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date: 19 September 2019

Abstract and Keywords

The chapter treats the life and work of the physician Galen; his own works are the primary source for his life. He established a comprehensive system of medical practice based on a systematic theoretical foundation, which included all the basic medical sciences, as well as the relevant areas of philosophy, and endured with minor alterations until the mid-nineteenth century. He made important anatomical discoveries and carried out illuminating physiological experiments. He insisted that doctors must have a solid grounding in philosophy, and intervened in the debate between the contending medical sects of his era. Galen valued the works of Hippocrates and Plato and attempted to ground his work in their ideas. Galen adhered to the theory that four qualities (hot/cold and wet/dry) composed the body; he advocated teleology as an explanatory principle for all phenomena, and he understood the soul to have three parts as in Plato’s Timaeus.

Keywords: anatomy, Aristotle, Empiricists, Hippocrates, Methodists, physiology, Plato, Pneumatists, Galen

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