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date: 19 August 2019

Abstract and Keywords

For roughly four centuries, from the early third to the early seventh century, Rome and Byzantium represented Sasanian Iran’s most potent rivals to the west. This chapter reviews the sources (Sasanian, Roman, Armenian, Syriac, Arabic, Persian), both contemporary and later, detailing the various campaigns undertaken by each side, as well as the treaties concluded between them. It discusses the Sasanian rock reliefs depicting scenes of triumph over vanquished Roman rulers. The significance of Armenia and the Euphrates frontier is emphasized. The changing nature of this imperial rivalry in response to evolving political, economic, and social circumstances is highlighted.

Keywords: Rome, Byzantium, Sasanians, Euphrates, Armenia

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