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date: 13 November 2019

(p. 495) Index

(p. 495) Index

Note: Tables, figures, and notes are indicated by t, f, and n.

abbreviated progressive muscle relaxation (APMR), 270–73, 272t. See also progressive muscle relaxation
abdominal (diaphragmic) breathing, 275, 367
Abrams, D. B., 219
abstinence, 218, 219, 222, 225
abstraction. See selective abstraction
academic demand, FA and, 404
acceptance, 179, 293, 296, 300
cognitive-behavioral psychotherapy with, 173–80
radical, 38
specific phobias and, 303
acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT), 18, 19, 30, 38, 47
addictive behaviors, 188
BPD, 188
clinical strategies, 180–82
in context, 173–74
depression, 187
empirical support, 186–89
experiential avoidance, 174–75
health outcomes, other, 188–89
history of, 179
values clarity, lack of, 175–76
weight and physical activity, 188
in workplace/stigma, 189
acceptance-based behavioral therapies (ABBT), 173, 192. See also acceptance and commitment therapy; dialectical behavior therapy; generalized anxiety disorder; integrative behavioral couples therapy; mindfulness-based cognitive therapy
change mechanisms with, 189–90
effectiveness, dissemination, and implementation, 191–92
GAD and, 180, 183–85
moderators, 190–91
treatment to ethnically and economically diverse populations, 191
acceptance-based emotion regulation, PDs, 449
ACTION program, 234, 257, 371
activating events (A’s), REBT, 144–45, 145f, 149
Adams, C., 446
addictive behaviors, 188, 218. See also relapse; relapse prevention; substance abuse
Adler, Alfred, 144
Adolescent Coping with Depression, 372
adolescents. See children
Adroin, S. P., 83
adults, CBT in older
anxiety, 352–53
arthritis, 354
cardiac conditions, 354
cognitive disorders, 355–56
depressed and “useless,” Mrs. P, 351–52
diabetes, 354–55
future directions, 357–58
general considerations, 350–51
insomnia, 354
limited utilization of CBT, 356–57
medical issues, other, 355
medical populations, 353
mental disorders, prevalence in, 349–50
mental health conditions, other, 353
mental health disorders, 351–56
religion and, 350
across settings, 356
adults, obesity treatment with, 430
Affective Reconstructive Marital Therapy, 396
age
generational influences and, 35
treatment delivery, age-appropriate, 365
aggression, 406. See also anger
in children, 366, 368, 372–74, 445
couples therapy with violence or intimate partner, 391
agoraphobia, 122, 132, 136, 299, 300, 393
Agras, W. S., 105, 241
agreements, 54, 80, 89, 91, 386
Albano, A. M., 370
alcohol
couples therapy and alcohol abuse, 392
relapse prevention, 217, 219–20, 223, 224
all-or-none (black versus white) thinking, 119, 368
alone, FA and, 404
Alzheimer’s disease, 243, 273, 355
American Academy of Cognitive and Behavioral Psychology, 29
American Board of Cognitive and Behavioral Psychology (ABCBP), 1, 29, 31
American Board of Professional Psychology (ABPP), 28, 29, 30, 31, 41
American Psychiatric Association, 291, 392, 453
American Psychological Association (APA), 28, 29, 30, 31, 187, 363, 364, 470
American Sign Language, 15
The American Psychological Society (APS), 31
anarchism, 22–23
Andersen, B. L., 321
anger, 153
aggression, 366, 368, 372–74, 391, 406, 445
REBT versus CT, 147–48
relapse prevention and, 221
antecedents
control, 89–90
function-based antecedent intervention, 408–10
manipulation, 408
variables, 72
antidepressants, MBCT and, 186
antisocial, 439t, 448
behavior, 50, 373
anxiety, 48, 153, 187, 210, 237
Beck Anxiety Inventory, 240
systematic desensitization and, 46, 303
(p. 496) anxiety disorders. See also agoraphobia; generalized anxiety disorder; obsessive-compulsive disorder; panic disorder; post-traumatic stress disorder; social anxiety disorder; specific phobias
in children, 369–70, 376
combination strategies for, 489
combination treatment for, 484–85
couples therapy, 393
fear structures, pathological, 97
future directions, 306–7
iB’s and, 153
pharmacotherapy, CBT, and, 487–89
in populations, 291–92
RCTs and, 99
relapse prevention and, 221
Anxiety Disorders Interview Schedule, 238
applied behavior analysis (ABA), 30, 32, 79
behaviors, establishing new, 83–85
data in, 80–81
ID with, 402, 407, 412, 414
interventions, 39–40, 85–92
principles, 81–83
arbitrary inference (jumping to conclusions), 119–20
Arean, P., 410
Arntz, A., 448
arthritis, 273, 351, 352, 353, 354, 357, 420
Asia, 32, 312, 334, 338
Asperger’s disorder, 410, 411
assessment. See also behavioral assessment, FA
ABA, 85–92
BA methods, 237–43
behavioral, 34–35
behavior therapy, 9
cultural competency, 469–70
FAI, 403
FBA, 402–4
functional approach to intervention and, 85–92
functional competencies in, 33–36
goodness-of-fit framework to guide, 471–73, 472f
LAVA, 232, 235, 238, 257
MAS, 403
physiologic, 34–35
stimulus preference, 412
Assessment of Competency Benchmarks Workgroup, 28, 30
Association for Behavioral Analysis, International (ABAI), 32
Association for Behavioral and Cognitive Therapies (ABCT), 29, 31
Association for Behavior Analysis, 29
Association of Behavioral and Cognitive Therapies, 1
Association of Behavior and Cognitive Therapies, 29
Atkins, D. C., 384
attachment theory, 443–44
attention
attentional bias, 302, 303
attention-maintained challenging behaviors, 405–6
inflexible, 175
attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), 88
in children, 374–75
medication and, 374–75, 486
studies, 374
attention modification
situation and, 296–98, 300
specific phobias, 303
Attwood, T., 410
Ault, M. H., 403
Aurelius, Marcus (121–180BCE), 144
Australia, 138, 307
autism, 10, 89, 91, 406, 409, 410, 411
autobiographical recall, 122, 305
autoclitics, verbal behavior, 15
autogenic training, 36
automatically reinforced challenging behaviors, 404, 407
automatic reinforcement, 85, 403
automatic thoughts, 18, 21, 119, 147f, 316
automatic thought record, 124–27, 128f
“levels” of cognition, 123, 352
autonomic nervous system (ANS), 12, 267
avoidance, 50, 239, 297, 299, 305, 440t
ACT and, 174–75
avoidant problem solving, 68, 69
experiential, 48, 174–75, 178
GAD and cognitive, 292–93
TRAP strategy, 234, 235, 243, 257
Avoidant Personality Disorder, 124
awfulizing, 146, 147, 147f, 148
Axis I disorders, 209, 320, 392, 441
Bach, P., 187
Baer, D. M., 79, 402, 413, 414
Bailey, J. S., 80, 81
Baker, L., 410
Baldwin, S. A., 396
Ball, S. A., 448
Bandura, Albert, 38, 144
Barbato, A., 392
bariatric surgery, obesity and, 421
Barker, L. M., 39
Barlow, D. H., 63, 104, 241, 300
Barratt, S., 330
Barron, P., 153
Barrowclough, C., 353
Bartholomew, K., 443, 444
Bartley, W. W., 21
Basoglu, M., 485
Bateman, A., 449
Baucom, D. H., 384, 385, 387, 389, 390, 393
Bauman, K. E., 404
Bayes Theorem, 57
Bazerman, C., 23–24
Beck, Aaron T., 17–18, 37, 38, 138, 145, 323, 389, 442
cognitive restructuring and, 368
CT and, 118, 146–49, 147f, 177
with depression, cognitive model, 46
depression theory and, 176, 179
influence of, 144, 368
schemas and, 146
Beck, Judith, 17–18
Beck Anxiety Inventory, 240
Beck Depression Inventories, 239
Beck Depression Inventory—II, 49, 121, 133
Beck Hopelessness Scale, 121, 133–34
Beck Initiative, 137
behavior. See also acceptance-based behavioral therapies; applied behavior analysis; cognitive and behavioral psychology; cognitive and behavioral therapies; cognitive-behavioral therapy; dialectical behavior therapy; functional behavioral assessment; integrative behavioral couples therapy; rational emotive behavior therapy
addictive, 188, 218
antisocial, 50, 373
behavioral assessment, 34–35, 44, 55
behavioral constriction, 178
behavioral contingencies, children and CBT, 369
behavioral contract, 89, 91
behavioral dyscontrol, DBT, 208–9
behavioral experiments and cognitive restructuring, 130–31
behavioral theory, 231–32
challenging, 405–7, 409
children and disruptive, 153, 372–74
covert, 18, 34
CRBs, 19, 39
differential reinforcement with, 87–89
disorders, 45–48, 50
eating, 70, 419, 421, 425
emotions and, 18
experimental analysis of, 12–14
exposure therapy and, 109–10
(p. 497) with function-based consequence intervention, 404–7, 405f
nonverbal, 12, 15
NSSIs, 210
obesity and modification of, 423–24
operant behavior, 13
problems, 48–51
QABF, 403
radical behaviorism, 9, 11–12, 48, 173
rationality principle with, 21
recording and observing, 80
rule-governed, 16
schizophrenia and healthy, 222
SIB, 210, 404, 405, 407
thought and, 179
topographical analysis of, 52
verbal, 12, 14–16, 25n 2
behavioral activation (BA), 18, 19, 30, 38, 135
ACTION, 234, 257, 371
anxiety exposure and, 237
assessment methods, 237–43
BA and BATD, in comparison, 235–36
BA or Washington BA, 233–34, 243
BATD, 232, 242, 243, 257
BATD or Morgantown BA, 234–35, 243
behavioral avoidance and activation, 239
behavioral interventions, efficacy, 244t255t
behaviors amenable to action, 236–37
in context, 229–30
depression, 239
environmental reward, 240
FAP and, 239
functional assessment, 242–43
historical context, 230–32
LAVA, 232, 235, 238, 257
observational methods, 241–42
pleasant and unpleasant events, 240–41
research, future directions, 256–57
research, treatment outcome, 243–56
self-report measures and, 239, 242
strategies, 232–37
TRAC and TRAP strategies, 234, 235, 243, 257
unstructured and structured interviews, 237–39
Behavioral Activation for Depression Scale (BADS), 239–40
behavioral activation treatment (BATD), 232, 234–36, 242, 243, 257
behavioral assessment, FA, 44
behavior problems, conditional and varying, 50–51
causal functional relationships with, 53–57
clinical case diagrams, integrating information, 57–60
functional analysis, defined, 51–52
hypothetico-deductive method, 49–50, 49f
learning theories and, 45–48
topographical analysis, context, 52–53, 53t
behavioral family therapy (BFT), 392
Behavioral Inhibition and Behavioral Activation Scale (BIS/BAS), 240
Behavioral Marital Therapy (BMT), 388
behavioral skills training (BST), 84–85
Behavior Analyst Certification Board (BACB), 29, 32
behavior therapy, 47
assumptions or properties of, 8–9
cognitive and behavioral psychology and, 30
defined, 2, 7–8
historical background, 10
with “micro-communities,” 25
Behrens, B. C., 390
beliefs. See also thoughts
intermediate beliefs, 123–24, 127, 129f, 147f
negative, 134, 167, 292, 316, 331, 371
OCD and dysfunctional, 294–95
questionnaires, 124, 442, 447
REBT and, 144, 145, 145f, 146, 147f, 148, 150–54, 151f
Belloiu, A., 154
Benish, S. G., 306, 467, 468
Benson, H., 281
Benuto, L., 23
Berg, C. A., 393
Berlin, 20
Bernard, M. E., 37
Bernstein, D. A., 36
Bernstein, Douglas, 271
Bhar, S. S., 442
bias, 74, 298, 333, 444, 469, 475
attentional, 302, 303
cognitive, 63, 67, 281, 292, 299, 302
Bieschke, K. J., 33
Bijou, S. W., 403
Bilek, L. A., 153
billiard-ball example, cause and, 53, 54
binary model, of emotions, 153–54
biofeedback, 36
Biondi, M., 485
biopsychosocial approach, 32, 68
biosocial theory, 203
bipolar disorder. See disorders
Bishop, M. R., 413
Blackburn, R., 442
black versus white thinking. See all-or-none thinking
Block, J., 187
Blomhoff, S., 105
blood pressure, 34, 36, 303, 429
body, 10, 188. See also brain; obesity
ANS, 12, 267
APMR, 270–73, 272t
biofeedback, 36
“Body Drawing” activity, 365, 367
body mass index, 419, 420, 421, 429, 430
Body Scan exercise, 181
breathing, 273–77, 367
fear of bodily sensations with PD, 299
fight-or-flight response and, 266, 300
interoceptive exposure and, 96, 103–4, 112, 300, 353
natural selection and, 12, 13
physiologic assessment, 34–35
PMR, 267–70, 270t, 367
Bolton, E., 485
Bontempo, A., 489
borderline, 439t, 443
borderline personality disorder (BPD), 35, 188, 200, 203, 204
Borderline Personality Disorder Severity Index (BPDSI-IV), 448
Borkovec, T. D., 36, 48, 292–93
Borkovec, Thomas, 271
Borkovec, Tom, 180
Bouchard, S., 111
Bowden, A., 36
Bowen, S., 223
Bowlby, J., 443
Boyd, J. L., 392
brain, 12, 35, 36, 268. See also memories
automatic thoughts, 18, 21, 119, 123–27, 128f, 147f, 316, 352
brain overload, overcoming, 166
brainstorming principles, 70
neuroimaging, 9–10, 17, 282
physiological and cognitive mechanisms, 281–82
stress and, 266–67
BRAVE-ONLINE program, 376
Bray, J. H., 394, 396
breathing
empirical support, 276–77
history, 273–74
techniques, 275–76
types of, 274, 275, 367
Brown, G. K., 442
Brown, R. A., 231
Brownell, K. D., 422
Bruchey, A. K., 108
Buber, 144
Buis, T., 177
Bulik, C. M., 393
Burch, M. R., 80, 81
Burghardt, N. S., 488
(p. 498) Butler, A. C., 136
Butler, L. R., 409
Calam, R., 35, 63
Call, N. A., 83
Campbell, D. T., 49, 50
Campbell, I. M., 146
Cannon, Walter B., 266
cardiac conditions, 34, 277, 354, 420
care, 68, 163, 322, 356
caregivers, 334, 335
with psychotic disorders and family interventions, 334–36
stepped care, 112
Carhart, V., 47, 55
Carlson, A. J., 267
Carlson, J. I., 409
Carr, E. G., 406
Carroll, K. M., 220
Cash, T. E., 153
Casselles, C., 23
Castro, F. G., 223
catastrophizing (magnification of the negative), 120–21, 424
causal functional relationships, 53–57
causal inference, 55t, 56t
causal variables, behavior problems and, 50
cause, 49, 53, 54
CCTC, 30
CDs, 152, 280, 367, 376
Center for Epidemiological Studies’ Depression Scale (CES-D), 239
chaining, of new behaviors, 83–84
Chambless, D. L., 364, 446, 452
Chanen, A. M., 451
Chang, D. F., 469
Charney, D. S., 10
Chasson, G. S., 107
Cheavens, J. S., 355
chest breathing, 274
Chiesa, A., 185
Child, S. N., 403
children. See also intellectual disability
ADHD in, 374–75
aggression in, 366, 368, 372–74, 445
anxiety disorders in, 369–70, 376
CBT and, 366–69, 376–77
childhood disorders and, 369–75
cognitive restructuring and, 138, 368, 370, 371
Coping Cat program and, 365, 367, 369–70, 376–77
depression in, 138, 371–72
disruptive behavior in, 153, 372–74
education and, 366–67, 375–76
OCD in, 368, 370–71
PMR and, 367
rewards systems and, 369, 373
self-efficacy and, 367
in treatment, 363–66, 374, 376, 429–30
Chomsky, Noam, 14
Chow, S.-M., 217, 224
Chowdhary, N., 468
Christensen, A., 180, 183, 186, 390, 391
Christopher, G., 442
chronic illness, couples therapy, 393–94
Clabby, J., 354
Clark, D. B., 105
Clark, D. M., 300, 304, 305, 306
Clarke, G. N., 372
classical conditioning, 10–12, 45–46, 144
Classification of Mental and Behavioural Disorders (World Health Organization), 438
clavicular breathing, 274–75
Clem, R. L., 109
clinical depression, 230, 231, 239, 256, 257
clinical guidelines
CBT and depression, 317–19
clinically relevant behaviors (CRBs), 19, 39
clinical pathogenesis map (CPM), 72–73, 74
clinical practice
PMR, 268
clinical strategies, 180–85
Codding, R. S., 412
cognition levels, 123–24, 127, 129f, 352, 365
cognitive analytic therapy (CAT), 451, 452
cognitive and behavioral psychology, 1, 28
core competencies, application of, 30–33
functional competencies, assessment, 33–36
functional competencies, intervention, 36–40
functional competencies, other, 40–41
history of, 29–30
cognitive and behavioral therapies (C&BT)
anarchism, Feyerabendian, 22–23
CBT compared with, 1
falsification, Popperian, 21
interventions with, 1, 2, 3
paradigms, Kuhnian, 21–22
postmodernism and, 24–25
problem solving, 23
recent developments, 38–39
rhetorical analyses, Grossian, 23–24
“third wave,” 2, 3n 1
cognitive appraisal, stress management, 265–66
cognitive avoidance, GAD and, 292–93
Cognitive-Behavioral Avoidance Scale (CBAS), 239
cognitive-behavioral conceptualization, obesity, 421–22, 422f
cognitive-behavioral model of relapse, 216, 218, 219, 225
cognitive-behavioral psychotherapy, 173–80
cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT)
in adults, older, 349–58
anxiety and, 99, 292–93, 297, 352–53, 487–89
anxiety disorders, pharmacotherapy, and, 487–89
C&BT compared with, 1
children and, 366–69, 376–77
cognitive and behavioral psychology and, 30
combination treatment and, 482–89
computer-assisted, 376–77
depression, 314–19, 351–52
development of, 9
dissemination of, 137
emergence of, 17–19
historical background, 10–11
Internet-based, 487
with mental health disorders, older adults, 351–56
monotherapy with pharmacotherapy or, 483
multicultural issues in, 465–78, 472f
for pain and other medical issues, 355
PDs and, 447
psychosis intervention, 330–34
relaxation and, 353
with science, philosophy of, 19–25
self-management training and, 410–12
telephone-based, 356, 487
“third wave,” 18–19
transdiagnostic, 377
cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) conceptualization
GAD and, 292–93
OCD and, 294–95
PD and, 299
PTSD, 304–6
SAD and, 297
specific phobias, 301–2
cognitive-behavioral treatments
couples therapy and empirically supported, 388–94
obesity, 422–25
cognitive bias. See bias
cognitive disorders, CBT and older adults, 355–56
(p. 499) cognitive mechanisms, stress management, 281–82
cognitive processing therapy (CPT), 30, 38
cognitive restructuring (self-talk), 18, 118, 295, 298, 300, 424
behavioral experiments, 130–31
children and, 138, 368, 370, 371
cognitive vulnerability, additional areas of, 121–23
couples therapy and, 389
downward arrow technique, 127, 129f
GAD treatment and, 293
imagery techniques, 131–33
maladaptive information processing, 119–21, 368
methods of, 124–33
PTSD, 305–6
rational responding, 124–27, 128f
role playing to modify thinking, 129–30
self-reflective practice and, 138–39
specific phobias, 303
with therapeutic relationships, 133–35
cognitive theory, 442
cognitive therapy (CT), 3, 8, 37, 136, 137, 177. See also cognitive restructuring
cognitive and behavioral psychology and, 30
computer-assisted, 138
emergence of, 17–19
homework, 118, 127
MDD and, 314–17
REBT versus, 146–49, 147f, 156
Cognitive Therapy: Basics and Beyond (Beck), 138
Cognitive Therapy Scale, 133
cognitive variables, behavioral assessment, 46
cognitive vulnerability, 121–23
Cohen, J., 106
Coid, J., 441
Coldwell, S. E., 105
Collins, E. L., 33
combination treatment
for anxiety disorders, 484–85
availability of each treatment modality, 486–87
with CBT and pharmacotherapy, 482–89
for depression, 483–84
Commission on the Recognition of Specialties and Proficiencies in Professional Psychology, 29, 31
communication, 406
couples therapy and, 383, 384–87
psychotic disorders, family interventions, 337
communities, 15, 25
comorbidity, 229, 320, 321, 429, 441
Compas, B. E., 320
competencies, 28, 46970. See also cognitive and behavioral psychology
Competencies Conference Scientific Foundations and Research Competencies Workgroup, 33
computers, 273, 277, 314, 322, 333
children and computer-assisted CBT, 376–77
computer-assisted cognitive therapy, 138
computerized cognitive bias, 281
psychotherapy treatments and, 211–12
conceptual problems, science, 23
conditioning, 301–2
classical, 10–12, 45–46, 144
operant conditioning, 12, 45–46, 82–83
theories, 36–37
Confucius, 144
contamination fears, specific phobias, 302
contingency management, 40, 451–52
contingency-specifying stimuli, 16
contracts, behavioral, 89, 91
control, 82, 121, 203, 424, 428. See also randomized controlled trials
antecedent, 89–90
behavioral dyscontrol, DBT, 208–9
Skinner with, 16–17
stimulus control, 82, 408
control signal, PMR, 269
Cook, T. D., 49, 50
Cooke, D. J., 445
Cooney, N. L., 219
Cooper, J., 80, 81
Copeland, J. N., 355
coping, 162, 265–66, 372, 37374. See also TRAC
Coping Cat program, children and, 365, 367, 369–70, 376–77
“Coping Skills Training Guide” (Monti, Kadden, Rohsenow, Cooney, and Abrams), 219
Cordova, J. V., 186, 394
Core Correctional Practice, 221
cortisol, 34, 105, 108–9, 266, 273, 488
cost-effectiveness studies, couples therapy, 394–95
Cottraux, J., 104
Council of Credentialing Organizations in Professional Psychology (CCOPP), 29
couples therapy
BMT and, 388, 394
change studies, process and mechanism, 395–96
cognitive behavioral, 388–90
cognitive-behavioral couples therapy and, 384–95
cognitive-behavioral treatments, empirically supported, 388–94
communication and, 383, 384–87
future directions, 394–97
healthy relationship, conceptualization of, 383–85
IBCT, 177, 180, 183, 186, 390–91, 395
integrative behavioral, 390–91
with intimate partner aggression or violence, 391
ivory tower and beyond, 396–97
replication and cost-effectiveness studies, 394–95
studies, 391–92, 394–96
TBCT and, 186, 385–95
theoretical foundation and treatment components, 385–88
covert behavior, 18, 34
Cramer, D., 154
Craske, M. G., 300, 323
criticism, caregivers and, 335
Cuijpers, P., 486
culture, 16–17, 35, 154
cultural adaptations, CBT and, 467–69
cultural competence, with goodness of fit, 471, 472, 473
cultural diversity, 31, 32, 33, 69, 469
cultural generalizability, of CBT, 466–70
individuals and environments, with goodness of fit, 475–77
multicultural issues, MDD and, 319–20
multicultural issues in CBT, 465–78, 472f
sensitivity, cultural, 23
Cunningham, M. J., 376
Daiuto, A. D., 393
Daley, D. C., 219
Damasio, A. R., 10
Dattilio, F. M., 387, 396
D’Avanzo, B., 392
David, D., 152–53, 154, 156
David-Ferdon, C., 371
Davidson, J. R. T., 105
Davidson, K. M., 447
Davidson, R. J., 281
D-cycloserine (DCS), 106–7
“Decalogue” (Skinner), 17
decision making, 32, 35, 68–69, 168
de Graaf, L. E., 322
deliteralization strategies, 181
demands, 145–46, 147f, 148, 404
dependent variables, 65
(p. 500) depression, 39, 153, 187, 189, 210, 229, 334. See also behavioral activation
BADS, 239–40
BATD, 232, 234–36, 242, 243, 257
Beck Depression Inventories, 239
Beck Depression Inventory—II, 49, 121, 133
CBT for, 314–19, 351–52
in children, 138, 371–72
clinical, 230, 231, 239, 256, 257
combination treatment for, 483–84
couples therapy, 392–93
depressive relapse, factors, 176–77, 221
HRSD, 156, 238
medication, 186, 351, 372
model, 46, 314–15
in older adults, 351–52
PTSD and, 320
relapse, 176–77, 221, 317, 372
STAR*D, 484, 486
theory, 176, 179
unipolar, 123, 136, 156, 484, 485
de Quervain, D. J-F., 109, 488
DeRubeis, R. J., 351
desensitization, systematic, 11, 30, 36, 46, 277–78, 303
Desoille, Robert, 277
deviant associations, sex and, 35, 222, 224
Dewey, 144
diabetes, 354–55, 429
Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM), 21
DSM-5, 291, 301, 304, 312–13, 392, 440, 445
DSM-III, 438
DSM-IV, 238, 438, 439t440t, 445
Diagnostic Interview Schedule, 238
dialectical behavior therapy (DBT), 18, 19, 30, 35, 38–39, 47, 173
acceptance and, 179
dialectical philosophy and, 203–4
as hierarchical treatment, 207, 207f, 208f
ID and, 410
as modular treatment, 204–7, 205f, 206f
PDs and, 448–49
relapse prevention and, 221–22
research, future directions, 211–12
research across multiple problems and populations, 210–11
skills training, 206f
suicide and, 200–201, 202–3, 210
treatment, 204–10
diaphragmic breathing. See abdominal breathing
diathesis-stress model, 160, 164
DiBartolo, P. M., 370
differential reinforcement, 87–89
DiGennaro, 412
DiGennaro, F. D., 403
DiGiuseppe, R., 149, 154
direct observation assessment, 86
disabilities, 35, 291. See also intellectual disability
discrimination, 10, 82, 306, 473–75
diseases, 243, 273, 321, 355. See also specific diseases
comorbidity with chronic health problems and, 321
ICD-10, 312–13, 438, 440, 445
ICD-11, 441
disgust sensitivity, specific phobias, 302
disputing (disputation), 148, 151–52
disqualifying positives (minimizing good data), 121
dissemination, 96, 137, 225, 334, 363–64
ABBT, 191–92
obesity treatment, 427
treatment, 113
distress, 99, 150, 164, 187, 385
diversity, 31, 32, 33, 69, 191, 469
divorce, 383, 394
Dixon, L. J., 387
Dixon, M. R., 411
Dobkin, R. D., 321
Dobson, D., 136
Dobson, K. S., 136
domestic violence, 153
Donnelly, D., 88
Donovan, D. M., 223
Dorsey, M. F., 404
Doss, B. D., 384
downward arrow technique, 127, 129f
Dreer, L. E., 355
Drouin, M. S., 111
Dryden, W., 149, 152–53
Dubois, Paul, 144
Dudley, R., 35
Duggan, C., 446, 447, 451
Durand, V. M., 406
Dutton, S. S., 393
DVDs, 138, 152
dysfunction, 153, 294–95
Dysfunctional Attitudes Scale (DAS), 123, 156
dysregulation. See emotions
D’Zurilla, T. J., 67, 168
eating behaviors, 70, 419, 421, 425
eating disorders, 136, 211, 222, 393, 421
Eckhardt, G. I., 153
economics, 35, 89, 191
education, 28, 30, 188, 189, 454. See also psychoeducation
children and, 366–67, 375–76
obesity and exercise, 423
Eells, Tracy, 63, 64
Ehlers, A., 304, 305, 306
Eifert, G. H., 63–64
Ellis, Albert, 11, 18, 37, 38, 144, 178, 388, 389
biography, 143
REBT and, 142–49, 147f, 152–54
Emilsson, B., 486
Emmelkamp, P. M. G., 187, 389, 447, 455
emotional consequences (C’s), REBT, 144, 145, 145f, 149–50, 151
emotional processing theory (EPT), 97, 105
The Emotional Brain: The Mysterious Underpinnings of Emotional Life (LeDoux), 10
emotions, 10, 11, 18, 50, 142, 183, 338, 449. See also rational emotive behavior therapy
binary model of, 153–54
DBT and, 202–3
emotional contagion, 477
emotional development, children, 365
emotional dysregulation, 166–67, 203, 443
emotional expressiveness training, 389
emotion-focused coping, 162
emotion-focused goals, 168
emotion regulation, 203, 206f, 209
STEPPS, 450–51, 452
empirically supported treatments (ESTs), 364, 375
empiricism, 48–49, 135–36, 147–48, 151, 278
engagement, psychotic disorders, 331–32
Engels, G. I., 155, 155t, 156
environment, 473–78
environmental reward, BA assessment, 240
stressors and stress management, 265
Epictitus, 143–44, 172
epigenetics, 13
Epstein, N., 384, 393
(p. 501) Epstein, N. B., 387
Erhard, 144
establishing operations, 81, 85, 89–90, 408–9
ethics, 33
ethnic identity, 35, 472, 475
ethnic minorities. See minority populations
Europe, 32, 312, 334, 338, 455, 469, 472
European Association of Behavioral and Cognitive Therapies, 1
evaluations, 56–57, 73, 147f, 411
Evaluative Concerns Perfectionism Scale, 122
events, 144–45, 145f, 149
pleasant and unpleasant, 240–41
PTSD and traumatic, 305
evidence base, psychotic disorders, 333, 338–39
exercises, 181–82, 188, 367, 423, 425, 428. See also yoga
experiential avoidance, 48, 174–75, 178
experimental analysis, of behavior, 12–14
experiments, 12–14, 130–31
exposure, 237, 293, 298, 300, 303, 306, 353
exposure and response prevention, 30, 37, 296, 370, 393, 484
exposure-based interventions, 96–113
exposure studies, plus medication, 104–6
techniques, 99–104
therapy, 106–12
treatment, 33, 37, 98–99, 101
extinction, 13, 81–82, 86–87
Eysenck, Hans, 10
Falloon, I. R., 392
falsification, Popperian, 21
families, 220, 392. See also children; parents
“family resemblances,” 7, 8, 18
psychotic disorders, family interventions, 334–39
Farrell, J. M., 448
Farrington, D. P., 445
Fava, G. A., 484
Fava, M., 484
fear, 10, 37, 108, 299, 301–2, 444. See also anxiety disorders
exposure modifying pathological structures of, 97–98
systematic desensitization and, 36, 278, 303
in vivo exposure and, 99–101
The Feeling of What Happens: Body and Emotion in the Making of Consciousness (Damasio), 10
Ferriter, M., 446
Ferster, Charles, 14, 81
Feyerabend, Paul, 22–23
fight-or-flight response, 266, 300
Fisher, J. E., 1
Fisher, W. W., 82, 405, 407
Flitcroft, A., 63
fluoxetine (Prozac), 105, 156
Foa, E. B., 97, 484, 487
Fonagy, P., 449
Foster, G. D., 422
Fouad, N. A., 30, 33
Freeston, M., 63
Fresco, D. M., 177, 190
Freud, Sigmund, 142, 144, 172, 277
Friends Project, 138
Friman, P. C., 409
functional analysis (FA), 51–52, 65–66, 70–71, 86
behavioral assessment and, 44–60, 49f, 53t
with ID and FBA, 402–4
Functional Analysis Interview Format, 85–86
Functional Analysis Screening Tool (FAST), 403
functional analytic clinical case diagrams (FACCD), 57–60, 59f
functional analytic psychotherapy (FAP), 18, 19, 39, 47
BA and, 239
Functional Assessment Interview (FAI), 403
functional behavioral assessment (FBA), 402–4
functional communication training (FCT), 406
functional contextualism, 46–48, 173
functional interventions, 85–87, 90
function-based antecedent intervention, 408–10
function-based consequence intervention, 404–7, 405f
Gaudiano, B. A., 189
Gautama Buddha, 144
generalizability, cultural, 466–70
generalization
ID with maintenance and, 413–14
promoting, 91–92
stimulus control and, 82
generalized anxiety disorder (GAD)
CBT conceptualization, 292–93
clinical strategies with ABBT for, 183–85
in context, 177–78
empirical support, 293–94
history of integrative ABBT for, 180
generational influences, age and, 35
Germain, V., 111
geropsychology, 29
Geschwind, N., 186
Ghezzi, P. M., 413
Giesen-Bloo, J., 448
Ginsburg, G. S., 370, 375
Giron, M., 339
Glass, D. R., 231
Glass, G. V., 363
Glasser, 144
globalizing, 147, 147f, 148
glucocorticoids, 105, 487–88
goal setting, obesity, 423–24
Goff, D., 485
Goldberg, 8
Goldfried, M. R., 144, 168
Gonzales, J. E., 155, 155t, 156
Gonzalez, J. S., 354
Gonzalez-Lima, F., 108
Good Days Ahead program (DVD), 138
goodness of fit
of CBT, with populations of color, 470–71
framework to guide assessment and treatment, 471–73, 472f
between individuals and environments, 473–78
Gordon, J. R., 218
Gordon, K. C., 387
Gould, R. A., 485
Grant, P. M., 323
Gratz, K. L., 188
Great Britain, 334, 453
Greist, J., 112
Griner, D., 467, 468
Gross, Alan, 23–24
Guay, S., 111
guided discovery, 37
guided imagery, 277–81
guided practice, PST, 168
guidelines. See clinical guidelines
Guidi, J., 484
Gunderson, J. G., 188
Haaga, D. A., 153
Hagopian, L. P., 405–6
Haley, J. L., 410
Halford, W. K., 390
Hall, G. C. N., 191, 467
hallucinations, 137
Halonen, J. S., 33
Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HRSD), 156, 238
Hammen, C. L., 231
Hanley, G. P., 82, 404
Harris, R., 38
(p. 502) Hartzler, B., 223
Hawkins, R. O., 409
Hawley, J. L., 153
Hayes, Louise, 187
Hayes, S. C., 1, 2, 45, 180, 186, 187, 235
addictive behaviors and, 188
on behavior therapy, 47
experiential avoidance and, 48
on thought and behavior, 179
Haynes, S. N., 35, 50, 51, 58
Haynes, Steven, 34
Hays, P. A., 35
Hazlett-Stevens, H., 36
health, 111–12, 322, 356, 375, 438. See also mental health; National Institutes of Health
comorbidity with diseases and chronic, 321
healthy behaviors, 222, 230
healthy relationships, couples therapy, 383–85
healthy thinking, 167–68
mental health stigma, 211
outcomes, ACT, 188–89
heart rate (HR), 34
Heatherington, L., 395–96
Hegel, Georg Wilhelm Friedrich, 203
Heick, P. E., 410
Heidegger, Martin, 144
helplessness, 121, 153
Herzberg, 18
Heyman, R. E., 391
hierarchical treatment, DBT as, 207, 207f, 208f
Hinton, C., 410
Hinton, Devon, 477
histrionic, 439t
Hixon Symposium on Cerebral Mechanisms in Behavior (1948), 17
Hoagwood, K., 375
Hofmann, S. G., 185, 291
Hollon, S. D., 18, 364, 446, 452
Holmes, E. A., 278
Holttum, S., 36
homework, 118, 127, 131, 152, 316
homophobia, 23
hopelessness, 121, 133–34, 181
Hopko, D. R., 321
hormones, stress, 266
Horney, 144
Horowitz, L. M., 443, 444
hospitals, 58, 59, 136, 330, 392, 408
psychosis and, 187, 335, 338
stress and, 282, 283
suicide and, 200, 210
veterans, 320, 322
Howarth, D., 354
HR. See heart rate
Hu, S., 292–93
Huband, N., 446, 450, 454
Huber, C. H., 388–89
Huey, S. J., 467, 468
Huganir, R. L., 109
Hughes, F. M., 387
Hull, C. L., 46
Hume, David, 20, 53–54
humor, REBT and, 151
Hunsley, J., 65–66
hypothetico-deductive method, 49–50, 49f
iB’s. See irrational beliefs
I can’t stand it-itis, 145, 146, 147, 147f, 152
idiographic, 63, 161
illness, 10, 138, 188, 243, 393–94. See also diseases
imagery, 132, 167–68
cognitive restructuring with, 131–33
guided, 277–81
imaginal exposure, 101–3
for social phobia, 103
impulsive-careless problem solving, 68, 163
incompleteness, DBT and, 209–10
Increasing Access to Psychological Therapies (IAPT), 334, 364
independent variables, 65
individual diversity, cultural and, 33
inferences, 55t, 56t, 119–20, 147f
inflexible attention, 175
information, 17, 37–38, 57–60, 176
information processing, 119–21, 292, 297, 302, 368
psychotic disorders, family interventions and sharing of, 337
insomnia, CBT for, 354
integrative behavioral couples therapy (IBCT), 177, 180, 183, 186, 390–91, 395
intellectual disability (ID), 401
ABA with, 402, 407, 412, 414
CBT and self-management training, 410–12
FBA and FA with, 402–4
function-based antecedent intervention, 408–10
function-based consequence intervention, 404–7
with generalization and maintenance, 413–14
intermediate beliefs, 123–24, 127, 129f, 147f
International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10), 312–13, 438, 440, 445
International Classification of Diseases (ICD-11), 441
International Personality Disorder Examination (IPDE), 450
Internet, 317, 322, 333, 376
Internet-delivered treatments, 112, 191, 487
interventions, 339, 426–27
interoceptive exposure, 96, 103–4, 112, 300, 353
interpersonal issues, with Axis I disorders and, 320
interpersonal theory, 444
interventions, 364, 420, 430. See also exposure; psychotic disorders, family interventions; psychotic disorders, interventions for individuals
behavioral, 244t–255t
with C&BT, 1, 2, 3
children and transportability of, 375
functional approach to assessment and, 85–92
functional competencies in, 36–40
function-based antecedent, 408–10
function-based consequence, 404–7, 405f
Internet-based, 339, 426–27
intervention integrity, 412–13
learning theories with behavior disorders and, 45–48
for MDD, 314–17
PST as transdiagnostic, 165–66
relapse prevention and, 224–25
technology-based interventions, 426–27
interviews, 34, 85–86, 403
BA, unstructured and structured, 237–39
behavioral assessment, 44, 55
intimate partner aggression, 391
Inviting a Difficulty In, 181–82
in vivo exposure, 99–101
irrational beliefs (iB’s)
dysfunction and, 153
REBT and, 144, 145, 145f, 146, 153–54
Irvin, J. E., 220
Iversen, I. H., 81
Iverson, K. M., 320
ivory tower, couples therapy and, 396–97
Iwata, B. A., 404, 405
Jacobson, Edmund, 267–68, 269–73, 277
Jacobson, N. S., 19, 180, 183, 186, 386, 390, 394
James, I. A., 63
James, William, 172
Janet, Pierre, 144
Jinks, M., 454
(p. 503) Johnson, L., 406
Jouriles, E. N., 394, 396
Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 79
Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 375
journals, cognitive and behavioral psychology, 31, 33
jumping to conclusions. See arbitrary inference
Jung, Carl, 172
Kabat-Zinn, Jon, 173, 180
Kadden, R. M., 219
Kaholokula, J. K., 50, 51, 58
Kant, Immanuel, 144
Kantak, K. M., 487
Kanter, Jonathan, 233
Kaplar, M., 44
Karlin, B. E., 352
Kaslow, N. J., 371
Kater, K., 223
Kaufman, N. K., 372
Kazdin, A. E., 39, 81, 189
Kelly, George, 144
Kelly, S., 395
Kendall, P. C., 370, 376–77
Kendjelic, E. M., 64
Kennedy, C. H., 409
Kennedy, S., 177
Khanna, M. S., 376–77
Kierkegaard, Søren, 144
Kindt, M., 109–10
Kirby, J. S., 393
Kirouac, M., 3
Klein, B., 112
Kliem, S., 447, 449
Koegel, L. K., 411
Koegel, R. L., 411
Koerner, K., 35
Koertge, N., 24
Kohlenberg, R. J., 55
Kozak, M. J., 97, 487
Kuhn, D. E., 407
Kuhn, T. S., 7, 21–22, 25
Kuipers, E., 336
Kuyken, W., 35, 185
Ladd, M. V., 410
LaFromboise, T. D., 475, 476
Langer, Á. I., 186
Langer, Ellen, 201
Langer, S. N., 403
language, 20, 25n 2, 406. See also verbal behavior
ACT and, 173–76
American Sign Language, 15
RFT and, 173–74
Skinner and, 14–16, 21
Lao-Tsu, 144
LaPaglia, D. M., 448
LaTaillade, J. J., 384
Lau, A. S., 468–69
Laudan, Larry, 23
Lazarus, 144
Lazarus, Arnold, 38
Lazarus, Richard S., 266
Le, H. N., 320
learning mechanisms, 10
learning theories, 36–37
with behavior disorders and interventions, 45–48
social learning theory, 144, 180, 200, 366, 368, 385, 392
Leary, T., 444
Leavey, G., 338
LeDoux, J. E., 10
Legacy, S. M., 405
Lehrer, P. M., 269, 281
Lennox, D. B., 88
Lerman, D. C., 82
Lester, G. W., 389, 390
Leuner, Hanscarl, 277
“levels” of cognition. See cognition levels
Levin, M., 186
Lew, M., 410, 411
Lewinsohn, Peter, 229, 230, 231, 232, 241, 256
life areas and value assessment (LAVA), 232, 235, 238, 257
Life Experiences Survey (LES), 241
life stressors, 50
lifestyle interventions, 420, 430
Liles, D., 355
Lindauer, S. E., 406
Lindsely, Ogden, 10
Linehan, Marsha, 19, 38, 179, 201, 203, 443
Linszen, D., 338
Livesley, W. J., 446
living, problems in, 209
logical positivism, 20–21
Look AHEAD weight loss trial, 428, 429
Lorcher, P. S., 153
Luiselli, J. K., 403, 409, 410, 413
Lyons, L. C., 153, 154, 155, 155t, 156
Ma, S. H., 185
Macaskill, A., 156
Macaskill, N. D., 156
Maccarelli, L. M., 448
MacDonald, R. F., 403
Mackinnon, D. P., 395
Macleod, C., 303
Maglieri, K. A., 82
magnification of the negative. See catastrophizing
Mahoney, Michael, 38
major depressive disorder (MDD), 156, 161, 176, 312, 325
CBT, CT, and other interventions for, 314–17
computers and, 314, 322
future directions, 319–24
relapse and, 313–14, 483
maladaptive cognitions, PTSD and, 304–5
maladaptive information processing, 119–21, 368
management. See also stress management
CBT and self-management training, 410–12
contingency, 40, 451–52
functional competencies and, 41
nonbehavioral approaches to weight management, 420–21
mand, verbal behavior, 15
March, J. S., 371
March, S., 376
Marchand, A., 111
Margolin, G., 386, 388, 390
marital therapy, 231, 388, 394, 396
Markowski, A., 409
Marks, E. H., 110
Marks, I. M., 104
Marlatt, G. A., 216, 218, 219, 223, 225
Martell, C. R., 39
Martens, B. K., 403
Marx, Karl, 203
Mash, E. J., 65–66
Masuda, A., 190
Matta, C., 410
Matthews, A., 278
Maultsby, 144
May, Gerald, 201
Mayer, R. G., 83
Mays, V., 485
Mazaleski, J. L., 405
McComas, J., 406
McDermut, J. F., 153
McFall, M., 320
McFall, R. M., 18
McGill, C. W., 392
McGrath, J. J., 44
McGuigan, F. J., 269
McHugh, R. K., 487
McKeel, A. N., 411
McMurran, M., 442, 444, 454
mediating variables, 72–73
medical issues, CBT for other, 355
medical populations, CBT in, 353
medication, 136, 156, 189, 370, 428. See also pharmacology
ADHD, 374–75, 486
depression, 186, 351, 372
exposure studies plus, 104–6
obesity, 420–21
(p. 504) pharmacology, exposure therapy, 106–9
psychosis and, 329
relapse prevention, 224
meditation, 293. See also Zen
Meehl, P. E., 23
Meichenbaum, D., 38, 144, 145
memories, 355
autobiographical recall, 122, 305
pharmacology and retrieval of, 108
PTSD and, 110
of traumatic events, PTSD, 305
mental disorders, in older adults, 349–50
mental Illness, 10, 138
mentalization-based therapy, PDs, 449–50, 452
metacognition, 39, 119, 292
metaphors, 151, 181
Method of Concomitant Variation, 54
methodological anarchism, 22–23
methylene blue (MB), 108
Meyer, K. A., 409
Michael, J., 408, 409
“micro-communities,” 25
Middle East, 334
Milford, G., 153
Mill, John Stuart, 54
Miller, Bill, 24
Milstein, B., 388–89
Miltenberger, R. G., 80, 81, 83, 88
mindfulness, 223, 425, 471. See also Zen
cognitive-behavioral psychotherapy with, 173–80
defined, 68, 173
mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT), 39, 47, 307
clinical strategies, 182–83
depressive relapse, factors, 176–77, 221
empirical support, 185–86
history of, 179–80
mindless emoting, 176
mind reading, 120, 368
Mineka, S., 278
Mini-Mental Status Examination (MMSE) Working Memory index, 355
minimizing good data. See disqualifying positives
Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI), 45
minority populations, 472
ABBT and, 191
couples therapy and, 395
with goodness of fit, CBT, 470–71
obesity and, 419, 430–31
problem-solving styles with, 69
psychotherapy and older adults, 350–51
relapse prevention and, 223–24
Mitcheson, L., 217
Mitte, K., 104
Mittenberger, R. G., 39, 40
modeling, children and CBT with, 368–69
models
depression, 46, 314–15
diathesis-stress, 160, 164
emotions, binary, 153–54
multidimensional problem-solving, 67–69
neo-conditioning, 301–2
problem-solving, 65–69
REBT and binary model of emotions, 153–54
relapse, cognitive-behavioral, 216, 218, 219, 225
relapse, dynamic, 217, 218, 225
SPS, multidimensional, 162–63
moderators
ABBT, 190–91
stress, 267
modular treatment, DBT as, 204–7, 205f, 206f
Mohr, D. C., 322
Monfils, 110
Monfils, M-H., 109
Montgomery, G. H., 154, 156
Monti, P. M., 219
mood disorders, 122, 487
Morgantown BA, 234–35, 243
Morizio, L. C., 403
Morrison, A. P., 330
motivation, 81, 167–68, 352, 403, 406–7
Motivation Assessment Scale (MAS), 403
Moving Forward, PST and, 169
Mowrer, O. H., 11
Mueser, K. T., 485
Mule, C., 413
Mulle, K., 371
multicultural issues
in CBT, 465–78, 472f
MDD and, 319–20
multidimensional problem-solving model, 67–69
Multimodal Treatment Study of Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, 374
multitasking, problem-solving, 166
Murphy, C. E., 375
music, stress and, 279–80
mutual trap, 177
Mystkowski, J. L., 488
Najavits, L. M., 221
National Comorbidity Survey (NCS-R), 229
National Council of Schools and Programs in Professional Psychology (NCSPP), 28
National Institute of Drug Abuse (NIDA), 223
National Institutes of Health (NIH), 394, 421, 428, 430, 453
National Weight Control Registry, 428
natural selection, 12, 13
Neenan, M., 149
negatives
catastrophizing or magnification of, 120–21
negative problem orientation, 162
negative reinforcement, 404, 406
thinking, 38, 167–68, 219, 234, 372
Neidig, P. H., 391
Nelson, P. D., 29
neo-conditioning model, 301–2
nervous system, 12, 267
Nestler, E. J., 10
Neufeld, K. J., 451
Neurobiology of Mental Illness (Charney and Nestler), 10
neuroimaging, 9–10, 17, 282
Newman, C. E., 40–41
Nezu, A. M., 23, 35, 39, 65, 67, 410
Nezu, C. M., 23, 35, 39, 65, 410
NICE UK, 336
Nichols, E., 223
1984 (Orwell), 16
Noell, G. H., 83
Nolen-Hoeksema, Susan, 176
noncompliant behavior, 406, 407
noncontingent reinforcement (NCR), 405, 406
nonsuicidal self-injury behaviors (NSSIs), 210
nonverbal behavior, 12, 15
Norway, 441
nutrition, obesity and, 423
obesity
bariatric surgery and, 421
cognitive-behavioral conceptualization of, 421–22, 422f
consequences, 420
definition, 419
future directions, 431–32
pharmacotherapy and, 420–21
prevalence of, 419–20
(p. 505) research, future directions for specific populations, 431t
treatment, 420, 420t, 422–31
O’Brien, W. H., 44, 47, 50, 51, 55, 56, 58
observation
of behavior, 80
direct observation assessment, 86
observational methods, BA, 241–42
obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), 37, 410, 483
ACT and, 187
CBT conceptualization and, 294–95
in children, 368, 370–71
defining features, 294
in DSM-IV, 440t
empirical support, 296
exposure-based treatments, efficacy evidence, 98–99
exposure studies plus medication, 104
imaginal exposure for, 102–3
pathological fear structure in, 98
treatment implications, 295–96
videoconference treatment and, 111
in vivo exposure for treatment of, 99, 101
O’Donohue, W., 1, 23
O’Donohue, W. T., 22, 23, 24
O’Farrell, T. J., 392, 394
Öhman, A., 278
Okazaki, S., 469
O’Leary, K. D., 391
O’Neill, R. E., 85–86
operant behavior, 13
operant conditioning, 12, 45–46, 82–83
“The Operational Analysis of Psychological Terms” (Skinner), 12
oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), 372–73
Opriş, D., 111
OPRM1 A118G polymorphism, 224
Orwell, George, 16
Öst, L-G., 105, 189
Ostrowski, M. J., 448
Otto, M. W., 487
outcomes, 188–89
BA treatment outcome research, 243–56
CBT for depression, 352
positive, 216
stress, 267
ultimate, 35, 63, 65, 69–70, 73
“Overcoming Your Alcohol or Drug Problem” (Daley and Marlatt), 219
overt behavior. See behavior
Overton, E., 454
Owens, J. S., 375
Padesky, C., 35
pain
ACT, 188
CBT for pain syndromes, 355
panic disorder (PD), 410, 483
CBT conceptualization of, 299
DCS and, 106
defining features, 298–99
empirical support, 300–301
exposure-based treatments, efficacy evidence, 99
exposure studies plus medication, 104
fear and, 97–98
interoceptive exposure and, 103–4
medication for, 300, 484–85
relapse, 485
treatment components, 299–300
videoconference treatment and, 111
in vivo exposure for, 100
VR exposure therapy and, 110–11
Papakostas, G. I., 484
paradigms, Kuhnian, 21–22
paranoid, 439t
parents
with aggression in children, 373, 445
with children in treatment, 365
couples therapy and parenthood, 395
Parkinson’s disease, 321, 355
partial reinforcement, 14
pathological fear, 97–98, 108
Paul, Gordon, 271
Pavlov, Ivan P., 10–11, 144
Pediatric OCD Treatment Study, 371
penile plethysmography, 35
Penn Resiliency Project (PRP), 138
perfectionism, 122–23, 295
Perls, 144
Perri, M. G., 428, 429
Perry, D. F., 320
Personality Beliefs Questionnaire (PBQ), 124, 442
Personality Disorder Beliefs Questionnaire, 447
personality disorders (PDs), 124, 456. See also borderline personality disorder
antisocial PDs, 442, 444, 445, 447, 451–53, 455
BPDSI-IV, 448
clinical guidelines, 452–53
comorbidity and prevalence, 441
diagnosis, 438–41
DSM-IV on, 439t–440t
future directions, 454–55
impact of, 441
not otherwise specified, 440t
Personality Disorder Beliefs Questionnaire, 447
theories of, 441–46
treatment, 453–54
treatment components, 446
treatments, cognitive and behavioral, 446–52
Persons, J. B., 35
Peterson, R. F., 403
Peyton, R., 406
phallometric assessment, 35
pharmacology
cortisol, 34, 105, 108–9, 266, 273, 488
exposure therapy, 106–9
pharmacotherapy
anxiety disorders, CBT, and, 487–89
combination treatment with CBT and, 482–89
monotherapy with CBT or, 483
obesity and, 420–21
Phelan, S., 428
philosophy
DBT and dialectical, 203–4
philosophical versus empirical, REBT and CT, 147–48
of science, 19–25
thoughts challenged in REBT with philosophical disputation, 151–52
phobias, 301
agoraphobia, 122, 132, 136, 299, 300, 393
claustrophobia, 107
exposure studies plus medication, 105
homophobia, 23
social, 98, 99, 100–101, 103, 105, 109, 111, 112
specific, 98, 99, 105, 110, 153, 301–4
physical activity, weight and, 188
Physical Aggression Couples Treatment (PACT), 391
physiological mechanisms, stress management, 281–82
physiologic assessment, 34–35
Piazza, C. C., 82, 407
Picardi, A., 485
Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS), 406
Pincus, A. L., 444
Pisetsky, E., 393
planful problem solving, 68, 168
planned critical multiplism, 68
Pleasant Events Schedule (PES), 240
politics, 24, 477–78
Polo, A. J., 467, 468
Polygraph Metaphor, 181
polysomnography, 35
Popper, Karl, 21
populations
ABBT and ethnic, 191
anxiety disorders in, 291, 292
CBT in medical, 353
CBT in older adult, 349–58
(p. 506) of color, with goodness of fit of CBT, 470–71
DBT research and, 210–11
MDD and special, 319–20
mental disorders in older adults, 350
obesity, future research directions for specific populations, 431t
problem-solving styles with minority, 69
psychosis in, 330
relapse prevention research, problems and, 219–23
positives, 85, 403
healthy thinking and positive imagery, 167–68
minimizing good data or disqualifying, 121
outcomes, 216
positive problem orientation, 162
positive reinforcement, 404, 408
psychotic disorders, family interventions and positive caregiving process, 336
positivism. See logical positivism
postmodernism, C&BT and, 24–25
post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), 37, 38
CBT conceptualization of, 304–5
defining features, 304
depression and, 320
empirical support, 306
EPT and, 97
exposure-based treatments, efficacy evidence, 99
imaginal exposure for, 102
Internet-based treatment and, 112
MB and, 108
memories and, 110
Moving Forward and, 169
pathological fear structure and, 98
propranolol and, 107–8
PST and, 161
relapse prevention and, 221
research, 169
sociopolitical history and, 477–78
suicide and, 206–7
treatment components, 305–6
videoconference treatment and, 111
in vivo exposure for, 100, 101
Powers, D., 355
Powers, M. B., 107, 186, 187, 485
pragmatic disputation, 152
Prasko, J., 105
preference, for combination treatment, 486
preoccupied attachment, 444
prevention. See relapse prevention
primary distress, couples therapy and, 385
principles
ABA, 81–83
brainstorming, 70
rationality principle, with behavior, 21
problems
behavior, 48–51
DBT and problems in living, 209
problematic relationships with internal experiences, 178
problem definition, 68, 168
problem-focused coping, 162
problem-focused goals, 168
PST and, 161–62
relapse prevention research, populations and, 219–23
problem solving, 23
case formulation with therapy as, 66–69
with children and CBT, 366
GAD and ability to, 292
obesity, 424
planful problem solving, 68, 168
poor, 121–22
problem-solving-based therapies, PDs and, 450–51, 452
problem-solving model, 65–69
problem-solving styles, 68–69, 164
psychotic disorders, family interventions and, 337–38
STEPPS, 450–51, 452
problem-solving therapy (PST), 19, 30
clinical guidelines, overview, 166–68
clinical practice and, 168–69
contemporary, 38
in context, 160–61
depression and, 351
efficacy of, 164–66
problem and, 161–62
research, 169
solution and, 162
SPS, multidimensional model, 162–63
SPS and, 162
SPS and psychopathology, 163–64
training, 169
as transdiagnostic intervention, 165–66
Proctor, E. K., 65
professional development, 32–33
professional identification, 31–32
progressive muscle relaxation (PMR)
APMR and, 270–73, 272t
children and, 367
current practice, 268–69
history, 267–68
preparation, 269
sequence for traditional, 270t
session, first, 269
session, subsequent, 269–70
theoretical and empirical bases, 268
progressive relaxation training, 36
prolonged exposure (PE), 37
prompting, 39–40, 83, 84
properties, of behavior therapy, 8–9
propranolol, 107–8
Prozac. See fluoxetine
Prud’homme, L., 153
psychodynamic assessments, 45
psychoeducation, 184
GAD treatment and, 293
OCD and, 295, 371
PD and, 299–300
PDs and, 450–51, 452
psychosis, 337
PTSD, 305
SAD and, 297
specific phobias, 302–3
psychology, 12, 33, 375. See also cognitive and behavioral psychology
APA, 187, 363, 364
IAPT, 334, 364
professional organizations, 1, 28–30, 31
psychological tests, 35
Wittgenstein on, 23
psychopathology
PDs, 446
SPS and, 163–64
psychopathy, 445
psychosis
ACT, 187
engagement and, 331
hospitals and, 187, 335, 338
Internet and psychosis interventions, 339
medication and, 329
in populations, 330
psychoeducation, 337
relapse, 334, 335, 336
studies, 338–39
treatment manuals, 336
psychosis, intervention, CBT, 330–34
psychotherapy, 2, 142, 173–80
case formulation and application to, 73–74
computers and psychotherapy treatments, 211–12
FAP, 18, 19, 39, 47
minority populations and older adults, 350–51
psychotic disorders, family interventions, 334–39
psychotic disorders, interventions for individuals, 329–34
punishment
ABA and, 40, 82
response cost, 91
time out, 90–91, 405
questions
causal inference, 56t
PBQ, 124, 442
questionnaires, 124, 442, 443, 447, 450
Questions About Behavior Function, 403
(p. 507) rational responding, 125
in REBT to elicit beliefs, 151f
Socratic dialogue, 37, 137, 148, 151, 315, 318
racial identity, 35
radical acceptance, 38
radical behaviorism, 9, 11–12, 48, 173
Ramnero, J., 39
randomized controlled trials (RCTs)
anxiety disorders and, 99
DBT and, 210–11
PDs and, 446–47
relapse prevention, 223
rating scales, subjective, 119
rational beliefs (rB’s), REBT, 145, 145f
rational emotive behavior therapy (REBT), 18, 37, 178–79
ABC of, 145f, 149
activating events or A’s, 144–45, 145f, 149
B-C connection, 149, 151
beliefs and, 144, 145, 145f, 146, 147f, 148, 150–54, 151f
conceptualization of cognitions, difference in, 146–47
in context, 144–49
CT versus, 146–49, 147f, 156
demands difference in importance of, 148
disputing, difference in nature of, 148
Ellis and, 142–49, 147f, 152–54
emotional consequences or C’s, 144, 145, 145f, 149–50, 151
emotions, binary model of, 153–54
emotions, difference in focus of, 148–49
evidence for applied, 154–56, 155t
future research and practice recommendations, 156–57
homework, 152
philosophical versus empirical, difference in origin, 147–48
points of difference, 146
in practice, 149–52
research evidence for, 152–56
secondary emotions, 149, 150
sequence, 149f
rational emotive therapy (RET), 37, 142
rationality principle, with behavior, 21
rational responding, 124–27, 128f
Reagan, Ronald, 469
Reason and Emotion in Psychotherapy (Ellis), 142
reasoning, 19–20, 120
recording, 80, 86, 152
Reed, 412
Reed, D. D., 403
Rees, C. S., 371
reinforcement
with ABA, 81
automatically reinforced challenging behaviors, 404, 407
categories of, 85
of challenging behaviors, 407
differential reinforcement, 87–89
partial, 14
schedules of, 13–14
self-reinforcement, 411
types, 85, 403, 404, 405, 406, 408
Rejeski, W. J., 430
relapse
cognitive-behavioral model of, 216, 218, 219, 225
depression, 176–77, 221, 317, 372
MBCT and, 185, 186
PD, 485
psychosis, 334, 335, 336
relapse prevention
cognitive-behavioral model of relapse, 216, 218, 219, 225
conceptual underpinnings of, 216–17
in context, 215–16
future directions, 223–25
history of, 217–18
MBRP, 223
obesity, 424
problems and populations, research overview, 219–23
protocol description, 218–19
relapse, dynamic model of, 217, 218, 225
triggering events and, 216, 218
relational frame theory (RFT), 38, 173–74
relationships
causal functional, 53–57
cognitive and behavioral psychology, 32–33
cognitive restructuring with therapeutic, 133–35
healthy relationship, 383–85
problematic relationships with internal experiences, 178
stress-distress relationship, 164
relaxation. See also abbreviated progressive muscle relaxation; breathing; progressive muscle relaxation; yoga; Zen
CBT and, 353
with children and CBT, 367
GAD treatment and, 293
techniques, 132
training, 36, 353, 367
religion, 35, 350, 471
replication studies, couples therapy, 394–95
reports, of behavior, 81
research, 33, 81
APMR and future, 273
BA treatment outcome, 243–56
breathing and future, 277
case formulation, 63–64
depression, 231
dissemination and, 96
guided imagery and future, 280–81
obesity in specific populations and future, 431t
PST, 169
REBT, evidence for, 152–56
relapse prevention, problems and populations, 219–23
resiliency. See Penn Resiliency Project
response, stress, 266–67
response cost, punishment, 91
response variables, 73
Ressler, K. J., 106
retrospective reports, of behavior, 81
rewards, 240, 369, 373
rhetorical, therapy as, 24
rhetorical analyses, Grossian, 23–24
Rhetoric of Science (Grossman), 23
Ricciardi, J. N., 410
Richards, J. C., 112
Richman, D. M., 406
Richman, G. S., 404
Rickel, K. A., 430
rigidness, with thinking styles, 121–22
risks, relapse prevention, 216–17, 219
Risley, T. R., 79, 402
Rogers, Carl, 16, 172
Rohsenow, D. J., 219
role playing
children and CBT with, 368–69
to modify thinking, 129–30
Romania, 154
Rorschach assessment, 45
Rosen, A., 65
Rosenthal, B. D., 403
Roshanaei-Moghaddam, B., 483
Ruiz, E. J., 187
rules, 16, 22
Russel, 144
Rybarczyk, B., 354
Ryle, Anthony, 451
Safren, S. A., 486
Salter, 18
Sanders, M. R., 390
Sartre, Jean-Paul, 144
Sayers, S., 387, 389
Scale of Ethnic Experience (SEE), 472
Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia, 238
schedules, 13–14, 238, 240
Schedules of Reinforcement (Ferster and Skinner), 14
schema modification. See cognitive restructuring
(p. 508) schemas, 123, 127, 129f, 146
core beliefs and, 124
CT and, 147f
theory, 442–43
therapy, 396, 448, 452
Schiller, D., 109
schizophrenia, 136, 238, 323, 441, 485
couples therapy with bipolar disorder and, 392
CT and, 137
healthy behaviors and, 222
PMR and, 273
schizoid, 439t
schizotypal, 439t
Schmidt, S., 410
Schnur, J., 154
Schoenwald, S. K., 375
Schulte, D., 63–64
Schultz, 36, 144
Schwartz, G. E., 281
Schwartz, I. S., 414
science, 22, 33
CBT and philosophy of, 19–25
politics and, 24
stress management and, 281–83
types of problems, 23
secondary distress, couples therapy and, 385
secure attachment, 444
seeing things out of context. See selective abstraction
Seeking Safety program, 221
Segal, Zindel, 191
Segal, Z. V., 176, 177, 179–80, 185–86, 323
selective abstraction (seeing things out of context), 120
selective mutism, 370
Self-Critical Perfectionism Scale (SCPS), 122
self-efficacy, 216, 219, 367
self-evaluation, 411
self-help, with and without therapist guidance, 112
self-injurious behavior (SIB), 210, 404, 405, 407
self-knowledge, 175
self-management training, CBT and, 410–12
self-monitoring, 411, 422–23
self-reflection, 32–33, 138–39
self-reinforcement, 411
self-report measures, BA, 239, 242
Seltzer, M. H., 447
Selye, Hans, 266
semistructured interviews, 34
Semple, R. J., 186
sensitivity, cultural, 23
Sequence Treatment Alternatives to Relieve Depression (STAR*D), 484, 486
Serretti, A., 185
sex
deviant associations and, 35, 222, 224
sexual orientation, 35, 350
Shadish, W. R., 396
shaping
ABA interventions and, 39–40
of behaviors, new, 83
behavior therapy and, 9
Shaw, B. F., 231
Shaw, I. A., 448
Sher, T. G., 387, 389
Shogren, K. A., 411
Siegmund, A., 107
Simons, A. D., 323
situation modification. See attention modification
Skeem, J., 445
skills-building, 205
behavior therapy and, 9
BST, 84–85
DBT, 206f
problem-solving, 68
PSST, 373
rational responding, 124–27, 128f
relapse prevention and, 219
skills-only RCTs, 211
social skills training, 222
Skinner, B. F., 23, 142
bettering society, views on, 11, 16–17
experimental analysis of behavior, 12–14
influence, 10, 46, 179, 230
language and, 14–16, 21
radical behaviorism, 9, 11–12, 48, 173
reinforcement and, 81
verbal behavior, 14–16
Slifer, K. J., 404
Slyman, A., 409
Smailagic, N., 446
Smith, J. C., 282
Smith, L. D., 20
Smith, M. L., 363
Smith, R. G., 405
Smith, T. B., 467, 468
Smout, M. F., 188
Snow, L. A., 355
Snyder, D. K., 396
Social Adjustment Scale, 156
social anxiety disorder (SAD)
CBT conceptualization, 297
defining features, 296–97
empirical support, 298
treatment implications, 297–98
social behavioral theory, DBT and, 202–4
social development, children, 365
social disapproval, FA and, 404
social exchange theory, 385
Social Functioning Questionnaire, 447, 450
social learning theory, 144, 180, 200, 366, 368, 385, 392
social negative reinforcement, 85, 403
social phobia, 98
cortisol and, 109
exposure-based treatments, efficacy evidence, 99
exposure studies plus medication, 105
imaginal exposure for, 103
Internet-based treatment and, 112
video conference treatment and, 111
in vivo exposure for, 99, 100–101
social positive reinforcement, 85, 403
social problem solving (SPS)
multidimensional model of, 162–63
psychopathology and, 163–64
theory, 444–45
social skills training, 222
social support, obesity and, 424
social validity, 411, 414
society, Skinner and bettering, 11, 16–17
socioeconomic status, 35
sociopolitical history, PTSD and, 477–78
Socratic dialogue, 37, 137, 148, 151, 315, 318
Soeter, M., 109–10
Sofronoff, K., 410
solution
PST and, 162
solution implementation and verification, 69
SORC, 70–71
South America, 312
SPEAR, aggression and, 366
specific phobia, 98, 99, 105, 110
CBT conceptualization of, 301–2
defining features, 301
empirical support, 303–4
iB’s and, 153
treatment components, 302–3
Spence, S. H., 376
Staats, A. W., 202
Staff Training in Assisted Living Residences. See STAR
STAR (Staff Training in Assisted Living Residences), 355
Steege, M. W., 87
stepped care, 112
stereotypy, 91, 401, 405, 407, 410, 411
stigma
ACT in workplace/stigma, 189
mental health, 211
Stiles, T. C., 447
stimuli
(p. 509) contingency-specifying, 16
generalization and, 91
obesity and control of, 424
stimulus control, 82, 408
stimulus discrimination, 10, 82, 306
stimulus preference assessment, 412
Stokes, T. F., 413
stop, slow down, think, and act (SSTA), 166–67
strategies
anxiety disorders and combination, 489
clinical, 180–85
DBT, 205
deliteralization, 181
TRAC and TRAP, 234, 235, 243, 257
Strauss, J. L., 133
stress, 49, 173, 282, 283. See also post-traumatic stress disorder
brain and, 266–67
diathesis-stress model, 160, 164
hormones, 266
life stressors, 50
music and, 279–80
SSTA and, 166–67
stress-distress relationship, 164
in workplace, 283
stress management
APMR, 270–73, 272t
breathing, 273–77
cognitive appraisal and coping processes, 265–66
in context, 264–65
environmental stressors, 265
guided imagery, 277–81
institutional settings, applications, 282–83
physiological and cognitive mechanisms, 281–82
PMR, 267–70, 270t
scientific and clinical issues in, 281–83
stress moderators, 267
stress outcomes, 267
stress response, 266–67
techniques, 267–81
theoretical bases of, 265–67
Strohmeier, C., 413
Strosahl, K., 48
structured interviews, 34
Structure of Scientific Revolutions (Kuhn), 21–22
Stuart, E. A., 320
Stuart, R. B., 386
styles
problem-solving, 68–69, 164
in REBT to challenge thoughts, 151
rigidness with thinking, 121–22
subjective rating scales, 119
subjective units of distress (SUDS), 99, 150
substance abuse, 210, 219, 220, 222, 223, 224, 225. See also relapse; relapse prevention
couples therapy and, 392
PDs and, 441
Sue, Derald Wing, 470
suicide, 352, 451, 453
CT and, 136
DBT and, 200–201, 202–3, 210
depression and, 372
hopelessness and helplessness, 121
NSSIs, 210
PTSD and, 206–7
relapse prevention and, 221–22
Sullivan, H. S., 444
Sulzer-Azaroff, B., 83
Surgeon General’s Conference on Children’s Mental Health, 375
Svartberg, M., 447
Swann, W. B., Jr., 201
Symons, F. J., 406
Symposium on Information Theory (1956), 17
symptoms, MDD, 313
systematic desensitization, 11, 30, 36, 46, 277–78, 303
Systems training for emotional predictability and problem solving (STEPPS), 450–51, 452
Szczech, F. M., 403
tact, verbal behavior, 15
Tai Chi, 355
Tarr, M., 410
Tarrier, N., 35, 63
Task Force on Promotion and Dissemination of Psychological Procedures, 363–64
Task Force on Psychological Interventions, 364
TBCT (Traditional Behavioral Couples Therapy). See couples therapy
teaching, functional competencies and, 41
Teasdale, J. D., 185
techniques
breathing, 275–76
cognitive restructuring, 127, 129f, 131–33
for couples therapy, individual disorders, 391–92
CT, 37
exposure, 99–104
relaxation, 132
stress management, 267–81
technology
relapse prevention and, 224
technology-based interventions, 426–27
Telch, 110
telehealth, 111–12
telephones
applications, MDD, 317, 322
obesity and telephone-based intervention, 426–27
telephone-based CBT, 356, 487
temporal precedence, 53, 55
tests, psychological, 35
textual behavior, 15
theoretical foundations, couples therapy, 385–88
theories, 17
attachment, 443–44
Bayes Theorem, 57
behavioral, 231–32
biosocial, 203
cognitive, 442
conditioning, 36–37
couples therapy and theoretical foundation, 385–88
depression, 176, 179
EPT, 97, 105
interpersonal, 444
learning, 36–37, 45–48, 144, 180, 200, 366, 368, 385, 392
PMR and theoretical and empirical bases, 268
RFT, 38, 173–74
schemas, 442–43
social behavioral, 202–4
social exchange, 385
stress management and theoretical bases, 265–67
therapeutic relationships, cognitive restructuring with, 133–35
therapies. See specific therapies
therapists
in Beck Initiative, 137
children, role and expectations of, 365–66
with imagery techniques, 132
with rational responding, 126
with role playing, 130
self-help treatment without guidance from, 112
with self-reflective practice, 138–39
therapeutic relationships, 133–35
therapist-guided self-help, telehealth, 112
Thich Nhat Hanh, 201
thinking traps, 368
Thompson, A., 406
Thompson, N. J., 191
Thompson, R. H., 407
(p. 510) thoughts. See also cognitive restructuring
all-or-none thinking, 119, 368
automatic thoughts, 18, 21, 119, 123–27, 128f, 147f, 316, 352
behavior and, 179
beliefs, 123–24, 127, 129f, 134, 144, 145, 145f, 146, 147f, 148, 150–54, 151f, 167, 292, 294–95, 316, 331, 371, 442, 447
children and thought bubbles, 368
functional contextualism and, 47
healthy thinking and positive imagery, 167–68
negative, 38, 167–68, 219, 234, 372
OCD and thought-action fusion, 295
REBT styles to challenge, 151
relapse prevention and, 219
role playing, to modify thinking, 129–30
SSTA, 166–67
thinking traps, 368
worrisome, 48
Tillich, 144
time
time out, 90–91, 405
time series analyses, 57
Tobacyk, J., 153
token economy, 89
tolerability, of combination treatment, 486
Tollenaar, M. S., 108
topographical analysis
of behavior, 52
of context, 52–53, 53t
Torneke, N., 39
total task presentation, 84
total verbal episode, 15, 25n 2
Touchette, P. E., 403
TRAC (trigger, response, alternative coping) strategy, 234, 235, 243, 257
Traditional Behavioral Couples Therapy (TBCT). See couples therapy
training
APMR, 271–72
autogenic, 36
BST, 84–85
case formulation, 64
CBT and self-management, 410–12
cognitive and behavioral psychology, 30
discrimination, 82
emotional expressiveness training, 389
FCT, 406
PSST, 373
PST, 169
relapse prevention and skills, 219
relaxation, 36, 353, 367
social skills, 222
STAR, 356
STEPPS, 450–51, 452
transcription, verbal behavior, 15
transdiagnostic CBT, 377
transdiagnostic intervention, PST as, 165–66
transportability, of interventions, 375
TRAP (trigger, response, avoidance pattern) strategy, 234, 235, 243, 257
Treadwell, K. R. H., 370
A Treatise of Human Nature (Hume), 53
treatment
ABBT with ethnically and economically diverse populations, 191
APA and guidelines for, 364
BATD, 232, 234–36, 242, 243, 257
BA treatment outcome research, 243–56
behavior therapy, 8–9
CBT and pharmacotherapy with combination, 482–89
children in, 363–66, 374, 376, 429–30
cognitive-behavioral, 388–94, 422–25
computers and psychotherapy, 211–12
couples therapy, 385–94, 395
cultural adaptations, objections, 468–69
dissemination, 113
ESTs, 364, 375
exposure, 33, 37, 98–99, 101
GAD, 293
goodness-of-fit framework to guide, 471–73, 472f
idiographic approach, 63
Internet-delivered, 112, 191, 487
manuals, 39, 336
obesity, 420, 420t, 422–31
PACT, 391
PDs with cognitive and behavioral, 446–52
PTSD, 305–6
SAD and, 297–98
self-help treatment without therapist guidance, 112
specific phobia, 302–3
STAR*D, 484, 486
targets, 71–72
telehealth and videoconference, 111
telephone-based CBT, 356, 487
unified treatment approach, 63
Treatment of Depression Collaborative Research Program (TDCRP), 231
trigger, response, alternative coping strategy. See TRAC strategy
trigger, response, avoidance pattern strategy. See TRAP strategy
triggers, 234, 235, 243, 257
eating behaviors, 421
triggering events, 216, 218
Tripp-Tebo, C., 410
Twohig, M. P., 187
Tyrer, P., 447
Uebelacker, L. A., 396
ultimate outcomes, 35, 63, 65, 69–70, 73
uncertainty, intolerance of, 293, 295
unified treatment approach, 63
unipolar depression, 123, 136, 156, 484, 485
United Kingdom, 32, 307, 329–30, 334, 336, 441
Upchurch, R., 393
uselessness, depression and, 351–52
VA Health Care System, 322
validation, 184, 411, 414
value, 72, 175–76, 232, 235, 238, 257
Van Balkom, A. J. L. M., 104
van Dixhoorn, Jan, 276
variables, 46, 50, 53–56, 65, 72–73
Varra, A. A., 189
Veehof, M. M., 188
verbal behavior, 12, 14–16, 25n 2
Verbal Behavior (Skinner), 12, 14
verification, solution implementation and, 69
veterans, 169, 320, 322
Veterans Health Administration, 356
videoconference treatment, 111
Villarroel, N. A., 223
violence, 153, 391, 404, 405. See also intellectual disability
virtual reality, 110–11
Vollmer, T. R., 82, 405
Vorndran, C. M., 82
Wadden, T. A., 422
Walden Two (Skinner), 16
Walker, D. L., 106
Wallace, M., 83
Ward, T., 222
Ward Behavior Checklist, 241
Washington BA, 233–34, 243
Watkins, K. E., 319
Watson, H. J., 371
Watson, J. B., 46
Watts, D., 410
Webber, M. A., 448
Weertman, A., 448
Wei, M., 474
weight, 188, 419, 420–21, 420t, 427–29
Weil, T. M., 80
Weiss, R. L., 388
Whisman, M. A., 396
Whitehead, Alfred North, 14
Wilhelm, S., 107
Willett, J. M., 387
Williams, A. E., 35
Williams, J. G., 241
Wilson, K. G., 48
(p. 511) Wing, R. R., 428
Witkiewitz, K., 216, 217, 223, 224
Wittgenstein, L., 7, 8, 18, 23
Wolf, M. M., 79, 402
Wolpe, Joseph, 10, 11, 36, 46, 271, 277–78
Woods, P. J., 153, 154, 155, 155t, 156
workplace, 189, 283
World Congress of Behavioural and Cognitive Therapies (WCBCT), 1, 29, 32
worry, 48, 153, 352. See also anxiety
Wright, J. H., 138
Wulfert, E., 187
Yardakul, L., 36
Yates, P. M., 222
Yee, A., 467
yoga, 181, 188, 273–74, 275
yohimbine, 107
Young, Jeffrey, 396, 442–43, 448
Young America movement, 143
Young Schema Questionnaire (YSQ), 123, 443
Zarcone, J. R., 405
Zen, 201–2, 204, 274
Zeno of Citium, 143
Zettle, R. D., 179
Zgierska, A., 223
Ziegler, D. J., 153
Zoellner, L. A., 110