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date: 22 February 2020

Abstract and Keywords

The practice of medicine requires art as well as science. The latter argues for a deeper understanding of the mechanisms underlying disease processes and use of scientific evidence in making patient care decisions. The study of medical reasoning and thinking underlies much of medical cognition and has been the focus of research in cognitive science and artificial intelligence in medicine. Expertise and medical knowledge organization, the directionality of reasoning, and the nature of medical errors are intricately tied to thinking and decision-making processes in medicine. With the recent advancement of technology in medicine, technology-mediated reasoning and reasoning support systems will be a focus for future research. This chapter discusses these issues within historical and current research perspectives.

Keywords: medical reasoning, directionality of reasoning, knowledge organization, expertise, medical error, technology-mediated thinking

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