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date: 25 August 2019

Abstract and Keywords

This chapter surveys the use of Aramaic, Parthian, and Early Middle Persian (the latter two both Middle Iranian languages) in Iran, as well as providing a discussion of the scripts used to write them. The temporal coverage extends from the Iron Age, when Aramaic first appeared in western Iran, to the Sasanian period. The types of texts in which these languages were used are discussed, along with problems of modern transliteration. Early Arsacid texts from sites in Turkmenistan, like Nisa, are reviewed as well. Lapidary inscriptions, texts written on parchment, and coin legends are also treated.

Keywords: Aramaic, Parthian, Pahlavi, Middle Persian, Middle Iranian, Nisa, Turkmenistan

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