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date: 17 November 2019

Abstract and Keywords

This article provides a summary of the state of primary and secondary education in India. It notes the achievements of the sector: increased enrollment, particularly in the primary stage, and a narrowing of many traditional gaps. The supply-side impetus to schooling—which occurred through a host of programs, from independence up the 1990s, and thereafter consolidated through the Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan in 2002—has led to significant increase in access to schools throughout India. Indeed, one finding in the literature is that the probability of a school being located within a given distance of a child's habitation of residence does increase enrollment. However, school location policy also affects other characteristics of schools that are known to have important effects on learning. For instance, small school size, which tends to be the norm in India because of sparsely distributed and low populated habitations, means that the total numbers of teachers per school are small.

Keywords: primary education, secondary education, school enrollment, access to schools, school location policy, teachers per school

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