL in, 748–749
PIP for, 737–738
problem solving in, 737, 740–741
with science knowledge, 742, 745
select and test model in, 739
similarity of cases and, 741–742, 741–742
during task transitions, 747–748
technology-mediated, 749–750
medication management, with technology, 750
Meehl, Paul, 326
Meerkat Manor, 533
meliorism, 435–436
Meliorists, 435–436, 449
melody, 775
harmony and, 776
as psychological construct, 775–776
memory. See also episodic memory; implicit memory, creativity and; long-term memory; procedural memory, for music performance; semantic memory; working memory
aging and, 660–662
analogical reasoning and, 245–246
capacity of, theories for, 3
collaborative, 571–572
concepts and, 178–179
creativity and, 459–462
directional outcomes, 395
domain specificity for, 200–201
forgetting fixation theory and, 459–461 (p. 824)
fragmentation of, within semantic memory, 181–183
hypermnesia, 459
incubation effects of, 459
in lexical decision tasks, 181
as meaning-based, in connectionist models, 201–202
metamemory, 662–663
multiple systems for, 185
organization of, 181–182
personal relevance and, by age, 661–662
priming in, with words, 181
reminiscence and, 459
TOT resolution and, 461–462
transactive, 571
word meaning and, 181
Mendel, Gregor, 494
mental accounting
in decision making, 312
preferences in, 312
mental line number, EEG imaging for, 591–592
mental logics, 12
cognition as proof theory and, 15
deductive reasoning and, 118
mental model theory, for deductive reasoning, 118–119, 134
analogy in, 136
artifacts in, 136
in cognitive science research, 136
conclusions in, guidelines for, 135
conditional inference in, 119
conjunction procedure in, 140
deduction in, 136–140
diagrams in, 135–136
discourse in, 136
foundations for, 134–135, 151
future applications for, 151
history of, 135–136
iconicity in, 136–137
inferences in, 139–140
perceptions in, 134
possibilities in, 137–138
premise guidelines for, 135
as proposition-based, 135
truth in, 138–140
mental number line
arithmetic and, 592–593
in Dehaene-Changeux model, 590
EEG imaging for, 591–592
encoding of, 591
fMRI imaging for, 591–592
in magnitude processing, 589–590
neural basis for, 590–592
origins of, in infants, 589
in prefrontal cortex, 591
under Weber-Fechner law, 589
mental precepts, visual imagery and, 609
mental representations, 36–39
academic developmental history for, 3
algorithmic level of, 37
analog, 39
behavioral approach to, 36
computational level of, 37
definition of, 37–38
elements of, 39
implementational level of, 37
information processing in, 37
meaning in, 38
of motion, language for, 554
represented world in, 37
representing world in, 37
of spatial orientation, language for, 559
states of endurance for, 39
symbols in, 39, 39
theoretical approach to, 36
in thinking, 1–2
types of, 39
mental road maps, 781
mental rotation strategies, 610, 610–611
mere exposure effect, 778
metacognitive influences, on decision making, 315
aging and, 662–663
metamemory in, 662–663
metamemory, 662–663
JOLs and, 662–663
metaphor
analogy and, 236–238
psychology research on, 238
for time, in language, 556, 556
visuospatial, 618
meter, in music, 776
metrics, of creativity, 456, 467–468
abstraction, 468
conformity in, 468
emergence, 468
outcome, 468
process, 468
microeconomics, rational choice theory and, 18
microgenetic studies, for number-line estimation, 596–597
Miller, Earl, 679
Miller, George, 68
mind-reading, 576
mindware, 445–446
crystallized intelligence and, 446
irrationality and, 446
minimality assumption, 160
mini-societies, 572–573
Miranda v. Arizona, 727
modal logics, 15
model-theoretic consistency, 14
modularity
in developmental thinking, 516
of knowledge transfer, 793–794
in spatial relationships, 559
modulation principle, in induction, 146
module hypothesis, for human mind, 535–536
for language, 536
Mohammed (Prophet), 494
monetary outcomes
decision making and, 303
risky decisions for, framing effects of, 303–304
status quo and, 305–306
monkeys, brain size for, 530
Monte Carlo methods, for Bayesian references, 33
moral cleansing behavior, 385
moral/conventional distinction, in moral judgment, 375–377
development of, 375
empirical issues with, 376
moral rules in, 375, 377
norms in, acquisition of, 377
signature conventional pattern in, 376
signature moral pattern in, 375
VIM in, 376
moral dilemmas, 377–380
emotion in, 380
preferred ethical position and, 380
test question for, 380
thought styles and, 380
trolley dilemma, 377–379
victim type and, 380
vividness of death and, 380
working memory and, 380
moral emotions
anger, 369
guilt, 369–370
moral grammar theory, 371–373
computational steps in, 372, 372
cultural bias in, 372
doctrine of double effect in, 372
foundations of, 371–372
grammar theory and, 372–373
as innate, 372
permissibility in, 371–372
trolley dilemma and, 377–378
moral heuristics, 373–374
catalog of, 374
critiques of, 374
“do no harm,” 373–374
moral intuitionist model, for legal reasoning, 733
morality. See also moral judgment
conventional, 366
definition of, 376
postconventional, 366
preconventional, 366
moral judgment
attentional processes in, 375
authority/respect domain in, 365
causal model theory for, 374–375
cleansing behaviors and, 385
cognitive-affective theory and, 368
contemporary research on, 385
cultural influences on, 365, 385–386
definition of, 364–365
dilemmas in, 377–380
domain-general cognitive theories, 374–375, 384
dual-process theory in, 370–371 (p. 825)
emotion as influence on, 368–370, 384
fairness/reciprocity domain in, 365
fluency processing in, 375
harm/care domain in, 365
heuristics in, 373–374
Humean approach to, 368–369
in-group/loyalty domain in, 365
as innate, 365
intention and, 380–382
intuitionist theories for, 367–370, 384
Kantian approach to, 368
moral/conventional distinction in, 375–377
moral grammar theory in, 371–373
moral psychology and, 364
norms in, acquisition of, 365
purity/sanctity domain in, 365
rationalist theory of, 366–367
reasoning in, 365
rules acquisition in, 365
sacred and protected values and, 382–384
sentimental rules theory in, 369
social institutionist model for, 367–368
as social relations regulatory, 366
in Western paradigms, 385–386
moral luck, 381
moral psychology, 364
moral reasoning, 365. See also moral judgment
heuristics in, 373
moral rules, 375, 377
conventional domains and, 375
morpho-phonological encoding, 678
motion, language for, 553–554
attention allocation for, 554
cross-linguistic differences in, 553–554, 554, 563
mental representations of, 554
motivated thinking
academic foundations of, 390–391
culture and, 577
directional outcomes in, 391, 391–395
emotion and, 404–405
future research applications for, 403–404
interactions among types of, 404
nondirectional outcomes in, 391, 395–397
outcome-based, 391–399
in prevention-focused individuals, 405
in promotion-focused individuals, 405
reasoning and, 404
strategy-based, 399–403
motivational systems, for moral judgment, 375
motor imagery, gesture and, 642–643
Mouselab, 353, 360
Mozart, Wolfgang Amadeus, 495
multiconstraint theory, 239
for coherence, in analogical mapping, 247
relational reasoning and, 239–240
multidimensional scaling (MDS), 40–41
bias in, 161
for compressed representations, 158–159
for object dimensions, 158
postulated representations from, 163–164
for quantitative representations, 159–160
in similarity assessment, 157–160
multiple memory systems, 185
under fMRI, 186
prototype extraction tasks for, 185–186
multi-source interference task (MSIT), 105
Murphy, Gregory, 177
music
attentional focus for, 784
auditory stream segregation for, 776
chords, 775
cognitive function influenced by, 779
composition, 782–784
definition of, 774–775
as discretionary, 774
dynamic attending in, 776
emotional response to, 778–779, 786
evolutionary perspective for, 785–786
expectancies in, 778–779
expertise in, 775
floating intentionality of, 775
function of, 774
future research goals for, 785–786
harmony in, 776
in implicit memory, 778
listening to, 775–776
melodies, 775
mere exposure effect for, 778
meter in, 776
neuroscience of, 786
passive exposure to, 785
performance of, 779–782
preferences for, 778
rhythms of, 775
sound attributes for, 776
structures in, 775, 776–778
tone in, 777
universality of, 775
musical structure, 775
through auditory scene analysis, 776
perception of, 776–778
through pitch perception, 776
sensitivity to, 777–778
tone in, 782, 784
music composition, 782–784
accessibility in, 782
auditory perception principles for, 783
cognitive constraints on, 782–784
harmonicity in, 783–784
psychophysical limits on, 783
rules of voice-leading for, 783
stylistic changes in, 782
tonal structure in, 782, 784
Mussweiler, Thomas, 333
MYCIN program, 738
Mynatt, C.R., 704
Nash, John, 347. See also game theory
Nash equilibrium
in asymmetric matching pennies game, 351–349
in entry games, 352
payoff predictions with, 350–351
nativism, 30
naturalistic decision making (NDM), 747
natural selection, rationality and, 436
The Nature of Explanation (Craik), 135
nature vs. nurture, for genius, 498–499
navigation, through environmental space, 613
allocentric representations in, 614
cognitive processes for, 613
egocentric representations in, 614
by gender, 617
processes in, 615–618
spatial representations in, 613–615
vision and, 613
wayfinding, 617–618
negative model, for heuristics and biases approach to judgment, 333–336
aggregate frequency in, 336
conservational perspective for, 335
critiques of, 335–336
evidential neglect from, 334, 334
frequency format for, 336
irrational judgments from, 334
probability judgments in, 335
strength-weight theory and, 334
validity issues from, 334–335
neglect, in negative model for heuristics and biases approach to judgment, 334, 334
NEOMYCIN program, 738
neural systems. See also prefrontal cortex, of brain
computational models of, 82–84, 85
for cultural cognition, 576–577
dedicated, 79
dedicated, for reasoning and language processing, 79
LISA, 82–84
for mental number line under, 590–592
for normal speech production model, 677–678
with schizophrenia, 685–689
for visual imagery, 609–610
neuroimaging
for arithmetic, with infants, 592
cognitive neurogenetics and, 104
in cognitive neuroscience, 73–81
for concepts, in studies, 188–189
cortical connectivity under, 85
electrophysiological, 74–77
for emotions, in moral judgment, 369
functional optical imaging, 80–81
future applications for, 85
for gesture, 637–638, 637
for implicit learning, 186
integration of methods, 85
mental number line under, 591–592
numerical symbols under, 595
for schizophrenia, 686
spatial functional, 77–80
structural, 73–74
temporal functional, 85
with TMS, 81–82
for visual imagery, 609
neuropsychology. See also cognitive neuropsychology
emotion and, in moral judgment, 369
neuroscience. See also cognitive neuroscience
of music, 786
social cognitive, 690
New Directions in Scientific and Technical Thinking (Gorman/Kincannon/Gooding/Tweney), 704
Newell, Allen, 3, 418, 418, 756
problem solving for, 418–420, 704
problem spaces for, 418–419
Newton, Isaac, 492
nine-dot problem, 417, 479
progress monitoring theory for, 424
nodes
in spreading activation, 44–45
in symbolic process models, 53
nonconfounding conditions, in causal power theory, 220
nondirectional outcomes, in motivated thinking, 391, 395–397
accuracy for, 395, 405
attribution effects on, 395–396
closure motivations in, 397
cognitive needs for, 405
cognitive processes influenced by, 397
evaluation complexity effect on, 396
information search effects on, 396
knowledge activation in, 396–397
recall effects on, 396–397
nonhuman minds, human compared to, 529–530
non-language-mediated (NLM) learning, 801, 803
educational design for, 802
nonmonetary outcomes, decision making and, 303
non-numerical cues, for infants, 587–588
non-symbolic numerical processing, 593–594
in arithmetic, 594
internal Weber fraction in, 593
numerical discrimination in, 593–594
under Weber-Fechner law, 594
non-symbolic quantitative thinking, 585, 586–594
arithmetic, for infants, 592–593
future research applications for, 602
limitations of, 601
magnitude processing, by infants, 589–592, 601
mental number line in, 589
numerical discrimination, by infants, 586–587
processing in, 586
nonverbal behavior, 631
normal speech production model, 676–678
context attention in, 682–683
feedback loop in, 677
lemma retrieval in, 677
logic consistency in, 677
at neural level, 677–678
selective attention in, 682–683
normative theories, of reasoning, 11, 11–12
artificial intelligence and, 19
Bayesian inferences in, 12
complex calculations and, 19–20
consistency conditions in, 12
decision making and, 11–12
descriptive theories and, 12
future applications of, 18–20
inconsistency and, 19
irrationality and, 12
in mental logics, 12
rationality and, 12
standards within, 11
Nosofsky, Robert, 161
notations, in symbolic process models, 52–53
Not by Genes Alone (Richerson/Boyd), 533
noticing, in creativity,