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date: 17 February 2020

Index

Index

(p. 1049) Page numbers followed by “f  ”, “t”, or “n” denote figures, tables, or notes, respectively.

A
Abbas, Mahmoud, 1032
abductive reasoning, 743
absorption, in work engagement, 57–60, 62. See also uncertainty absorption
work-related subjective well-being and, 180
abundance approach, 831–32, 831 [link]
accountability theory, 834
Ackerloff, George, 984
action growth, 918
Activation-Deactivation Adjective Check List, 159
activism. See also social movements, in organizations
high-risk, 994
institutional, 992
internal, 994
social movements and, 990–91
symbolism and, 624
activists, in organizations, 990–92, 994–96
networks for, 996
tempered radicals as, 995
acts of hope, 297
adaptability
in careers, 514–15
in crisis management, 885–86
psychological ambivalence and, 930
resilience and, 899–900, 902
in socialization, 540
adhocracy modality, for innovativeness, 708, 710
magnitude of, 711
adversity
creativity and, 106
resilience from, 897
affect. See also negative affect; positive affect
circumplex model of affect, 179
as context for creativity, 99–100
definition of, 224n1
in mindful organizing, 670–71
in organizational recovery, 868
trust and, in leadership, 451
in work engagement, 58
affective commitment, 32
to mindful organizing, 671
affective energy, 696–97
affective heterogeneity, 222
affective homogeneity, 222
affective mechanisms, 1038
symbolism as, 619, 623–24
affective neutrality, 60
affective perspective-taking, 465–66
affective states, self-efficacy and, 644
affirmative bias, 2–3, 1035
in strengths-based development for leaders, 786
agentic mechanisms, 1039
agreeableness, 35
airline industry, virtuousness in, 237
alexithymic organizations, 817
alienation, at work, 57
allophilia, 555
altruism
in JCT, 656–57
job design and, 660–61
prosocial motivation and, 30
relational coordination theory and, 404
ambivalence, psychological, 924–35
adaptability and, 930
boundary conditions for, 925
commitment and, 928, 935n1
creativity and, 929
definitions of, 925
degrees of resolution and, 931–32
development of, 925
dimensions of, 933
flexibility and, 931
future research for, 934–35
hotter/cooler cognition and, 933
management of, 934–35
moving away from, 926
moving towards, 926–27
negative approach to, 926, 933–34
openness to change and, 929–30
origins of, 924
paralysis as, 926
positive responses to, 925–26, 933–34
psychological approach to, 925
resistance as, 928
response mapping for, 931–34, 934 [link]
review of, 925–26
stability and, 931
traditional responses to, 926–30
trust and, 928–29
unfreezing and, 929
unlearning and, 929
vacillation and, 927
wisdom and, 930
ampliative cycles, of resourcefulness, 629–30, 638
Anderson, Ray, 957
anger
emotional management of, 820
forgiveness and, 248–49
during negotiations, 585–86
appraisal-related perspective-taking, 465–66, 470n1
appreciative inquiry (AI), 4, 740–41
constructionist principle in, 740
core principles of, 828
forgiveness and, 252
4-D model of, 741 [link]
IPOD and, 745
in organization-level stress interventions, 943
positive change and, 757
positive deviance and, 1020
positive emotions and, 171
in SOAR approach, 828
strengths-based development and, 740–41, 741 [link]
appreciative intelligence, 827
Aquinas, Thomas, 274
Arafat, Yasser, 1028
Aristotle, 232, 343
Golden Mean, 268
arrogance, 262
Artful Making: What Managers Need to Know About How Artists Work (Austin/Devin), 742
ascending reticular activating system (ARAS), 127
Ash, Mary Kay, 269n13
aspiration values
in negotiations, 585
in SOAR approach, 832
asymmetry. See positive asymmetry
athletic teams, collective efficacy in, 646
attachment, in relational coordination theory, 405
attachment theory, 91
IRC theory and, 161
in relational mentoring, 525
attention
definition of, 845
discrepancy triggering for, 845–46
scanning and, 845
(p. 1050)
in unexpected event management, 845–46
attention restoration theory (ART), 157–58
compatibility in, 157
directed attention in, 157
information processing in, 157
in organizational recovery, 870
attentiveness, in work, 60, 62. See also engagement, with work
Austin, R., 742
authentic followership, 776–77
authenticity, 774–75
awareness of, 774
behavioral aspect of, 774
components of, 774–75
as concept, 773
in emotional management, 817
relational orientation of, 774–75
trust and, 453–55
unbiased processing of, 774
work engagement and, 60
authentic leaders, 453–54
race as influence on, 782
authentic leadership, 773–82
ALQ for, 779
analysis of, levels for, 778
authentic followership and, 776–77
behavioral components of, 777
boundary conditions of, 777–78
cognitive components of, 777
embodied, 778
emotions as influence on, 777
empirical research on, 779–80
followers’ attitudes and, 775–76
future research for, 781–82
gender as influence on, 782
as goal-directed, 775
hierarchical linear modeling for, 780
humility and, 267
identity development and, 776
measurement of, 780
moral models for, 777
as multilevel process, 778
OCBs and, 779
practical implications for, 780–81
as process, 776
psychological capital of, 776
public confidence in, 773
as root construct, 775, 781
shareholder satisfaction and, 773–74
in strengths-based development for leaders, 787
theoretical evolution of, 775–77
trust and, 777, 779
values and, 777
Authentic Leadership Questionnaire (ALQ), 779
authentic self
in high-quality mentoring, 530
for stakeholders, 681
autonomy
creativity and, influenced by, 104
flourishing and, 127
good works construct and, 343
in JCT, 656
from job design, 658
passion and, 197
proactive behaviors and, 89
in relational job design, 33
work engagement and, 63
B
Badhwar, Ajay, 341
Baker, Wayne, 5
balanced experience inquiry, positive emotions and, 174
Becker, Gary, 980
behavioral activation system (BAS), 128
behavioral decision research, 592
behavioral economic models, 985–86
behavioral entrainment, 217
behavioral inhibition system (BIS), 128
behavioral integrity, 325–38
antecedents to, as moderated, 336–37
conceptualization of, 326, 326 [link] , 333
consequences of, as moderated, 333–36
contextual factors for, 335
during crisis management, 886–87
definition of, 325
empirical studies of, 327 [link]
employee attitudes on, 333–34
employee well-being and, 334
follower characteristics for, 335–36
follower outcomes of, 333–34
future research on, 337–38
individual attitudes for, 337
job performance behaviors and, 334
leader behavior and, 335
leadership perceptions and, 334
managerial outcomes, 334
measurement of, 326, 333
organizational culture and, 336
organizational outcomes, 335
as personality trait, 325
PLIS for, 333
trustworthiness and, 325, 334
behavioral models, 20
belief, hope and, 293
Bellah, Robert, 46, 508
benefit finding, 910
benevolence values
perspective-taking and, 464
prosocial motivation and, 35, 37
reciprocity and, 415
benevolent narcissism, 38
Bennis, Warren, 738
bereavement, PTG and, 911
Berger, P.L., 1005
best self, in high-quality mentoring, 529–30
bias
affirmative, 2–3, 1035
confirmation, 848
EI and, 206–7
ethnocentric, 1–2
negativity, 171
in POS, 1–2
towards positivity, 2–3, 6
from self-enhancement motives, 80
value, 1
among workgroups, 216
Big Five personality attributes, 233
biomimicry, 743
organizational sustainability and, 960
Blake, Robert, 738
blame, organizational healing and, 862–63
blind spots, in unexpected event management, 846, 851
Boland, R.J., 742
bootstrapping, organizational energy and, 693 [link]
boundary mobility, 716–21
commitment and, 720
empowerment and, 721
POS and, 720–21
thriving and, 721
boundary objects, 625
Bradley, Glen, 805
Breaking Through: The Making of Minority Executives in Corporate America, 561
broaden-and-build theory, 87
civility and, 443
extraversion and, 128, 130
flourishing and, 134
incivility and, 443
organizational justice and, 318
of positive emotions, 168–71
socialization and, 548n2
symbolism and, 623–24
virtuousness and, 234
Brown, N., 1004
Brundtland Commission, 954–55
Buchanan, R., 742
Burke, James, 345
Burke, Kenneth, 1028
burnout, with work, 58, 60, 63
emotional exhaustion in, 182
work-family dynamics and, as influence on, 601
work-related subjective well-being and, 182
business as agent of world benefit (BAWB) approach, 745
business ethics, 232. See also virtuousness, in organizations
CSR and, 341
OCBs and, 341
overview of, 341
positive, 340–50
whistle-blowing and, 341
(p. 1051) C
cache cycle, in relational mentoring, 524–25
callings, 2, 45–54
ability calibration and, 52
as action-oriented, 47
antecedents of, 49–51
capitalism and, development of, 46
careers as, 509
centrality of work and, 48–49
in Christian theology, 46
definition of, 46
development of, 50
economic stability and, 53
evolution of, 49–50
future research on, 52–54
idealism and, 45
identity theory and, 50
individualism and, 46
influences on, 50
intrinsic prosocial motivation and, 51
introspection as part of, 49
job involvement and, 49, 51
measurement of, 52–53
as mission, 47
as moral imperative, 53
in moral psychology research, 53
neoclassical, 52
in object relations theory, 50
origins of, 50
outcomes of, 51–52
parameters of, 48–49
passions and, 47
POS and, 45
positivity and, 45
as prosocial, 47
during Protestant Reformation, 46–47
qualitative studies on, 52
religion and, 46–47
sampling issues and, 52
as secular entity, 48
self-definition and, 48
self-fulfillment and, 48
self-reflection and, 49
social class as influence on, 50
in social learning theory, 50
in social reproduction theory, 50–51
sources of, 49–51
in theories of social representations of reality and, 50
as work orientation, 47–48
Calvin, John, 46
Cameron, Kim, 4
Campbell, David, 511
capability models
in emotional management, 814–18
for unexpected event management, 844–51
capacity building, 829
capitalism, callings and, 46
careers, 507–17
adaptability in, 514–15
as calling, 509
choices of, stages for, 511–12
content theories for, 510–11
Cross-Cultural Study of Contemporary Careers researchers, 516
definition of, 507
development models for, 511–12
as dream, 511–12
extrinsic dimensions of, 512
extrinsic success, 512
as fulfillment of potential, 508
future research applications for, 516–17
growth of, challenges to, 514–15
human development growth and, 508
identity from, 508
individual control of, 508
intrinsic dimensions of, 512
job satisfaction and, 509 [link]
literature overview, 508–12
locus of appraisal for, 513 [link]
mentoring in, 514, 520
metacompetencies and, 514
objective, 507
orientations toward, 509–10
passion for, 510
personal interpretation of, 508
personality types and, 511
positive meaning of, 507–8
as possibility, 515
process theories for, 511–12
prosocial outcomes from, 508
psychological success, 512–14
retirement and, 516–17
smart jobs and, 514
studies of, approaches to, 510–12
subjective, 507
synthesizing process for, 511
vocational choice and, 511
career development
in high-quality mentoring, 526
models for, 511–12
caring, 238
causality
relational coordination theory and, 405
virtuousness and, in organizations, 237–38
ceremony, in organizational healing, 863
chain-generalized reciprocity, 415, 420n1
change management, 729–30
Chappell, Tom, 514
character strengths, 235–36, 240n2. See also strengths-based development, for employees
classification for, 235
for global leaders, 366–79
humanity as, 372, 376
humility as, 261–62
humor as, 374, 376, 475
immersion as, 370
learning orientation for, 235–36
temperance as, 372–73, 376
transcendence as, 373–74
virtues and, 368 [link] , 1042
Character Strengths and Virtues: A Handbook and Classification (Peterson/Seligman), 742
charismatic leadership, humility and, 267
charismatic relationships, 35
charity, 236
cheerfulness, 235
Chouinard, Melinda, 514
Chouinard, Yvon, 514
Christian theology, 46
A Christmas Carol (Dickens), 727–28
circumplex model of affect, 179
citizenship behaviors, 36
civility, 439–46. See also incivility
biological foundations for, 445
broaden-and-build theory and, 443
communication and, 443
continuum of, 439
courtesy and, 440
CREW process for, 445
for customers as witnesses, 443–44
definition of, 439–40
emotional contagion and, 443
between employees, 444
future research for, 445–46
individual outcomes and, 440–44
interventions for, 444–45
in management literature, 439–40
manners and, 440
negative deviance for, 439
organizations influenced by, 443
politeness and, 440
positive deviance for, 439
positive emotions and, 440
practical applications of, 444–45
social development of, 440
teams and, effect on, 442–43
witnesses and, effect on, 442
Civility, Respect, and Engagement at work (CREW) process, 445
claiming, identity development through, 77
clan modality, for innovativeness, 708–9
Clifton StrengthsFinder (CSF), 356–57
Clinton, Bill, 205
Clinton, Hillary, 1027
closed ideas, 98
closeness, humor as result of, 478
cognition
as context for creativity, 99
forgiveness and, 249
hotter/cooler, psychological ambivalence and, 933
(p. 1052)
self-efficacy and, 99
sensemaking and, 99
social, 204, 206
cognitive affect, perspective-taking and, 465–66
cognitive engagement, 58
cognitive evaluation theory, 105
cognitive mechanisms, 1037–38
symbolism as, 619, 621–22
cognitive moral development, 321
cognitive perspective-taking, 465–66
Cohen, Ben, 514
cohesion, from organizational healing, 861
collaboration. See also organizational boundaries
commitment and, 720
core members in, 717
effectiveness of, 721–22
face-to-face endeavors in, 716
Knowledge Nomads and, 720
membership as part of, 715–20
multiple, 719
in organizational learning, 493
psychological safety and, 496
in social identity theory, 719
structure of, 718
workplace intimacy and, 425
collaborative interaction, 573
collaborative technologies, reciprocity and, 419–20
collective action, courage and, 311
collective capability, for mindful organizing, 664–65
collective compassion, 276
collective curiosity, 118–21
alternative explanations for, 121
potential for, 120–21
collective efficacy, as belief system, 642–49
in athletic teams, 646
decision-making as part of, 647–48
definition of, 643
in education, 646–47
among groups, 644–45
leadership and, 647–48
neighborhood health and, 645
outcomes of, 645–48
POS and, 642–43, 648–49
positive outcomes from, 643
predictors of, 645–48
research on, 643
social cognitive foundations of, 643–45
violence and, 645–46
collective emotions, 813–14
emergence mechanisms for, 813
emotional aperture and, 813–14, 819
emotional contagion in, 813
collective engagement, work engagement and, 60
collective identity, resourcefulness and, 637
collective mindfulness, 674n1
collective prosocial motivation, 39
collective resourcefulness, 826
collective vitality, courage and, 308
collectivism, 30
prosocial motivation norms, 34
Collins, J., 443
Collins, Jim, 373, 443
Collopy, F., 742
comfortable organizational energy, 695
comfort centered positive change, 753
commitment, 235. See also affective commitment
ambivalence and, 928, 935n1
boundary mobility and, 720
collaboration and, 720
in emotional management, 814
high-quality mentoring and, 531–32
in international peacemaking, 1031
intimacy and, 425
organizational boundaries and, 720
as proactive behavior, in careers, 86–87
in stress interventions, 946
subjective value of negotiations and, 580
work engagement and, 59
in workplace intimacy, 433
communal norms, in mentoring, 522, 525
in high-quality mentoring, 530–31
communication, positive, 566–76. See also integrative communication
characteristics of, 567 [link]
civility and, 443
collaborative interaction and, 573
as constructive interaction, 572–73
constructive interaction in, 573–75
during crisis management, 890
definition of, 567–69
evolution of, 567
examples of, 575–76
face-to-face, 567, 587n7
of forgiveness, 251
through humor, 480
ICTs for, 566–69
incivility and, 443
inclusiveness as part of, 568
integrative, 567–72
language use and, 567
relational coordination theory and, 400
respectfulness in, 568–69
supportiveness as part of, 569
therapeutic interaction in, 574
trust and, 452
trustworthiness and, 455
in unexpected event management, 848–49
compartmentalization, 78
compassion, 2, 273–83. See also suffering
biological foundation for, 283
coaching with, 277
collective, 276
competence and, 276
conceptual foundations of, 274–76
definition of, 765
delivery of, 278
designated roles in, 281
development of, 275–76
Dispositional Positive Emotion Scales, 276
EAP and, 281–82
as emotional labor, 282
empathic enabling for, 280
empathy and, 275
employee sensemaking and, 278
enabling of, 280–81
ESP and, 282
etymology of, 274
exogenous sources of, 860–61
extensiveness and, 276
formal programs for, in institutions, 281–82
forms of, 275–76
fundamental nature of, 274
future research on, 282–83
healing and, in organizations, 858–61
in health care settings, 277
institutionalization of, 281–82
Interpersonal Reactivity Index, 276
as intuitive, 273
in leadership development, 790–91
manifestation of, in work organizations, 275–76
MAP and, 281–82
measurement of, 276
negative repercussions of, 282
organizational context for, 279–82
organizing of, 766–67
patterns of, 278
performance of, 278
perspective-taking and, 462–64
positive change and, 764–67
as positive emotion, 170
positive outcomes and, 3
response in, 275
self, 283
after September 11, 2001, 277
spontaneous, 279
suffering and, 273–74
witnessing of, 278
in work engagement, 278–79
compassionate support, 238
compatibility, in ART, 157
competition
humility and, 264
innovation and, 703
leadership development and, 784
negotiations and, 593
as positive deviance, 703
complex adaptive systems, 832
complexity
in leadership, 429
in mindful organizing, 665
(p. 1053) componential theory of creativity, 99
dominant-relevant knowledge in, 99
task motivation in, 99
computer-mediated communication (CMC), 568–69
condensation symbols, 621–22
confidence, courage and, 311–12
confirmation bias, 848
confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), 139, 194
conflict
in work-family dynamics, 602
with workgroups, with shared positive affect, 216
conformity
courage and, 309–10
as pressure, 216
connections. See high-quality connections
connective leadership, 429
connectivity, POS and, 4
conscientiousness, 35–36, 135, 264
conservation of resources theory, 63
energy and, 161–62
flourishing and, 132
intrinsic energetic resource and, 161
organizational recovery and, 868–69
vigor and, 162
constructionist principle, 740
constructive accountability, 834
constructive growth, 917
constructive interaction, 572–75
conversation as, 573–74
future orientations in, 573–74
narrative vision in, 574–75
solution focus in, 572–73
construct validations
in mindful organizing, 673–74
for organizational recovery, 870
contact hypothesis, 254–55
containment strategies, for unexpected event management, 849–50
cosmology episodes in, 850
for crises, 884
content, in socialization, 538–40, 543
in mediation, 540
content theories, for careers, 510–11
contextual prosocial motivation, 29, 41n1
contingency argument, 402, 404
contingent reward leadership, 89–90
continuity, in OI, 685
control, in work engagement, 64. See also autonomy
positive change and, 752
conversation, as constructive interaction, 573–74
cooperation
humor and, 476
shared positive affect and, 216
workplace intimacy and, 433
coordination
courage and, 311
as energy-in-conversation, 401
expertise, 401
in relational coordination theory, 401
role-based, 401
Copperrider, David, 828
core self-evaluations (CSEs), 126, 130–31, 131 [link]
corporate downsizing
hope and, 297
organizational justice after, 316
virtuousness after, 236–37
corporate social responsibility (CSR), 233. See also virtuousness, in organizations
business ethics and, 341
justice as result of, 371
philanthropy and, 40
prosocial motivation and, 40
correspondence theory, 666 [link]
corrosive organizational energy, 695
counseling, forgiveness and, 249
courage, in organizations, 304–14
collective action and, 311
collective vitality and, 308
confidence and, 311–12
conformity and, 309–10
constructive opposition and, 307
coordination and, 311
definition of, 306–7
as difficult virtue, 305–13
dispositional variables for, 306
dissent and, 310
as emergent activity pattern, 307–8
emotions and, 311
ethical outcomes and, 313
excessive, 376
experimentation and, 312
forms of duress and, 308–9
among global leaders, as character strength, 370–71, 376
heroism and, 308
innovation and, 312
leadership and, 312
moral outcomes and, 313
narratives of, 307
obedience and, 309–10
proactivity and, 310–11
prosocial behavior and, 310–11
self-efficacy and, 311–12
silence and, 310
symbolism and, 618
trust and, in leadership, 452–55
Values in Action survey, 313
voice and, 310
courtesy, civility and, 440
craft narratives, 75–76
creativity, 97–106
adaptation and, 97
adversity and, 106
affect as context for, 99–100
ambivalence and, 929
autonomy and, 104
closed ideas and, 98
cognition as context for, 99
competition as influence on, 101–2
componential theory, 99
contexts as determinants of, 98–105
of coworkers, 101–2
cultural influences on, 103
definition of, 97
discretion as influence on, 104
evaluation of, 104
extraversion and, 129–30
feedback and, 104
future research on, 105
goals and, 104
humor as influence on, 474, 480–81
identity integration and, 103
innovation and, 98
intrinsic prosocial motivation and, 37, 99
in JCT, 654–56
job complexity and, 103–4
job dissatisfaction and, 106
job requirements and, 104
LMX theory and, 100
moods as influence on, 106
motivation and, 99
negative affect and, 100
novelty and, 98
open ideas, 98
organizational change and, 97
organizational literature, 97
as outcome, 98
parameters of, 98
positive affect and, 100
as positive deviance, 97, 439
rewards as influence on, 105
self-efficacy and, 99
sensemaking and, 99
shared positive affect and, in workgroups, 220
Simmelian tie and, 102–3
social contexts for, 100–103
within social networks, 102–3
stress as influence on, 104–5
task contexts as influence on, 103–5
time pressures and, 104–5
transformational leadership theory, 100
usefulness and, 98
work engagement and, 62
workplace expectations and, 104
crisis management, 856–58, 882–92
adaptation in, 885–86
behaviors during, 886–87
containment as factor in, 884
damage control as part of, 884
data filtering, 886–87
definition of, 883–84
demonstration of concern during, 890
effective communication during, 890
future research for, 891–92
incentive failures in, 885
integration failures in, 885
leadership orientations in, 884–91
(p. 1054)
learning failures in, 885
learning in, 884–85
perspective-taking in, 888
phases of, 883–84
possibility assessment as part of, 887–88
preparation in, 883–84
prevention in, 883–84
recovery in, 884
reflection in, 885–86
reliable action during, 891
risk assessment in, 889
root causes of, 887
scanning failures in, 885
scenario forecasting in, 889
sensemaking in, 887
after September 11, 2001, 882
signal detection in, 883
sources for learning during, 886
technology for, for complex information, 888–89
trust expectations in, 889–90
vulnerability and, 889
critical management studies (CMS), 966–68
POS and, 966–67
critical theory, 965–76
CMS and, 966–68
denaturalization and, 967
elements of, 968 [link]
Frankfurt school and, 966
performativity and, 967
reflexivity and, 967–68
Cross-Cultural Study of Contemporary Careers researchers, 516
crossover, in work-family dynamics, 601, 609–11. See also spillover-crossover model, for work-family dynamics
definition of, 609
emotional contagion in, 610
empathy in, 609–10
mimicry in, 610
types of, 610–11
cross-race developmental relationships, 561–62
cue labeling, by leaders, 117–18
culture, as organizational influence
on creativity, 103
for emotional recognition, 209
in humor, multicultural contexts for, 477
for incivility, 446
in Japan, among global leaders, 370–71
on positive change, 764, 769–70
in social movements, 993
on suffering, notice of, 280
on workplace intimacy, 426
curiosity, in organizational life, 110–22. See also individual curiosity
academic emphasis on, 110
Berlyne’s typology of, 112–13
biological foundation of, 113
as catalyst, 119–21
collective, 118–21
definition of, 111–13
diversive, 112–13
engagement with work from, 120
ESM for, 121
as fundamental human motivation, 111
future research on, 121
individual, 113–18
information theories of emotion and, 112
joint, 119
mediated model of, 113, 114 [link]
mythological references to, 122n1
negative affect and, 112–13
openness to experience and, 118
as personality trait, 111, 113–15
for philosophers, 110
positive affect and, 112–13
as quality of organization, 119
for scientists, 110–11
simulations of, 119
social energy and, 121
as social fabric, 120
sociological research on, 120
specific, 112–13
types of, 112
use of term, in literature, 122n2
curvilinear relationships, psychological capital and, 23
customer relations, humor and, 477–78
in health care settings, 477–78
cynicism, 182
D
daily subjective well-being, 184–86
diary research in, 184–85
DRM and, 185–86
damage control, in crisis management, 884
day reconstruction method (DRM), 185–86
as assessment measure, 185–86
decision-making, in collective efficacy, 647–48
dedication
in work engagement, 57
work-related subjective well-being and, 180
defensive avoidance, 818
democracy, reciprocity and, 413
denaturalization, critical theory and, 967
Denton, E.A., 1003
dependence, workplace intimacy and, 432
depression, work-family dynamics influenced by, 601
The Design of Business (Martin), 742
design thinking movement, 742–43
abductive reasoning in, 743
development. See organization development
developmental perspective, in positive identity, 71
developmental theory, in negotiations, 593
deviance. See positive deviance
Devin, L., 742
Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM), 742
diagnostic organization development, 746
dialogue, in integrative communication, 569–70
Dickens, Charles, 727–28
Dictionary of Occupational Titles (DOT), 131, 655
differentiation, in strategic paradoxes, 802 [link] , 803–6
difficult virtues, 305–13. See also courage, in organizations
future research on, 309–13
in workplace, 307–9
directed attention, 157
direct reciprocity, 413 [link] , 414
discernment, in unexpected event management, 846
Discovering Design (Buchanan/Margolin), 742
discretion
creativity influenced by, 104
in good works construct, 345
dispositional affect, 582
dispositional empathy, 321
Dispositional Positive Emotion Scales, 276
dispositional values, 29
disruptions, 858
dissent, courage and, 310
distributed leadership, 429
diversity, in organizations, 552–62. See also gender; minority networking groups
allophilia and, 555
conditions for, 556–60
cross-race developmental relationships and, 561–62
definition of, 553
emotional management and, as influence on, 820
group-level moderators for, 557
group performance and, 555–56
impression management strategies for, 558
individual-level moderators for, 557–58
intergroup equality and, 554, 559–60
intergroup relations, 554–55
personality characteristics and, 558
positive approach to, 552, 560–62
research findings for, 553–56, 560–62
task-level conditions for, 558–59
(p. 1055)
value-in-diversity hypotheses, 555
work-level conditions for, 558–59
diversive curiosity, 112–13
divestiture, in socialization, 544
double-loop learning, 887
downsizing. See corporate downsizing
dream careers, 511–12
Drucker, Peter, 745
dual identification, 78
Dutton, Jane, 4
dynamics. See generative dynamics
dynamic change phenomenon, 746–47
dynamism
EI and, 210
mindful organizing and, 665
E
The Ecology of Commerce (Hawken), 957
economic models, 979–87
behavioral, 20, 985–86
domains and, 979
human nature as influence on, 983
prudence in, 981
rational choice theory for, 980–82, 984
Edelman Global Trust Barometer, 449
Edison, Thomas, 706–7
education, collective efficacy in, 646–47
education hypothesis, 254–55
Edwards, John, 205
efficacy. See also collective efficacy, as belief system; self-efficacy
as future-oriented, 643
as psychological capital, 18
in social cognitive theory, 643
work engagement and, 57, 64
effort-recovery model (ERM), 868
ego depletion models, 868–69
ego-depletion theory, 156–57
biological foundations in, 156–57
egoism
prosocial motivation and, 30
reciprocity and, 416–17
elevation, 2
from organizational justice, 320
in psychological safety, 498
Ely, Robin, 561
embodied authentic leadership, 778
emerging business opportunity (EBO), 803
Emerson, Ralph Waldo, 293
emotions. See also collective emotions; emotional management, strategic change and; positive emotions
authentic leadership influenced by, 777
collective, 813–14
courage and, 311
definition of, 224n1
forgiveness and, 248–49
in individuals, 812–13
information theories of, 112. See also moods
in leadership development, 790
management of, strategic change and, 812–21
in mindful organizing, 670
perception of, strategic change and, 812–21
perspective-taking influenced by, 464
positive, 168–75
symbolism and, 623–24
emotional aperture, 813–14, 819
emotional balancing, 814–15, 821
emotional capability, 814
emotional contagion
as character strength, for global leaders, 372
civility and, 443
in collective emotions, 813
crossover and, in work-family dynamics, 610
energetic arousal and, 160
HQCs and, 390
incivility and, 443
job design and, 660–61
shared positive affect and, in workgroups, 218
emotional control, 207–8
social, 208
emotional engagement, 58
emotional exhaustion, 182
emotional intelligence (EI), 201–11
ability models of, 203
assessment of, 202–4
assumptions about, 204–5
biases and, 206–7
communication and, 207
conceptualization of, 202–4
as deliberate, 207
deliberate processing in, 209
development history of, 205
dynamism and, 210
emotional control and, 207–8
emotional displays, 206–7
emotional recognition and, 207–9
EQ-i and, 203
flexibility of, 210
future research on, 210–11
general abilities of, 207–10
incivility and, 446
integrative models of, 203
as intuitive, 207–10
MEIA and, 203
mental processes with, 207
mixed models for, 203
in mixed-motive environments, 206–7
in negotiations, 583–84
nonsocial implications of, 205
organizational outcomes, 202
processing types of, 207–10
psychology of, 203–4
salary increases influenced by, 202
social, 201, 208 [link]
social cognition, 204, 206
social context of, 203–5
social outcomes, 204–6
social skills and, 202
SREIT and, 203
transformational leadership and, 202
emotional labor, 282
emotional management, strategic change and, 812–21
in alexithymic organizations, 817
for anger, 820
antecedents of, 821
asymmetry in, 819–20
authenticity in, 817
balancing as part of, 814–15, 821
barriers to, 818–20
capability in, 814–18
commitment in, 814
cultural diversity as influence on, 820
defensive avoidance and, 818
emotional information in, 818–19
empathy in, 815–16
encouragement in, 816–17
future research for, 820–21
heedfulness in, 815–16
hope in, 816–17
innovation and, 812–15
love and, as influence on, 818
playfulness in, 817–18
positive emotions and, 814
PRI and, 818–19
psychological safety and, 818
reconciliation in, 816
sympathy and, 816
Emotional Quotient Inventory (EQ-i), 203
emotional recognition, 207–9
cultural contexts for, 209
social, 208
emotional stability, 130
emotional well-being, WFE and, 606
empathetic sharing, 221
empathy
bottom-up emotional response to, 145–46
compassion and, 275, 280
crossover and, in work-family dynamics, 609–10
dispositional, 321
emotional aspects of, 148
in emotional management, 815–16
in HQCs, 389–90
imitative aspects of, 148
monitoring mechanism in, 145
organizational justice and, 320
perspective-taking and, 463
positive change and, 766
as positive emotion, 170
(p. 1056)
in relational job design, 34
in theory of mind, 143–44, 147–49
top-down emotional response to, 146–48
employee assistance program (EAP), 281–82
employee behaviors. See also knowledge workers, in relational coordination theory; noncore workers, in relational coordination theory
behavioral integrity and, 327 [link]
prosocial motivation as influence on, 29
employee error, 251
employee support program (ESP), 282
employee well-being, 232
behavioral integrity and, 334
empowerment
boundary mobility and, 721
in high-quality mentoring, 531
organizational boundaries and, 721
from PTG, 918
trust and, 457
encouragement, in emotional management, 816–17
endogenous cycles, of resourcefulness, 631–32, 638
energetic arousal, 159–60
Activation-Deactivation Adjective Check List and, 159
creative outcomes and, 159–60
emotional contagion and, 160
mood convergence in, 159–60
energy, 155–64. See also attention restoration theory; energetic arousal; organizational energy
ART and, 157–58
conservation of resources theory and, 161–62
ego-depletion theory and, 156–57
energetic arousal, 159–60
fatigue, 155
flow and, 155
IRC and, 160–61
kinetic, 163
literature review on, 156–57
physiological, 163
POS and, 155–56, 162–64
positive, 163
potential, 163
self-determination theory and, 158–59
subjective, 163
subjective vitality and, 155
in work engagement, as component of, 57, 60, 62–63, 155
workplace intimacy and, 432
zest and, 155
energy states, 695
engagement, with work, 56–66. See also intimacy, in workplace
absorption in, 57–60, 62
affect in, 58
affective neutrality and, 60
alienation at work and, 57
analysis levels for, 65–66
attention and, 60, 62
authenticity and, 60
autonomy in, 63
burnout and, 58, 60, 63
cognitive, 58
collective, 60
commitment and, 59
compassion in, 278–79
in conservation of resources theory, 63
as construct, 59–60
construct development for, 57–59
contextual moderators, 65
creativity and, 62
dedication as component of, 57
definition of, 57
efficacy as component of, 57, 64
emotional, 58
energy as component of, 57, 60, 62–63, 155
extra-role behaviors, 61–62
groupthink and, 62
identity development in, 64
in-role behaviors, 61–62
integrative communication and, 572
involvement as component of, 57
in JD-R model, 64
job satisfaction and, 59
locus of control as component of, 64
longitudinal designs for, 65
manager influence on, 63–64
MBI for, 57–58
measures of, 64
mindfulness and, 61
organizational commitment and, 59
in PANAS, 58
personal flexibility and, 56
physical, 58
POB outcomes, 61–63
POS and, 56–57, 61–64
as psychological presence, 57
psychological safety and, 63
as psychological state, 56
self-esteem and, 64
shifts in, 60
social impact of, 64
social loafing, 62
strengths-based development of, with employees, 353–54
subcomponents of, 64–65
subjective well-being and, 178
success and, implications of, 57
sustaining of, 60–61
theoretical framework of, 65 [link]
in UWES, 58
vigor as component of, 57
workaholism and, 63
work breaks and, 61–62
workday design and, 61
work-related subjective well-being and, 180–81
enhancement, in work-family dynamics, 602
entrepreneurial passion, 194–95
joy in, 194
subjective vitality in, 194
Entrepreneurial Passion Scale (EPS), 195
entrepreneurship. See also social entrepreneurship
symbolism and, 618
envy, in workgroups, 223
equality. See intergroup equality
equity sticks, 635
ethical organizations, 734
ethics, 233. See also unethical behavior; virtuousness, in organizations
in business, 232
courage and, outcomes for, 313
leadership development and, 784–85
as values-based, 350
ethnocentric bias, 1–2
eudaemonism, 3, 233–34. See also virtuousness, in organizations
humility and, 267
POS and, 8
positivity and, 3
Euspsychian Management (Maslow), 738
eustress, 940
evaluative perspective, in positive identity, 71
evolutionary theory, 412
excessive courage, 376
excessive transcendence, 376
exchange paradigms, 522
excuse research, 289
existential hope, 292
expectancy theory, 86
experience. See openness to experience
experience-based leadership development, 784
experience sampling methods (ESM), 121
experimentation
courage and, 312
organizational learning and, 493
psychological safety and, 496
expertise coordination, 401
exploratory factor analysis, 194
externally directed positive change, 753–54
externally open behaviors, 755
extra-role behaviors, 61–62
in proactivity, 85
extraversion, flourishing and, 126–30
ARAS and, 127
BAS and, 128
biological foundations for, 127
BIS and, 128
broaden-and-build theory and, 128, 130
creativity and, 129–30
(p. 1057)
impulsivity and, 127
leadership and, 129
learning and, 129
mechanisms for, 128 [link]
positive evaluations of, 128–29
social relationships and, 129
extreme relational orientation, 583
extrinsic career success, 512
extrinsic prosocial motivation, 36
rewards for creativity and, 105
eye-tracking, positive emotions and, 169
Eysenck, H.J., 128
F
face-to-face communication, 567, 587n7
failure, preoccupation with, 665, 670–971
fairness, reciprocity and, 417
faith, 236
hope and, 293
false synergies, 805
fatigue, 155
feedback. See also negative feedback
creativity and, 104
proactive behaviors and, 93
in relational job design, 33
field theory, 1029
Fights, Games and Debates (Rapoport), 1031
Fiorina, Carly, 373
flexibility
ambivalence and, 931
cognitive, in shared positive affect, 216
of EI, 210
from organizational healing, 861–62
in positive strategies, 825–26
psychological, 944
work engagement and, 56
flourishing, 125–35, 1036. See also extraversion, flourishing and; stakeholders, in OI
autonomy and, 127
broaden-and-build theory and, 134
conscientiousness and, 135
conservation of resources theory and, 132
definition of, 125–26
extraversion and, 126–30
future research for, 133–34
goals and, 132
intrinsic prosocial motivation, 127
job characteristics and, 131–32
job satisfaction and, 126
literature of, 126
mean level changes and, 125
mentoring as influence on, 133
meta-analytic work for, 127
motivation influenced by, 131
natural environment and, 959–61
in OI, 679
organizational sustainability and, 959–61
personality as trait for, 126
in POS, 1, 3, 126
positive emotions and, 134
PTG and, 911
relational mentoring and, 522
self-consistency theory and, 131
self-determination and, 126–27
sociability and, 127
of stakeholders, in OI, 678–87
use of resources and, 132–33
work as determinant for, 126
flow, 155
Folkes, Valerie, 443
Follett, Mary Parker, 401
followers. See also leader-follower relationships
authentic followership, 776–77
behavioral integrity for, 333–36
humor for, between leaders, 479–80
forecasting scenarios, in crisis management, 889
forgiveness, 238, 244–56
anger and, 248–49
appreciative inquiry and, 252
cognition and, 249
at collective-group level, 248, 252–54
communication of, 251
contact hypothesis for, 254–55
counseling and, 249
as culture, 251–52
definition of, 244
education hypothesis for, 254–55
emotions and, 248–49
empathy and, 253–54
employee error, 251
forgivers and, 245, 255
forms of, 245, 246 [link]
future research on, 254–55
general properties of, 244–45, 248
illocutionary force and, 251
individual-to-individual configurations of, 245–46
as intentional response, 245
intergroup, 248, 253
at interpersonal level, 248–50, 255
intervention models and, 249
intrapersonal, 255
mental health benefits and, 250–51
as multilevel concept, 245
offenders and, effect on, 250–51
at organizational level, 251–52
organization-initiated offenses, 245
organization-to-individual configurations of, 248
personality and, 249
positive outcomes and, 3
pragmatic mode of, 252
as process, 249
at relational level, 249–51
restorative justice and, 250
rumination and, 249
sociopolitical, 253
transcendent mode of, 252
truth-and-reconciliation process, 253–54
as unconditional, 248
as virtue, 244
forgivers, 245, 255
formal mentoring, 520
Foucault, Michel, 343
frame innovation, 704
Frankfurt school, 966
free-rider problem, 216
Friedman, Milton, 1010
From the Ground Up: Mennonite Contributions to International Peacebuilding (Lederach/Sampson), 1031
Frost, Peter, 765
fulfillment, personal, 1036
callings as, 53
career as, 508
as self-fulfillment, 48
functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), 138
G
Gadiesh, Orit, 117
Galarraga, Amando, 231
Gatto, John Taylor, 1022
gender
authentic leadership influenced by, 782
negotiations and, as influence on, 582, 587n4
proactive behaviors and, 90
relational coordination theory and, 405
salaries influenced by, 559–60
in work-family dynamics, 606
workplace intimacy as influence on, 434
generalized exchange, 412
generalized reciprocity, 412–13, 413 [link]
in chains, 415, 420n1
in groups, 414–15
in networks, 414–15
The General Theory of Employment, Interest, and Money (Keynes), 983
generative dynamics, 3–4, 1037
in mentoring, 522
generosity, 235
George, Bill, 372
Gerstner, Lou, 373
Ghosn, Carlos, 370
Giacalone, R.A., 1002
Gillies, James, 111
global chemical management service provider, 835
global leaders, character strengths for, 366–79
aesthetic appreciation as, 374
antecedents of, 375 [link]
competencies of, 366–67
as core virtues, 377 [link]
courage as, 370–71, 376
(p. 1058)
from development experiences, 375
emotional contagion and, 372
excessive prudence as, 376
facilitators of, 374–75
future research for, 376–78
in heterogeneous world, 369
humanity as, 372, 376
humor as, 374, 376
immersion as, 370
inquisitiveness among, 369
interdependencies among, 369
in Japanese culture, 370–71
justice as, 371–72
knowledge among, 369–70
moderators of, 375 [link]
positive performance and, 369–74
in risk societies, 367
SeitenWeschel as, 375
social intelligence as, 372
spirituality as, 374
temperance as, 372–73, 376
transcendence as, 373–74
wisdom as, 367, 369–70
global prosocial motivation, 29
goals
creativity and, 104
flourishing and, 132
Golden Mean, 268
Good to Great (Collins), 443
good works construct, positive business ethics and, 340–47
aesthetic beauty and, 342–43
autonomy and, 343
descriptive grounding of, 344–47
discretion in, 345
employee poaching, 343
for minority networking groups, 343
model of, 347–48
moral identity in, 347
moral imagination and, 347–48
moral praiseworthiness, 342, 344–45
in Nike, 346
normative grounding of, 340–44
OCBs, 345–46
positive deviance in, 345–46
prototypical, 346–47
in SIM, 348
thick self in, 347–48
thin self in, 347–48
virtues in, 343
Grant, Hugh, 379
Grant, Peter, 957
granting, identity development through, 77
gratitude, 238
organizational justice and, 320–21
perspective-taking and, 470
positive emotions and, 173
reciprocity and, 414, 416
in relational job design, 33–34
Green Mountain Coffee Roasters, 958–59
group affective tone, 217
group drive, 693
group-generalized reciprocity, 414–15
groupthink, 62
growth
in high-quality mentoring, 527
narratives, 75–76, 78
workplace intimacy and, 432
H
Habits of the Heart (Bellah/Madsen/Sullivan/Swidler/Tipton), 508
Handbook of Workplace Spirituality and Organizational Performance (Giacalone/Jurkiewicz), 1002
Hanks, Tom, 231
happiness
subjective well-being and, 178
work-related subjective well-being and, 181, 183–84
hardiness, in organizational healing, 857
harmonious passion, 191–93
Hauge, Olav H., 288
Havel, Vaclav, 1029
Hawken, Paul, 346, 957
Hawthorne effects, 32
healing, 855–64
adaptive routines and, 863
blame and, 862–63
ceremony in, 863
cohesion from, 861
compassion organizing as part of, 858–61
connective capacity of, 861–62
contribution outcomes from, 862
crisis management and, 856–58
definition of, 856–58
as disruptive, 858
disruptive events and, 855–56
endogenous resources for, 859–60
exogenous resources for, 859–60
flexibility from, 861–62
frameworks for, 858–62
future research for, 863–64
hardiness and, 857
HQCs and, 863
inflammation and, 857
interpersonal connections in, 859
interrelatedness and, 862
needs fulfillment from, 861
others as focus of, 863
positive culture as emphasis within, 863
practical implications for, 864
process as emphasis in, 856
proliferation in, 857
for PTG, writing as strategy for, 914
recovery and, 857
remodeling in, 857
resilience in, 857
as restorative, 856–57
ritual in, 863
safety coordination in, 860
social interactions in, 861
structuration theory and, 859, 862
Health and Safety Executive (HSE) intervention, 942
health care settings
compassion in, 277
humor in, 477–78
mindful organizing in, 667
healthy mindedness, 4
heedfulness, 815–16
Hegsted, Mark, 1018
Heilbroner, Robert, 983
heliotropic effect, 5–6
in strengths-based development for leaders, 786
virtuousness and, 235
heliotropism, 5–6
negative effects and, 6
helpfulness, 173
shared positive affect and, 216
Henley, William, 304–5
heroism, courage and, 308
hierarchy modality, for innovativeness, 709–11
high-performance work system theory, 403–4
high-quality connections (HQCs), 385–95
action formation mechanisms and, 387
behavioral mechanisms for, 390–93
cognitive mechanisms for, 388–89, 392
definition of, 387–93
dyadic outcomes for, 394
as dynamic, 386
emotional contagion and, 390
emotional mechanisms for, 389–90, 392
empathy in, 389–90
future research on, 393
impacts of, 386–87
impressions of others and, 388–89
individual functions influenced by, 387
leadership development and, 791–92
mechanism-based approach for, 387–93, 388 [link]
mentorship and, 393
mimicry and, 390
organizational context for, 392–93
organizational healing and, 863
other-awareness in, 388
perspective-taking and, 389, 392, 469–70
play and, 391–92
positive emotions and, 389–90
quality variability of, 386
research foundations for, 385–86
respectful engagement and, 390–91
social exchange theory and, 393
task enabling with, 391
(p. 1059)
tensility of, 386
vitality of, 386
workplace intimacy and, 425
high-quality mentoring, 519, 526–32
affirmation of self from, 529–30
career development in, 526
commitment and, 531–32
communal norms in, 530–31
empowerment in, 531
evolution of, 526–27
functional processes in, 526–27
growth and, 527
inspiration in, 527, 529
Michelangelo phenomenon, 529–30
mutual respect as part of, 531
personal learning and, 527
relational functions in, 527, 529–32
relational trust as part of, 531–32
shared influence in, 531
high-reliability organizations (HROs), 664
unexpected event management for, 847
high-risk activism, 994
Holland, John, 511
honesty, humility and, 264–65
honeymoon effect, 24
hope, in organizations, 18, 288–99
acts of, 297
attainment of, 295–96
belief and, 293
in emotional management, 816–17
excuse research and, 289
existential, 292
as experience, 289
faith and, 293
as generative, 292, 296
as goal-directed, 291
goals as influence on, 289–90
in health sector, 300n9
idea development and, 298 [link]
as individual goal attainment, 289–92
instantiation of, 297
intuition and, 294
IPOD and, 738
in narrative theory, 294–96
in oil industry, 297–98
open-ended, 292
opening-up of, 296
optimism and, 290
organizing of, 297
phenomenology in, 296–98
POS and, 289
positive psychology and, 296
in pragmatism, 293–94
as psychological capital, 18, 291
reasonable, 297
redemption and, 295
as relational possibility, 289, 292–96
as repair goal, 300n6
research paths for, 290 [link]
self-efficacy and, 290, 295
situated theory of imagination and, 294
social, 292
states of, 297
strategies for, 291
as subversive, 296
as transcendent, 293
trust and, 456–57
vocabulary of, 289, 292
ways of, 290, 456
will and, 290, 456
hope theory, 289–91
human capital, 19
as organizational energy, 692
humanistic psychology, in negotiations, 593
humanity, as character strength, 372, 376
human potential
careers as fulfillment of, 508
strategic paradoxes as influence on, 801–2
Human Relations, 289
human resources, mindful organizing in, 668
Human Resources Champions (Ulrich), 178
The Human Side of Enterprise (McGregor), 738
human strengths. See character strengths
Hume, David, 269n1
humility, 260–69
antecedents of, 268
appreciative inquiry and, 269n4
arrogance and, 262
authentic leadership and, 267
charismatic leadership and, 267
competition and, 264
disadvantages of, 267
enabling conditions for, 270n16
eudaemonism and, 267
extant research on, 264–67
focus of, 261
future research on, 267–69
growing influence of, 263–64
in high-velocity environments, 263
history of, 261–62
honesty and, 264–65
Humility-Arrogance Implicit Association Test, 263
as innate drive, 268
job performance and, 264–65
in leadership, 265–67
meaning of, 261–62
modesty and, 262, 269n7
as multifaceted character strength, 261–62
narcissism and, 265
openness to new ideas and, 262
operationalization of, 262–63
positive psychology and, 261
prosocial behavior and, 265
self-reported measures of, 262–63
self-worth and, 269n2
servant leadership and, 267
S.W.O.T. analysis, 262
among teams, 265
as temperance virtue, 261, 268
theories of, 260–61
training for, 265
transformational leadership and, 267
trust and, 453–55
as virtue, 267, 269n6
Humility-Arrogance Implicit Association Test, 263
humor, 474–86
academic research on, 483–84
as character strength, 374, 376, 475
closeness as result of, 478
communication through, 480
cooperation and, 476
as coping mechanism, 482
among coworkers, 478–79
creativity influenced by, 474, 480–81
customer relations and, 477–78
ethnographic studies of, 482
future research on, 484–85
in health care settings, 477–78
hope and, 484
job performance and, 474
between leader-followers, 479–80
meaning of, 475–76
measurement issues for, 484
by mediators, 477
multicultural, 477
negative forms of, 475, 485
in negotiations, 476–77, 584
OCBs and, 474
POS and, 475
as positive state, 475–76, 481–83
practical implications of, 485–86
as psychological capital, 484
psychological research on, 481–82
in relationship building, 478–80
scholarship on, 475
workplace identities and, 482–83
Humor Styles Questionnaire, 484
hyphenation, 78
I
idealism, callings and, 45
ideal self, in high-quality mentoring, 529
identity development. See also organizational identity; positive identity; social identity theory
agentic tactics in, 76
authentic leadership and, 776
as behavioral, 76
boundary management in, 77
from career, 508
through claiming, 77
classical theories of, 71–78
compartmentalization in, 78
(p. 1060)
core assumptions about, 72–74, 76–77
creativity and, integration of, 103
dual identification, 78
through granting, 77
humor and, in workplace, 482–83
hyphenation in, 78
identity expansion as part of, 79
in international peacemaking, 1028–29
intimacy as form of, 426–29
leadership development and, 784
in mentoring, 523
mobility and, 719
moral, 321, 347
narrative as, 75–76
popular research for, 78
positive, 7, 70–81
reflected best self-portrait in, 80
resilience and, 901–2
as self-meaning, 74
self-verification theory, 79
superordinate categorization in, 78
symbolic interactionism and, 73
in work engagement, 64
identity enrichment, 74
identity expansion, 79
identity patching, 74
identity splinting, 74
identity theory, callings and, 50
illocutionary force, 251
illusory growth, 917
imagination. See moral imagination
immanent spiritualities, 1003–5, 1007–8
immersion, as character strength, 370
impression management prosocial motivation, 36–37
citizenship behaviors and, 36
impulsivity, 127
incentive failures, 885
incentive programs, reciprocity and, 419
incivility
broaden-and-build theory and, 443
communication and, 443
cultural differences regarding, 446
for customers as witnesses, 443–44
emotional contagion and, 443
emotional intelligence and, 446
between employees, 444
individual outcomes and, 440–44
job performance and, 441
narcissism and, 446
organizations influenced by, 443
practical benefits of, 445–46
productivity and, 441
social status and, 446
stress and, 441
teams and, effect on, 442–43
witnesses and, effect on, 442
inclusiveness
in communication, 568
in leadership, 429
indebtedness, reciprocity and, 414
indirect reciprocity, 412–13
individual curiosity, 113–18
alternative explanations for, 118
clinical studies of, 116
cooperative bridges as result of, 114–15
leaders as influence on, 117–18
mediated model of, 113, 114 [link]
organization of, 116 [link]
as personality trait, 111, 113–15
routine variability for, 115–16
states of, 115–18
individual energy, organizational energy and, 699–700
individualism, callings and, 46
individualized socialization, 542–44
individual-level stress interventions, 943–44
positive, 944, 945 [link]
psychological capital in, 944
psychological flexibility in, 944
social cognitive theory in, 944
individual mindfulness, 670
Industrial and Organizational Psychology, 56
Industrial Revolution, 423
inflammation, in organizational healing, 857
informal mentoring, 520
information and communication technologies (ICTs), 566–69
CMC in, 568–69
integrative communication with, 571–72
information processing
in ART, 157
theory of mind and, 144
information sharing, in integrative communication, 570–71
information theories of emotion, 112
in-groups
positive identity among, 73
self-enhancement motives and, as cause of, 80
shared positive affect among, 220
initiative
courage and, 310–11
prosocial motivation as influence on, 29
injustice, 322
to others, 319–20
innovation, 703–13
characteristics of, 705
competition and, 703
courage and, 312
creativity and, 98
definitions of, 704–5
emotional management and, 812–15
as evolutionary, 705
external factors for, 705
frame, 704
generative transformation of, 705
innovativeness and, 705–6
invention and, 704
as iterative, 705
sustainability of organizations and, 799
value creation and, 705
innovation-inspired positive organization development (IPOD), 737–48
AI and, 745
alignments of strengths in, 745
BAWB approach in, 745
biomimicry and, 743
change theories and, 738
development of, 739–40, 743–44
dynamic change phenomenon in, 746–47
hope as part of, 738
positive ethos in, 738, 740
relatedness in, 747 [link]
SOAR approach in, 745
strengths-based development and, 744 [link]
three pillars of, 744–46
innovation theory, 830–31
innovativeness, 705–6
adhocracy modality for, 708, 710
clan modality for, 708–9
competing values framework for, 708–11, 708 [link]
as context specific, 711
future research for, 713
hierarchy modality for, 709–11
magnitude of, 711
market modality for, 708–10
personnel as dimension for, 707–8
practices for, 707
propositions for, 707
speed of, in economic markets, 710
temporal element of, 710
tension for, 711
Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations (Smith, A.), 981
inquisitiveness, among global leaders, 369
in-role behaviors, 61–62
in-role productivity, 21
inspiration, 2, 238
in high-quality mentoring, 527, 529
in relational job design, 33
institutional activism, 992
institutionalized socialization, 542–44
integration, in organizational sustainability, 802 [link] , 804–6
integration failures, 885
integrative communication, 567–72
dialogue as part of, 569–70
with e-mails, 571–72
engagement with work and, 572
with ICTs, 571–72
(p. 1061)
information sharing in, 570–71
among NGOs, 572
pass-along effect in, 571
of public goods, 571–72
integrative socialization model, 537
integrity, 238. See also behavioral integrity
prosocial motivation and, 37
intensity, of organizational energy, 695
interactional ritual chain (IRC) theory, 160–61
attachment theory and, 161
self-determination theory and, 160
interaction synchrony, 217
interdependence
in high-quality mentoring, 529
in mindful organizing, 665
in organizational sustainability, 807
workplace intimacy and, 432
intergroup dynamics, 219, 554–55
allophilia in, 555
positive, 554–55
intergroup equality, 554
intergroup forgiveness, 248, 253
internal activism, 994
internally closed behaviors, 755
internally directed positive change, 753–54
international peacemaking. See peacemaking, in international contexts
interpersonal capitalization, 608–9, 612
interpersonal connections
in organizational healing, 859
perspective-taking and, 463–64
interpersonal forgiveness, 248–50, 255
interpersonal mentalizing, 138. See also theory of mind
SToM, 142
Interpersonal Reactivity Index, 276
interrelatedness, organizational healing and, 862
interruptions, in organizational learning, 495
interventions
for civility, 444–45
forgiveness models for, 249
for mindfulness, 598
organizational energy and, 699
in positive deviance, 1020
psychological capital and, 23
interventions, for stress, 939–47
classification of, 941 [link]
commitment in, 946
future research for, 947
individual-level, 943–44
integrative approach to, 947
in motivation theories, 946
openness to change in, 945–46
organizational-level, 942–43
preventive stress management theory for, 939
secondary, 939
strategies for, 939
intimacy, in workplace, 423–35
collaboration and, 425
commitment and, 425
commitment to others and, 433
as communal exchange, 426
communication and, 424
components of, 425–26, 427 [link]
cooperation and, 433
culture differences in, 426
definition of, 424–25
dependence and, 432
discouragement of, 423–24
energy and, 432
as flexible process, 425
as form of identity, 426–29
gender as influence on, 434
for group-focused outcomes, 433–34
growth and, 432
HQCs and, 425
Industrial Revolution as influence on, 423
interdependence and, 432
in leader-follower relationships, 429–35
learning and, 433
love and, 425
loyalty and, 433
OCB and, 434
organizational context for, 435
passion and, 425
physical well-being and, 432–33
relational self and, 429
resource aspect of inclusion in, 426–27
self-efficacy and, 431–32
self-esteem and, 431–32
in self-expansion models, 426, 431–32
self-worth and, 425, 431–32
vitality and, 432
intrapersonal forgiveness, 255
intrinsic career success, 512
intrinsic prosocial motivation, 36
callings and, 51
cognition and, 99
creativity and, 37, 99
flourishing and, 127
rewards for creativity and, 105
introspection, callings and, 49
intuition
compassion and, 273
in EI, 207–10
hope and, 294
invention, innovation and, 704
investiture, in socialization, 544
Invictus, 305–6
involvement, in work engagement, 57
issue selling, 755
J
James, William, 4, 293, 298–99, 1003
Japan, global leaders from, 370–71
Japanese business practices, character strengths and, 370–71
kyosei and, 371
Job Affect Scale (JAS), 181
job characteristics theory (JCT), 652–61
agent feedback, 657–58
altruism in, 656–57
autonomy in, 656
core of, 652–55
creativity in, 654–56
future research for, 657–61
individual differences in, 658
knowledge of results in, 653
meaningfulness in, 653
objective of, 652
OCB in, 656
practice implications for, 657
research results of, 653–54
responsibility in, 653
self-efficacy in, 655–56