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date: 11 December 2019

(p. 685) Index

(p. 685) Index

A
accessibility
food environments, 472–474
perception, 469
physical activity, 466–467
accessible identity model, 108
accidents, 380
accountability, equity, 96
accreditation, wilderness experience programs (WEPs), 438–439
action competence, 528
Active Living Research (ALR), 515
active self, wilderness experience program, 432, 433, 434–435
activity reflection, wilderness experience program, 432, 433, 435–436
activity theory, bettering environment, 422
acute mountain sickness (AMS), 353–354
Adams, Scott, 250
adaptation, climate change, 654–655
adaptive behaviors, city life, 207–208
adaptive management, policy dialogues, 615
Adler, Albert, 165
adolescents
place attachments, 118, 153–154
wilderness experience programs (WEPs), 437–441
advocacy coalition framework (ACF), collaborative partnership, 602–604
aesthetic epiphanies, 498–499, 502–503
aesthetics
children’s drawings, 120
environmental perception and, 28–29, 37
natural landscapes, 333–334
physical activity, 468–469, 470
student experiences in outdoors, 494
walkability, 465
affective connection, humans to nature, 133, 139
affordances, 12
direct perception and environmental psychology, 26–27
environment, 116
environmental, 221
evaluations and actions, 224
everyday life, 222
Gibsonian concept, 25–27, 34
investigations and extensions of, 26
model for examining, 223, 225
tool for evaluation and design, 27–28
water misuse, 586
Against All Odds: Holocaust Survivors and the Successful Lives They Made in America, 348
Age, environmental concern, 68
air pollution, Harlem, 419–420
Alabama Department of Environmental Management (ADEM), 423–424
Alaska, Mt. McKinley, 354
allocation
environmental, 93–94
resources, 422–423
alternative dispute resolution (ADR), 604
altitude sickness, 353
altruistic values, 84–86
Alzheimer’s disease (AD), 50, 51
American Camping Association, 439
American dream
potential health threats, 460
scenario, 459–460
upstream approach, 475–476
American Journal of Insanity, 430
American Psychological Association, 4, 645
American Psychologist, 2, 4
American Recovery and Reinvest Act of 2009, 564
Amnesty International, 88
amotivation, 67
Amsterdam, air disaster and noise annoyance, 383
analysis and deliberation (A&D)
collaborative processes, 606–607
empirical studies, 616–617
anchor-point theory of spatial cognition, 48
Anholt-GfK Roper City Brands Index (CBI), 241
Annan, Kofi, 416
annoyance, noise exposure and, 383–384
anonymity, privacy, 318
Antarctic stations
extreme environment, 355–357
psychological effects, 355–357
anxiety
emotional burdens and worries, 132, 138
gender and wayfinding, 52
anxiety disorder not otherwise specified, 379
appropriation
home to neighborhood, 214
spatial extension of, 214–215
aquariums, children’s development, 122
architecture
correctional environments, 324
health care design research, 305
health care environments, 298–300
archival analysis, water conservation, 588
art, health care environment, 306
The Art and Science of Negotiation, Raiffa, 604
articulation index (AI), 254
Association of Experiential Education, 438, 439
asthma, Harlem, 419–420
Atlanta, Georgia, social environment, 471
attachment theory. See also place attachment
children and nature, 120–121
interplay between social and physical attachments, 153–154
attention, work environment, 253–254
attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), 380, 440, 513, 630, 636
attention restoration theory (ART), 120, 446–447, 630, 674–675
comparison to psycho–evolutionary theory, 448–449
human health and nature, 511–513
integration, 449
natural landscapes, 336–338, 343
attitude object, 65
attitudes
construct, 65–66
human mitigation behavior, 658–659
natural landscapes, natural resources and social dilemmas, 342–343
urban green areas, 222
urban green areas and natural landscapes, 341–342
auditory distraction
work environment, 253–254
Australia
cross-cultural model, 105
environmental policy, 98
justice, 109
natural landscape preference, 339
neighborhood design, 476
place-making, 158 (p. 686)
pro-environmental behaviors, 157
school technology trends, 288
Australian Psychological Society, 4
auto maintenance, 380
autonomy, 166, 168, 185, 186
awakening epiphanies, 499, 503
awareness, water conservation, 588
B
baby boom, school buildings, 278
Bacon, Stephen, 430–431
bananas, fair trade, 421–422
Barker, Roger G., 11, 12, 14, 34–35
behavior settings, 31–33
behavior stream, 30–31
eco-behavioral science, 29–34
Beagle, voyage of, 13–14
beef production, 473
behavior. See also disaster responses; human mitigation behavior; pro-environmental behavior
correctional settings, 318–324
domains, 557, 559
environmental identity, 174–175, 175
myths about disaster victims, 391–392
natural landscapes, 340–341
noise effects, 376
prisons trying to change, with force, 317–318
transactional and ecological models to healthy, 461–463
types of consequences, 563
urban life, 207–208
values and, 87–89
water conservation, 586–588
behavioral intentions, water conservation, 589
behavioral interventions, water conservation, 590–591
behavioral plasticity, 574
behavior settings, 12, 31–33
behavior stream, 30–31
beliefs
global climate change, 646–653
human mitigation behavior, 658–659
water conservation, 589
belonging, environmental epiphany, 489
Berry, Wendell, 23
bias issues, cross-cultural research, 195–196
bike paths, cycling, 466
biocentrism vs. anthropocentrism, natural landscapes, 340
biological processes, relational, 18
biophilia hypothesis
natural landscapes, 336
restoration theories, 448
biospheric approaches, pro-environmental behavior, 569–571
biospheric values, 84–86
Black American Earth Day, 414
Boal, Augusto, 419
BOSTI books
work environment, 248
workplace privacy, 251
bottle bills, 563–564
Bowling Alone: The Collapse and Revival of American Community, Putnam, 602
brain
photobiology, 256–258
research, 680
wayfinding, 44–46
branding and reputation
city, 240–242
neighborhood, 240
residential ecological system, 239–240
residential place, 226
brandscape, 239
BREEAM, 267
Bronfenbrenner, Urie, 11, 13
ecological theory, 224, 296
hospital environment, 301, 302
Brundtland Report, 340
building-related symptoms (BRS), work environment, 261
bull pen, work environment, 250
Bush, George W., 647
C
Caerphilly Collaborative Heart Disease Study, 379
California
earthquakes, 393–394
FlexYourPower campaign, 561
green schools, 286
outdoor science schools, 544
polluted neighborhoods, 417
San Francisco Estuary Project, 599–600
toxic air and industry in L.A., 420
California Department of Fish and Game (CDFG), 616
Camp Ahmek, 430
Campbell paradigm, 570
Camp Chocorua, 429
Camp Wawokiye-1926, 430
Camp Wediko-1935, 430
Canada
innovative work arrangements, 265
International Children’s Environment Conference, 534
nature attachment, 157
One Tonne Challenge, 561
school technology trends, 288
wilderness programs, 432, 437–439
carbon emissions, household actions, 558
caregivers, health care environment, 309–310
Carnegie Corporation’s Council on Adolescent Development, 279
Carson, Rachel, 530, 630
“cash-for-clunkers” program, 564
cathode-ray tube (CRT), 255
CATWOE, human activity system, 604–605
Center for Health Design, 300, 311
Center for the Built Environment, UC Berkeley, 252
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), 460
Central African Republic, 367
centrality, city dwellers, 213
certainty, climate change, 649
Charcot, Jean–Baptiste, 348
Chavis, Benjamin Jr., 414
Chesapeake Bay, nature programs, 544
Chicago
housing quality, 512
public housing, 514–515
Chicago Zoological Society, 3
child-care, neighborhood, 234
children. See also children and nature
activities in nature, 118–119
activity in outdoors, 117–118
affective experience of nature, 119–121
attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), 380
benefits of nature to, 124
emotional attachment to nature, 133, 139
evolution and development, 115
experiences in outdoors, 494
health care environments, 308–309, 311–312
human health and nature, 516–517
involvement with nature, 155–156
nature-deficit disorder, 115, 284, 428
nature-oriented education, 629
noise and mental health in, 380–381
outdoor play spaces, 517
outdoor spaces, 235
place attachment, 118, 153–154
play in nature for environmental action, 530–531
reaction to loss of natural area, 535–536
relationships to nature, 113–114
term, 114
wilderness experience programs (WEPs), 437–441
Children, Youth and Environments, 115
children and nature
activities, 118–119
future directions, 124–125
history and culture, 114–116
play, 119
psychological methods and theoretical traditions of study, 116–117
Children and Nature Network, 115
Chilean miners, cave-in, 348–349, 352
China
culture, 183
environmental concern, 69
mass murder, 367
pollution, 192
social identity, 169
starvation under Mao, 361
church, restorative environment, 453
cities, 217n. 1. See also urban environment
adaptive behaviors, 207–208
appropriation, 214–215
attachment and place of identity, 214–215
attitudes toward natural landscapes, 341–342
behavioral adaptations, 207–209
branding and reputation, 240–242
characteristics, 204, 205
feeling of insecurity, 206–207
from city dwellers to citizens, 215–216
future directions, 216
inhabitants, 203–204, 209–212
living in, 207–212
perception, evaluation, and satisfaction, 233
role of centrality, 213
role of proximity, 212–213
segregation and aggregation, 238–239
social behavior in, 208–209
as specific environments, 204–206
urban civilities, 208
urban environment, 204–207
urbanites’ relationships, 210–211
urban sociability, 211–212
urban spatial investments, 212–213
uses and activities, 235–236 (p. 687)
vandalism, criminality, and insecurity, 206–207
citizens
environmental stress factors, 206
from city dwellers to, 215–216
civilities, urban life, 208
Civil War, slavery, 416
classroom curricula, environmental education, 539
Clean Water Act, 599
climate change, 645, 646. See also global climate change
global warming vs., 647
Climategate scandal, 648, 652
Climate Literacy: The Essential Principles of Climate Sciences, 652
Clinton, Bill, 416
coastal estuary partnerships, 609–610
cognition
human health and nature, 511–513
work environments, 265
cognitive development psychology, 116
cognitive dissonance theory, 72
cognitive emotion models, 130–131
cognitive-experiential self–theory (CEST), 151, 154–155
cognitive impairments, wayfinding, 50–51
cognitive map
historical perspective, 42–44
legibility of place, 43–44
Lynch’s contribution, 43–44
wayfinding, 28
cognitive revolution, 35
Coleman, James, 602
collaboration
environmental inclusion, 422–423
environmental injustice, 418–422
forming effective partnerships, 420–421
human health and nature, 520
work environment, 252–253
Collaborative for High Performance Schools (CHPS), 286
collaborative learning (CL)
ecosystem management, 607–609
processes and outcomes, 617–619
project phases and process stages, 608
collaborative partnership
advocacy coalition framework (ACF), 602–604
future directions, 620–622
institutional analysis and development (IAD), 601–602
social capital theory, 602
stakeholder, 609–610
color
correctional environment, 323–324
health care environment, 306
comfort
integrated models of, 259–260
thermal, 258–259
ventilation, 259
work environments, 258–260
commitments, pro-environmental behavior, 565–566
communication, work environment, 252–253
communities, scope of justice, 415
Communities for a Better Environment, 420
communities of color
environmental racism, 417
pollution, 416
Communities Organized Against Asthma & Lead (COAAL), Texas, 419
compatibility, 447, 512
competence, water conservation, 588
comprehensive conservation and management plan (CCMP), 599–600, 623n. 4
Comstock, Anna Botsford, 115
concentration camp syndrome, 365
concern, environmental attitudes, 65–66
Concord Academy, Thoreau, 115
confidence
gender and wayfinding, 52
knowledge of climate change, 649–650
conflict resolution
downstream, 598
emotions, 141–142
upstream, 598
Conflict Resolution Quarterly, 622
connectedness epiphanies, 499, 503
Connectedness to Nature Scale (CNS), 172
Connectivity With Nature Scale, 171
The Conscious Use of Metaphor, Bacon, 430–431
Consensus Building Handbook, Susskind, 604
consensus building theory, alternative dispute resolution (ADR) and, 604
conservation, 3. See also pro-environmental behavior; water conservation
biology, 3
emotion, 130
nature, education, 629–630
Conservation Biology, 4
Conservation Letters, 4
conservation psychology, 3–4
expanding interest, 4–5
integration with environmental psychology, 5–6, 682, 683
water, 581, 582, 592–593
Conservation Psychology, 4
conservatism, Schwartz, 83–84, 185, 186
constrained action, 530
constructivism, children and nature, 122
consumerism, water misuse, 585
continental philosophy, 16
contingencies, pro-environmental behavior, 562–565
control, work environment, 261–263
Cooley, Charles Horton, 165
Copenhagen, 241
Cornell Medical Index, 379
Cornell University Lab of Ornithology, 123
correctional environments
architectural issues, 324
color, 323–324
crowding, 319–320, 326
environment-behavior issues in, 318–324
future directions, 326–327
history of forcing behavior change, 317–318
isolation, 320–321
lighting, 322–323
nature views, 323
noise, 321–322
personal space, 319
physical conditions, 316–317, 321–324
privacy, 318–319, 326
proxemics, 318–319
sleep, 326
social conditions, 319–321
territoriality, 319
violence model, 325–326
visual aspects of setting, 322–324
windows, 323
correlated color temperature (CCT), 255–256
Cost-effective Open-Plan Environments, 259
creative play, children, 124
crime safety
perception, 469–470
physical activity, 465, 467
criminality, city life, 206
crisis of culture, 128
crisis of maladapted behavior, 128
crowding, correctional environment, 319–320, 326
cube farm, 250
cultural differences. See also environmental engagement; human-environment interactions
culture as independent or moderating variable, 194
ecological fallacy, 194
emic vs. etic approaches, 194–195
equivalence and bias issues, 195–196
evaluating and designing cross-cultural studies, 194–196
future directions, 196
history of human-environment interactions, 181–182
human-environment interactions, 181–182
natural landscape preference, 339–340
cultural theory, 185–187
culture, independent or moderating variable, 194
culture-level studies, environmental engagement, 190–192
cycling, bike paths, 466
D
Dallas Salesmanship Club, 430
Darfur, 367
Dartmouth Medical School, 431
Darwin, Charles, 13–14
daylight glare probability (DGP), 255
daylighting
green schools, 287
workplace, 255
decision making
human mitigation behavior, 660
long-term justice principles, 106
procedural justice, 97–98
Deepwater Horizon oil spill, 636
demand-control model, work, 262
demand response, systems, 267
democide, 364
Democratic Republic of the Congo, 367
Democrats, climate change, 648, 650, 651
demographics
climate change, 650
hurricane evacuation, 400
density
classroom privacy, 283–284
correctional environment, 319–320
personal work space, 253
Department of Transportation, hurricane reentry, 401
Deukmejian, George, 599
developmental behaviors, wayfinding, 49–50 (p. 688)
developmental psychology, social and physical attachments, 153–154
developmental theories, wayfinding, 47–49
Dewey, John, 14, 18, 21, 23, 26, 277, 278
digestion, relational properties, 18
Dilbert, Adams, 250
directed attention fatigue, 512
direct observations, water conservation, 588
direct perception, environment, 26–27
direct supervision model, correctional setting, 324, 325–326
disaster responses
antecedents of core perceptions, 404–406
demographic characteristics, 406
earthquakes, 393–394
future directions, 407–409
hazard adjustment attributes, 403–404
hazard adjustment behaviors, 407
hazard education, 404–405
hazard proximity, 406
hurricanes, 397–401
measuring antecedent variables, 408
measuring core perceptions, 407–408
methodological directions, 408–409
myths about victims, 391–392
personal hazard experience, 405–406
pre-impact preparedness actions, 402–406
Protective Action Decision Model (PADM), 392, 393
risk perception, 402–403
stakeholder characteristics, 403
theoretical directions, 407–408
tornadoes, 394–397
typologies of, 407
warnings and education programs, 406–407
distraction, work environment, 253–254
distress, 349
distributive justice, environment, 98–99
dominant social paradigm (DSP), 340
dose-response relationships, human health and nature, 518–519
Douglas, Mary, 185
dynamic experience, environment, 29
E
Earth Day, 416, 532
earthquakes, disaster response, 393–394
Eastern State Penitentiary, 317
eating. See also healthy weight
food environments, 471–474
plate sizes, 473, 475
team science research, 477
transactional and ecological approaches to healthy, 461–463
upstream choices to health, 475
eco-behavioral science
Barker, 11, 12, 29–34
behavior settings, 31–33
behavior stream, 30–31
ecological psychology and, 34–35
ecocentrism-anthropocentrism distinctions, natural landscapes, 340–341
ecological, 456n. 2
ecological approach
Bronfenbrenner, 224, 296, 302
environmental psychology, 35–36
James’ radical empiricism, 19–21
Lewin’s field theory, 21–23
lifestyles, 461–463
The Ecological Approach to Visual Perception, Gibson, 24
ecological environment, 128
ecological fallacy, cross-cultural studies, 194
ecological intelligence, 630
ecological optics, 27
ecological psychology
designation, 11–12
eco-behavioral science, 34–35
future directions, 36–37
Gibson, 11, 12, 24–29
ecological science
historical considerations, 13–14
primary attributes, 12–13
ecological theory, 674
ecology, 12, 318–319
ecopsychology, 3. See also therapeutic uses of nature
relationship to nature, 428–429
Ecopsychology, 4, 431
ecosystem management
analysis and deliberation (A&D), 606–607
collaborative learning (CL), 607–609
collaborative partnership formation and success, 600–604
future directions, 620–622
policy dialogue, 605–606
San Francisco Estuary Project, 599–600
ecosystems, 12–13, 94–96
educated incapacity, 633
education. See also environmental education; school environments
classroom-based curricula, 539
classroom design, 282–284
climate science, 652–653
environmental, and emotions, 139–141
environmental concern, 70–71
environmental psychology, 676
hazard programs, 404–405
influencing environmental attitudes, 71–72
information technology classroom, 284
nature centers and forest schools, 543–544
nature conservation, 629–630
open-space, 278–279
place-based, 541–542
pro-environmental behavior, 570–571
school size, 279–280
schools of future, 289–290
school trends, 287–289
sustainable development, 631–632
wilderness experience programs (WEPs), 437
efficiency, 100–101
egalitarianism
cultural theory dimension, 186, 187
Schwartz dimension, 185, 186
social solidarity, 188
egoistic approach, pro-environmental behavior, 562–565
egoistic values, 85
elderly people
health care environments, 308–309, 312
loss of economic resources, 362
wayfinding, 50
electronic media, children, 117–118
emancipatory perspective, environmental education, 634–635
Emerson, Ralph Waldo, 114
emic approach, cross-cultural research, 194–195
emissions, human mitigation behavior, 657–658
Emotional Affinity Toward Nature scale, 172
emotions
affective connection to nature, 133, 139
burdens and worries, 132, 138
classification of, 132–133
cognitive emotion models, 130–131
environmental conflicts, 141–142
environmental education and, 139–141
environmentally relevant, 130–132, 138–139, 142
from environmental protection to sustainable development, 134–135
future directions, 142–144
general action theories, 136–137
human mitigation behavior, 659
measuring, 131–132
models of pro-environmental behavior, 137
models of sustainable behavior, 135–139
moral, 133, 139
moral outrage, 131
neuropsychology of, 143
rational choice models, 135–136
role in environmental epiphanies, 487–490, 497, 500
role in environmental psychology, 128–129
self-interest vs. social responsibility, 129
socio-ecological dilemma, 134
understanding moral, in social trap, 133–135
empirical studies, environmental epiphanies, 492–495
energy consumption, workplace, 255
Energy Policy Act of 1992, 584
environment
bettering the, 422–423
cities as specific, 204–206
psychological consideration, 23–24
environmental, 93
environmental action
agency and motivation for, 528–530
development through significant experiences, 534–536
extended mixed-method research program, 531–532
factors, 529
goal, 527–528
memory research, 536
play in nature as foundation for, 530–531
significant life experiences, 531–537
strengths and weakness of significant life experiences, 536–537
surveys of significant experiences, 532–533
environmental affordances, 221
environmental agencies, procedural justice, 97
environmental allocation
future, 105–106
past, 106–107
resources, 422–423
Environmental and Behavior, 2
environmental attitudes
education, 71–72
factors inhibiting behavior, 73–74 (p. 689)
future directions, 74
importance of studying, 66
measuring, 66–67
media and messages, 71
predicting behavior, 569
pro-environmental behavior, 72–73
structure, 67
theories for, influencing behavior, 72
Environmental Attitudes Inventory, 67
Environmental Attitudes Scale (EAS), 172–173
Environmental Communication, 4
environmental concern
age, 68
challenge-response model, 188
comparing values, ecological worldviews and, 89
direct experience with nature, 70
education, 70–71
factors affecting, 67–71
gender, 68
international differences, 68–69
levels of concern, 67–68
personality and values, 70
religion and politics, 69–70
socioeconomic status, 68
urban-rural residence, 69
environmental conflict resolution (ECR), 598
alternative dispute resolution (ADR), 604
analysis and deliberation framework, 616–617
assessment studies and dispute resolution programs, 614–616
collaborative engagement processes, 605–609
collaborative learning processes and outcomes, 617–619
collaborative stakeholder partnerships, 609–610
conceptual design of ECR evaluation, 612
consensus building theory, 604
evaluation criteria and research, 610–619
future directions, 620–622
multiagency ECR evaluation, 614–615
National Estuary Program (NEP) coastal partnerships, 614
policy dialogues, 615–616
process and outcome criteria, 611
soft systems methodology, 604–605
theoretical foundations, 604–605
watershed partnership project, 612–614
environmental conflicts, emotions, 141–142
environmental degradation
environmental racism, 417–418
human activities, 415–418
Environmental Design Research Association, 2
environmental disasters. See also disaster responses
behavioral responses, 391–393
environmental education, 630–631. See also education
classroom-based curricula, 539
emancipatory perspective, 634–635
environmental service learning, 542–543
forest schools, 543–544
formal programs for learning, 537–545
future directions, 549–551, 639–641
implications for education, planning and design, 548–549
ingredients of effective programs, 544–545
instrumental perspective, 633–634
interpretations, 632–635
Issue Investigation and Action Training (IIAT), 539–541
learning in post-normal times, 636–638
monitoring and evaluation, 635, 638–639, 640
nature centers, 543–544
place-based, 541–542
post-normal, 635–638
post-normal science, 636
pro-environmental behavior, 570–571
research and practice, 548–551
review of, research, 537–538
risk society, 635–636
Environmental Education Research, 637
environmental educators, epiphany research, 491
environmental engagement. See also cultural differences
cross-cultural studies, 189–194
culture-level studies, 190–192
future directions, 196
individual-level studies, 190
linking findings, 193–194
multilevel studies, 192–193
environmental epiphanies, 486, 497
applications, 490–491
descriptive results, 498
discussion of findings, 501–502
empirical studies, 492–495
environmental meaning, 495–497
epiphany types, 498–499
future directions, 505–507
implications of initial study, 504–505
importance of emotion, 487–490
initial data of, 498–501
literature review, 491–497
managing natural areas for, 505–506
nature of, 505
need for and potential of, 490
participants, 487
phenomenon, 485–486
place attachment, 495–497
procedures, 487
psychological approaches, 491–492
purposes and description, 486–487
studying, 497–505
thematic trends in descriptions, 499–501
typology, 502–503
environmental fit, residential, 222, 224–226
environmental generational amnesia, 122
environmental identity
behavior, 88–89
behavioral implications, 174–175
creating, 169–170
ethical implications, 173–174
impact of, 173–176
measures, 157, 170–173
politics of identity, 175–176
self-presentation, 175
values and behavior, 175
Environmental Identity (EID) scale, 170, 171
environmental injustice, 168
air pollution and asthma in Harlem, 419–420
bananas and fair trade, 421–422
bettering the environment, 422–423
collaboration and environmental inclusion, 422–423
collaborations to redress, 418–422
community-based participatory research, 419–421
environmental awareness and theater of oppressed, 419
forming partnerships, 420–421
from moral exclusion to moral inclusion, 422–423
future directions for research, 424–425
inclusionary change over time, 423–424
lead contamination in Oklahoma, 420
opposing polluting industries, 421
social movement groups, 418–419
toxic air and industry in Los Angeles, 420
Environmentalism Scale, 67
environmental management
epiphany research, 490–491
justice, 93–94
environmental meaning, epiphanies, 495–497
environmental noise, 375. See also noise
environmental perception
analytical tools, 54
applying wayfinding research, 55–56
brain areas underlying wayfinding, 44–46
cognitive impairments, 50–51
cognitive map, 42–44
developmental behaviors, 49–50
developmental theories, 47–49
evolutionary models, 152–153
future direction, 57
gender differences, 51–54
methods, 28–29
spatial cognition, 42
verisimilitude in wayfinding tasks, 46–47
visual impairments, 51
wayfinding, 42, 56–57
Environmental Performance Index, 191, 192
Environmental Problems and Human Behavior, 4
environmental protection, change to sustainability, 129, 134–135
environmental psychology, 1–3
affordances, direct perception and, 26–27
attention restoration theory (ART), 674–675
city, 216
common themes, 676–680
consideration for future, 677–678, 680–681
design of health care, 297
ecological approach, 27–29, 35–36
ecological theory, 674
education, 676
environment-person relations, 19–20
evolutionary theory, 674
experience as function of individual, 20–21
health, 675
importance of scale, 676, 678
individual vs. collective, 679
integration with conservation psychology, 5–6, 682, 683
interdisciplinarity, 679–680
justice, 675–676
measuring emotions, 131–132 (p. 690)
person-in-context, 678
pro-environmental behavior, 556, 575
restorative environments, 445
role of emotions, 128–129
social psychology, 674
temporal dimension, 678–679
Environmental Psychology: Man and His Physical Setting, 2
environmental racism, 414–415, 417
environmental regulations, US-Canadian management of Great Lakes, 174
environmental research, natural landscapes, 334
environmental stressors, prisoners, 317
environmental values
affecting behavior, 87–89
biospheric values, 84–86
comparing values, ecological worldviews, and environmental concern, 89
definition, 82
future directions, 89–90
hedonic values, 86–87
pro-environmental actions, 81
Schwartz’s value theory, 83–84
social value orientations, 82–83
value theories, 82–87
Environment and Behavior, 2, 54, 164
environment and identity, 164–165, 167–170. See also environmental identity
future directions, 177
identity, 165–167
measuring, 170–173
Environment Identity Scale, 171
epiphanies, 485. See also environmental epiphanies
thematic trends, 499–501
types, 498–499
equality, 96
equity, environment, 96–97
equivalence, cross-cultural research, 195–196
ergonomists, comfort and discomfort, 260
Erikson, Erik, 165, 366
ethics, environmental identity, 173–174
Ethiopia, 367
ethnicity, identity, 165–166
etic approach, cross-cultural research, 194–195
Euclidean information, gender and wayfinding, 53–54
European Values Study, 192
eustress, 349
evacuation decisions
hurricanes, 397
information sources and message content, 398–399
logistics, 400–401
protective–action perceptions, 399
reentry, 401
threat perceptions, 399
everyday life, 221, 222
evidence-based design (EBD), health care, 300–301, 304
evolution
child development, 115
connection to nature, 518
responses to natural landscapes, 335–338
restoration theories, 448–449
therapeutic camping movement, 429
evolutionary psychology, water misuse, 585
evolutionary theory, 674
executive order, Clinton, 416
exosystem
hospital environment, 302
residential environment, 224
experience
environmental concern, 70
function of individual, 20–21
nature, 119–121
experts, hazard adjustments, 403
external factors, human mitigation behavior, 659
extreme and unusual environments (EUEs)
Antarctic stations, 355–357
future directions, 367–368
general definition, 350–352
genocides, 364–367
literature and media depicting, 348–350
mountains, 353–355
natural and human-made, 351–352
natural disasters, 361–364
physical and psychological characteristics, 353–367
sampling, 353
space stations, 357–360
traumatic, 360–361
extremeness, 350
eye-as-camera metaphor, visual perception, 29
F
fairness
cross-cultural model, 105
environmental collaboration, 422
justice outcome, 99–100
labeling judgments, 104
water and justice, 94
fair trade, bananas, 421–422
family involvement, treatment, 439
fascination, 447, 512
fatalism
cultural theory dimension, 186, 187
social solidarity, 188
favorite places, restorative environment, 453
Federal Facilities Council (FFC), 281
Federal Wilderness Act (1964), 548
feelings, 130, 140
fields of constrained action, 530
fields of free action, 530
fields of promoted action, 530
field theory, Lewin, 21–23
Finland, inmate suicides, 321
fit, 221, 222
flaky environmentalists, 165
FlexYourPower, California, 561
Florida, hurricane reentry, 401
flow of information
environmental fit, 225
wayfinding, 28
fluency, restorative quality of nature, 454–455
food environments
eating, 471–474
macro-, 472–473
micro-, 473–474
food production, climate change, 656
forested environment, 495
forest schools, learning at, 543–544
fractals, restorative quality of nature, 454–455
free action, 530
Fresh Air Camp, 430
freshwater. See water conservation
Froebel, Friedrich, 114
functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), 44–45, 57
function of individual, experience, 20–21
future orientation, water conservation, 589–590
G
Gagarin, Yuri. 357
Gallup polling, 648, 650, 664n. 1
Gans, Herbert, 210
Ganser’s syndrome, 321
gasoline prices, 563
gender
anxiety and confidence, 52
children and nature, 120
climate change, 656
environmental concern, 68
identity, 165–166
mental rotation, 51–52
wayfinding, 51–54
wayfinding measures, 52–54
gene, 37n. 3
general action theories, sustainable behavior, 136–137
General Health Questionnaire (GHQ), 378–379, 384
General Health Survey, 381
generalized anxiety disorder, 379
genocides
psychological effects, 365–367
traumatic environments, 364–367
geographic information system (GIS), 54, 463, 465, 517
Geothermal Research, 409
Germany
cross-cultural model, 105
emotional affinity to nature, 532–533
environmental concern, 68–69
Hereros, 364
outdoor ecology program, 544
Gestalt psychology, 22
Gestalt psychotherapy, 432
Gibson, James J., 11, 12, 14, 34, 35
affordances, 25–27
ecological approach to environmental psychology, 27–29
ecological psychology, 24–29
global climate change. See also human mitigation behavior
adaptation, 654–655
beliefs about, 646–653
causes and mechanisms, 648
certainty, 649
confidence in knowledge, 649–650
demographic and psycho-social predictors, 650
educational efforts, 652–653
future directions, 663
“global warming” vs. “climate change,” 647
impacts, 653–656
importance, 650
meta-cognitions, 649–650
psychological impacts, 653–654 (p. 691)
scientific consensus, 648–649
social justice implications, 655–656
source of beliefs, 650–652
vulnerability and resilience, 655–656
global positioning system (GPS), 123
global warming, 645, 646, 647, 650. See also global climate change
vs. climate change, 647
goal-directed behavior, 569–570
Golden Gate Bridge, 241
Goodall, Jane, 543
Great Lakes, US-Canadian management, 174
Great Smoky Mountains National Park, 543
green, 285
Green Globes, 267
greenhouse effect, 647
greenhouse gas emissions, 473
green psychology, 3
green schools, 286–287, 542
groups, model of work environment effects, 249
Gunnery School, 429
H
habit, human mitigation behavior, 659, 661
habit discontinuity model, 572–573
Haeckel, Ernst, 13–14
Hahn, Kurt, 430
Hall, G. Stanley, 115
Handbook of Environmental Psychology, 14, 54, 249, 349
Handbook of Identity Theory and Research, 164
Handbook of Nature Study, Comstock, 115
Handbook of Self and Identity, 164
Hansen, James, 652
Happiness, environmental epiphany, 489
hard fascination, attention restoration theory (ART), 447
Harlem, air pollution and asthma, 419–420
harmony, Schwartz dimension, 185, 186
hazard adjustment adoption
attributes, 403–404
risk perception, 402–403
stakeholder characteristics, 403
hazard education, disaster preparedness, 404–405
hazard experience, 405–406, 408
hazard mitigation, 392–393
hazard proximity, hurricanes, 399–400
head-mounted displays (HMD), 56
healing
restorative environment, 451
wilderness experience programs (WEPs), 437
health
activity levels, 37
comfort, 259
environmental psychology, 675
green schools, 286–287
noise effects, 376, 385–386
noise exposure and medication use, 378
upstream choices, 475–476
work environment, 260–261
Health and Care Infrastructure Research and Innovation Centre, 301, 311
health benefits
home, 233–234
nature to children, 124
neighborhood, 234–235
outdoor spaces, 237–238
health care environments
ambient features, 306–307
architectural features, 305
Bronfenbrenner’s systematic view, 301, 302
caregivers, 309–310
children, 308–309, 311–312
dimensions of architectural humanization, 298–300
elderly patients, 308–309, 312
environmental humanization, 299
future directions, 312–313
influence of design on users, 303–304
“inhuman” image of hospitals, 297–298
interior design features, 306
interplay between users and spatial–physical seating, 299
multi-place system, 301–303, 313
multiple environmental features, 307–308
nature of hospital spaces and roles, 302–303
promoting evidence-based design, 300–301
single environmental features, 305–307
spatial-physical humanization of, 297–300
studying generic patients, 305–308
trends in design research, 304–311
user-centered design, 296–297
visitors, 310–311
Health Council of the Netherlands (HCN), 382
Health of the Planet Survey, 184
healthy weight
food environments, 471–474
macro-environmental supports, 463–465
micro-environmental supports, 465–469
multiple levels of support, 476–477
Heathrow airport, children’s health, 380
heating, ventilation and air–conditioning (HVAC), 266
hedonic values, 83–84, 86–87
Herzog, Maurice, 350, 354
hierarchy
cultural theory dimension, 186, 187
Schwartz dimension, 185, 186
social solidarity, 188
high-performance schools
design guides, 285–286
green schools, 286–287
school environments, 285–287
Himalayas, 354
hippocampus, brain and wayfinding, 45
The Hippocampus as a Cognitive Map, O’Keefe and Nadel, 45
historical event, transactionalism, 17
Hofstede, Geert, 183–185, 189
Holocaust
Nazis, 364–367
psychology, 366
survivors, 366–367
home
natural landscapes, 334
perception, evaluation, and satisfaction, 227–228
restorative environment, 452
segregation and aggregation, 236
uses and activities, 233–234
Hood River project, 564
hospital, 295. See also health care environments
caregivers, 309–310
children and elderly patients, 308–309, 311–312
inhuman image of, 297–298
nature of, spaces and roles, 302–303
noise and admission rates, 377–378
restorative environment, 453
visitors, 310–311
host neighborhoods, 417
household actions, carbon emissions, 558
house of worship, restorative environment, 453
housing, public, in Chicago, 512, 514–515
Howard, John, 317
human activity, soft systems, 604–605
Human Behavior and Environment, 149
Human Development Index, 191, 192, 193
Human Ecology Review, 3
human-environment interactions. See also environmental engagement
cultural theory, 185–187
Hofstede, 183–185
Inglehart, 187–189
Kluckhohn, 182–183
linking models, 189
Schwartz, 185, 186
social solidarity, 186–187, 188
human exception paradigm (HEP), 340
human health
attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), 513
attention restoration theory (ART), 511–513
cognitive functioning, 511–513
dose-response relationships, 518–519
explanatory mechanisms, 519–520
future research directions, 518–520
integration and collaboration, 520
large-scale epidemiological studies, 511
mediators, 519–520
mental health and psychological well-being, 513–514
moderators, 519
natural environment, 509–510
physical activity and obesity, 515–518
physical health and physiological stress, 510–511
social connection, 514–515
social interaction, 514–515
humanization, 296
dimensions of architectural, 298–300
environmental, 299
health care environment, 296–301
spatial-physical, of health care places, 297–300
human-made environments, 353
space stations, 357–360
human mitigation behavior
analyzing, 657–658
global climate change, 656–663
predicting, 658–660
promoting, 660–663
human-nature relationships, epiphanies, 485–486, 491–492, 501
human territoriality, 295
hunting-gathering economy, 181
Hurricane Island Outward Bound, 431
Hurricane Katrina, 363 (p. 692)
hurricanes
antecedents of evacuation decisions, 398–399
antecedents of situational perceptions, 399–400
demographic characteristics, 400
disaster responses, 397–401
evacuation decisions, 397
evacuation logistics, 400–401
evacuation reentry, 401
hazard experience, 399
hazard proximity, 399–400
information sources, 398–399
message content, 398–399
preparation time distributions, 398
protective-action perceptions, 399
response-time distributions, 397–398
threat perceptions, 399
warning-time distributions, 398
hyperbolic discounting, 106
Hypertension and Exposure to Noise near Airports (HYENA) Study, 378
I
Identity. See also environment and identity; place attachment
attachment and place of, 214–215
content, 166–167
creating environmental, 169–170
groupings, 166
human mitigation behavior, 659
personal and social, 166
politics of, 175–176
process or function, 167
self focus, 165
social, 168–169
ideology, politics of identity, 175–176
illuminance, 269n. 1
Illuminating Engineering Society of North America (IES), 255
Image & Environment: Cognitive Mapping and Spatial Behavior, 43
The Image of the City, Lynch, 41, 43, 44
impact orientation, pro-environmental behavior, 557–558
Implicit Association Test (IAT), 121
iNaturalist.org, 123
Inclusion of Nature in Self (INS) scale, 157, 171
India
knowledge of local nature, 122
Watershed Development (WSD) policy, 101–102
indirect realism, 26
individualism
cultural theory dimension, 186, 187
social solidarity, 188
individualism vs. collectivism, Hofstede, 183, 184
individualistic values, Schwartz value theory, 83–84
individual-level studies, environmental engagement, 190
individual resource use, workplace behavior, 266–267
individuals, model of work environment effects, 249
Indonesia, 122
indoor plants, health care environment, 306
information, human mitigation behavior, 658
information and communications technologies (ICT)
environmental education, 641
work environments, 265–266
information campaigns, pro-environmental, 560–561
information-processing mechanism, preference, 334–335
information technology
classroom, 284
schools of future, 289–290
information variables, natural landscapes, 335
Inglehart, Ronald, 187–189, 191, 192
inhabitants
perception, conception and evaluation, 230
sociability, 211–212
spontaneous evaluation, 230–231
urbanites’ relationships, 210–211
injustice perceptions, 98
innovative work arrangements, 265–266
insecurity
city life, 206
feeling of, 206–207
institutional analysis and development (IAD), collaborative partnership, 601–602
institutional rational choice, 601
institutional violence, environmental model, 325–326
instrumental perspective, environmental education, 633–634
integration, human health and nature, 520
intellectual epiphanies, 499, 503
intensive care unit (ICU), 310
intention orientation, pro-environmental, 558–559
interactionist approaches, environmental and conservation psychology, 36
interactionist meta-theory, 14–16, 25
interdependence, ecosystems, 13
interdisciplinarity, psychology, 679–680
interior design, health care environment, 306
International Association for Applied Psychology, 4
International Association for People-Environment Studies, 4
International Children’s Environment Conference, 534
International Commission on Illumination (CIE), 256, 257
international differences, environmental concern, 68–69
International Social Survey Programme, 189, 191, 192, 193
International Space Station (ISS), 358–360
intersection density, walking, 463–464
interventions
environmentally relevant emotions, 140, 141
human mitigation behavior, 662–663
natural environments, 476
practical programs, 142–143
resource management, 568
water conservation, 590–591
interviews
environmental action, 533–534
water conservation, 587
intrinsically photoreceptive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs), 256–258
Iowa, flood, 362
Irvine Minnesota Inventory (IMI), 466
isolated, confined environments (ICEs), 350–351
isolation
correctional environment, 320–321
Eastern State Penitentiary, 317
Issue Investigation and Action Training (IIAT), 71, 539–541, 542, 545, 549
J
Jaegerpris Project, Denmark, 541
James, William, 14, 35, 165, 446
emotion, 487–488
mystical experiences, 492, 501–502
radical empiricism, 19–21
Japan
environmental concern, 68, 69
military aircraft, 380
noise at air bases in Okinawa, 379
volcano eruption, 362
Jim Crow laws, 418
job satisfaction, control, 262–263
Johnson, Philip, 297
joint fact-finding procedures, 623n. 7
Journal of Applied Environmental Education and Communication, 630
Journal of Environmental Education, 630, 632
Journal of Environmental Psychology, 2, 55, 164
Journal of Fostering Sustainable Behavior, 4
Journal of Volcanology, 409
Judeo-Christian religion. environmental concern, 69–70
justice
allocation of resources, 422–423
distributive justice, 98–99
environmental management, 93–94
environmental psychology, 675–676
equity, 96–97
fairness, 99–100, 422
future directions, 108–109
procedural justice, 97–98
scale and dimensions of decisions, 100–102
scope of, 415
social discounting, 108, 109
society and, 107–108
space and, 103–105
time and, 105–107
understanding and evaluating, 96–100
water and, 94–96
water management, 95–96
Watershed Development (WSD) policy, 101–102
K
Kant, moral imperative, 98
Kaplan, Rachel, 446
Kaplan, Stephen, 446
Kaplan’s model, cognitive map, 43
Kershensteiner, Georg, 277
Khmer Rouge, 364, 367
Kluckhohn, Florence, 182–183 (p. 693)
knowing
function of mind, 20
spectator theory of, 26
knowledge
children and nature, 121–122
climate change, 649–650
environmental concern, 70–71
natural landscapes, 334
pro-environmental behavior, 129
water conservation, 588
knowledge-deficit model, pro-environmental, 560–561
Kyoto protocol, 71
KZ syndrome, 365
L
land management, epiphany research, 491
Last Child in the Woods, Louv, 115, 428, 530, 630
Latin America, bananas and fair trade, 421–422
lead contamination, Oklahoma, 420
Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED), 267, 268
learning environment
human mitigation behavior, 662
nature centers and forest schools, 543–544
schools, 280–282
service, 542–543
legibility of place, wayfinding, 43–44, 55–56
Lewin, Kurt, 12, 16, 21–23
Lexis-Nexis database, 93
licensure, wilderness experience programs (WEPs), 438–439
lifestyle
environmental behavior, 560
transactional and ecological models to healthy, 462
lighting
correctional environment, 322–323
green schools, 287
individual resource use, 266–267
North American workplaces, 255
photobiology, 256–258
workplace behavior, 266
liquid-crystal displays (LCD) monitors, 255
literature
extreme environment stories, 348–350
response to tornadoes, 396
Lithuania, 533
living conditions, urban environment, 205–206
local ecological knowledge (LEK), 121
logistical preparation, evacuation, 398
logistics, hurricane evacuation, 400–401
long-term vs. short-term orientation, 184
Los Angeles, 420
Loughmiller, Campbell, 430
Louisiana, Hurricane Katrina, 363
Louv, Richard, 115, 117, 284, 428, 530, 630
Love and Care for Nature scale, 172
luminance, 269n. 1
Lynch, legibility of place, 43–44
M
macro-justice
fairness, 99–100
future, 105
macrophysical environments
food, 472–473
physical activity and healthy weight, 463–465
transactional and ecological models, 461
macrosystem
hospital environment, 302
residential environment, 224
Malaguzzi, Loris, 280
Maloney-Ward Ecology Inventory, 67
managed nature, restorer, 450–452
maps, virtual environments, 47
Marine Life Protection Act, 616
Marine Protected Areas (MPAs), 616
marketing theme, neighborhood, 240
Mars voyage, 359
masculinity vs. femininity, 183, 184
Maslow, Abraham, 493, 501
Massachusetts Department of Youth Services, 431
mastery, Schwartz, 185, 186
Mead, George Herbert, 165
Mead, G. H., 18
meaning, 20, 495–497
measurement
antecedent variables, 408
computer-based, 681
core perceptions, 407–408
emotions, 131–132
environmental attitudes, 66–67
environmental identity, 170–173
neighborhood cognitions, affects and activities, 229–233
wayfinding, 52–54
media
extreme environment stories, 348–350
pro-environmental attitudes, 71
tornado warning, 395–396
mediators
environmental attitudes, 73
human health and nature, 519–520
medication
caregivers in health care, 309–310
noise exposure and health, 378
memory research, life experiences, 536
mental health
noise and, in children, 380–381
psychological well-being, 513–514
mental hospital, noise exposure, 377–378
mental illness, inmates, 321
mental rotation, wayfinding and gender, 51–52
Mental Rotations Test (MRT), 42
mere-exposure hypothesis, place attachment, 151–152
mesosystem
hospital environment, 302
residential environment, 224
messages, media and environmental attitudes, 71
meta-cognitions, climate change, 649–650
meta-theories
assumptions, 12
interactionist, 14–16
organismic, 16
trait, 14
transactional, 16–17
metering, water consumption, 587–588
Metropolitan Correctional Centers, 324
micro-justice, fairness, 99–100
microphysical environments
accessibility features, 466–467
crime safety features, 467
food, 473–474
physical activity and healthy weight, 463, 465–469
pleasurability features, 468–469
social environmental indicators, 469
traffic safety features, 467–468
transactional and ecological models, 461
microsystem
hospital environment, 302
residential environment, 224
milling, psychological preparation, 398
Millon Adolescent Clinical Inventory (MACI), 440
Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI), 357
Mir space station, 358–360
mitigation behavior. See human mitigation behavior
moderators
human health and nature, 519
pro-environmental attitudes, 73
monitoring and evaluation, environmental education, 635, 638–639, 640
Montessori, Maria, 114, 277–278
moral emotions, 132, 133–135, 139
moral exclusion, 415, 422
moral inclusion, 415, 422, 423–424
Motivation Toward the Environment Scale, 67
Motives, resource management, 568
mountains
extreme environment, 353–355
psychological effects, 354–355
Mount St. Helens, volcano threat, 403
Mt. Everest, extreme environment, 353–354
Muir, John, 429
Multiagency ECR Evaluation Study (MAES), 614–615
multilevel modeling (MLM), 615
multilevel studies, environmental engagement, 192–193
multi-place system, health care environment, 301–303, 313
multiple, nested levels of organization, ecosystems, 13
Munich Study, 381
museums, restorative environment, 453
music, health care environment, 307
mystical experiences, James, 492, 501–502
N
Namibia, 169
National Association of Secondary School Principals, 278
National Association of Therapeutic Schools and Programs, 438
National Association of Therapeutic Wilderness Camps, 438
National Estuary Program (NEP), 599, 614
National Institute of Corrections Information Center, 324
National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences Environmental Justice Project, 419
National Kids Survey, 117
National Outdoor Leadership School (NOLS), 437, 545–548
National Weather Service (NWS), 395–396 (p. 694)
Native American culture, social identity, 168–169
natural disasters, 353. See also disaster responses
extreme environments, 361–364
psychological effects, 361–364
survivors, 363–364
natural environments
Antarctic stations, 355–357
definition, 128
environmental epiphanies, 505–506
evaluating interventions, 476
human health and well-being, 509–510
mountains, 353–355
physical characteristics of restorative, 449
wayfinding, 56–57
natural landscapes
attention restoration theory (ART), 336–338, 343
attitudes toward, natural resources and social dilemmas, 342–343
attitudes toward urban green areas, 341–342
biophilia hypothesis, 336
cross-cultural comparisons of preference, 339–340
environmental research, 334
evolutionary models, 335–338
future directions, 343–344
history of movement to view, 429–432
human landscape preferences, 338–339
human relations with, 332–333
people-environment transactions, 335
perceived environmental properties and preference, 333–335
prospect and refuge model, 335–336, 343
restoration environment, 450–452
savanna hypothesis, 338
sociocultural models of preference, 338–343
stress reduction theory (SRT), 336–338, 343
worldviews, values and behaviors, 340–341
natural materials, schoolyards, 285
natural resources
attitudes, 342–343
management cycle, 102, 109
water and justice, 94–96
nature. See also children and nature; therapeutic uses of nature
affective connection to, 133, 139
affective experience of, 119–121
benefits to children, 124
children involvement, 155–156
concepts of and knowledge about, 121–122
connectivity to, 171, 518
correctional environment and views of, 323
environmental epiphanies, 505
green exercise, 513–514
human ideological positions, 340–341
implicit connections to, 171–172
managed, 450–452
play in, as foundation for environmental action, 530–531
as restorer, 450–452
technologically mediated, 122–124
wild, 450
wilderness experience program, 432, 433–434
nature centers, learning at, 543–544
nature conservation, education, 629–630, 639
nature deficit disorder, 115, 284, 428
Nature Game, 533
nature-related experience, concern, 70
nature vs. nurture question, 116
Nazis, Holocaust, 364–367
neighborhood
branding and reputation, 240
children’s maps, 118–119
measuring cognitions, affects, and activities, 229–233
perception, evaluation, and satisfaction, 228–233
residential attachment, 228, 231–232
segregation and aggregation, 236–237
uses and activities, 234–235
Neighborhood Environment Walkability Scale (NEWS), 469
neighborhood walk, children and nature, 116
neonatal intensive care unit (NICU), 310
nested organization, ecosystems, 13
nesting of processes, transactionalism, 17
Netherlands
epidemiological study, 511
lighting scheme, 258
nature-oriented education, 629
network, ecosystems, 13
neuroimaging studies, noise, 385
neuropsychology, emotions, 143
neuroticism, noise sensitivity and, 384
New Ecological Paradigm Scale, 67
New Environmental Paradigm (NEP), 67, 87, 89, 172, 191, 340
new human interdependence paradigm (NHIP), 341
New Orleans, Hurricane Katrina, 363
New Zealand Scott Base, 355
niches, schoolyards, 285
Nigeria, 340
noise
annoyance, 383–384
correctional environment, 321–322
definition, 375–376
exposure and symptoms, 376–377
future directions, 386
health and behavior, 376, 385–386
health care environment, 306–307
mental health in children, 380–381
mental hospital admission rates, 377–378
physical environmental stressors, 376
potential mechanisms, 385
psychiatric morbidity, 378–380
quality of life, 381, 386
road traffic study, 379–380
sensitivity and vulnerability to psychiatric disorder, 384
work environment, 260–261
noise and number index (NNI), 377
norm-activation model, sustainable behavior, 136–137
Norway, 339
not in my backyard (NIMBY) syndrome, 607
nuclear facilities, Sweden, 97
O
Oakland, CA fires, 364
obesity
food environments, 471–474
physical activity and, 515–518
public health, 630
United States, 460
objects of interest, environmental epiphanies, 500
occupational environment, 353
Antarctic stations, 355–357
space stations, 357–360
OECD (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development), 190
offices, work environments, 248, 250–251
Oklahoma, lead contamination in, 420
Olsen, Larry Dean, 429
One Tonne Challenge campaign, Canada, 561
open-ended questionnaires, environmental action, 533–534
openness to change, Schwartz’s value theory, 83–84
open-space education, school buildings, 278–279
optic flow, perceptual information, 28
Oregon Dunes National Recreation Area (ODNRA), 618
organismic meta-theory, worldview, 16
organizations
ecosystems, 13
environmental psychologists, 267–268
model of work environment effects, 249
Osmond, Humphrey, 295
Ottoman Turkey, Armenians, 364
Outdoor Challenge Program, 494
outdoors
children’s activities in, 117–118
crime safety and physical activity, 467
natural landscapes, 334
school environments, 284–285
outdoor spaces
segregation and aggregation, 237–238
uses and activities, 235
Outward Bound, 429–431, 437, 440, 545
P
path integration, wayfinding, 28
pathogenic, 349
patients, health care design research, 305–308
peace, environmental epiphany, 489–490
peak experiences, Maslow, 493, 501
Pebble Project, 300, 311
pediatric intensive care unit (PICU), 311
Peirce, C. S., 14
Pepper, Stephen, 14, 15, 37n. 2
perceived behavioral control (PBC), water conservation, 589
perceived hospital environment quality indicators (PHEQIs), 300
perceived residential environmental quality indicators (PREQIs), 228, 231–232, 235
perception
antecedents of core, 404–406
environmental, 28–29
environments for physical activity, 469–471
hazard education, 404–405 (p. 695)
hurricanes, 399–400
measures of core perceptions, 407–408
personal hazard experience, 405–406
risk, for earthquakes, 402–403
water conservation, 589
perception, evaluation, and satisfaction
city, 233
home, 227–228
neighborhood, 228–233
residential place, 226
The Perception of the Visual World, Gibson, 27
perceptual system, 27
performance, green schools, 286–287
persecution syndrome, 365
personal experience, hazards, 405–406, 408
personal growth, wilderness experience programs (WEPs), 437
personality
environmental concern, 70
traits vs. attitudes, 65
water misuse, 583–584
personal norms
predicting behavior, 569
water conservation, 589–590
Personal Orientation Inventory, 357
personal space, 295
correctional environment, 319
density, 253
privacy, 251–252
work environments, 250–253
person-environment system
behavior, 222
environmental fit, 224–226
environmental psychology, 678
Lewin’s transactionalism, 22–23
natural landscapes, 335
transactional view of processes, 17–19
transaction meta-theory, 16–17
Pestalozzi, 114
Petersen, Peter, 277
PET scans, brain and wayfinding, 44–45, 57
Pew polling, 648, 664n. 1
Photobiology, work environment, 256–258
photographs
relationships to actual, 37n. 4
wayfinding, 46
physical activity. See also walking
environmental epiphanies, 500
environment and behavior, 463
green exercise, 513–514
historical decreases in, 461
macro-environmental support, 463–465
micro-environmental supports, 465–469
multiple levels of support, 476–477
obesity, 515–518
problems of obesity and insufficient, 460
social environmental indicators, 469
supports encouraging healthy weight and, 461
team science research, 477
transactional and ecological approaches to healthy, 461–463
upstream choices to health, 475–476
PISA (Program for International Student Assessment), 280
place attachment
antecedent process, 151–153
consequences, 156–158
definition, 148–150
development, 153–156
disruptions in place relationships, 157–158
dynamics of, 150–158
ecological and conservation behavior, 156–157
environmental epiphanies, 495–497
environmental perception, 152–153
future directions, 159
interplay between self-regulation and, 154–156
interplay between social and physical attachments, 153–154
literature, 502
mere-exposure hypothesis, 151–152
neighborhood, 228
tripartite framework, 149–150
Place-based Education Evaluation Collaborative (PEEC), 541–542
place identity, environmental and, 170
place theory, health care environment, 302
planet, freshwater scarcity, 582–583
Planetree, hospital model, 300, 311
play
children and nature, 119
creative, 124
pleasurability
perception, 470
physical activity, 468–469
policy dialogues, dispute resolutions, 615–616
political context, disaster response, 392
politics
climate change, 648
environmental concern, 69–70
identity, 175–176
pollution
air, and asthma in Harlem, 419–420
communities of color, 416
education and emotions, 139
environmental concern, 188
worldwide, 128
polysomnography (PGS), sleep disturbance, 383
positive affect, work environments, 264–265
positive behavior change, prisons, 317–318
Positive Effects of Being in Space Questionnaire (PEBS), 360
positive psychology, 349
post-materialistic values, 85–86, 192, 340
post-materialist values thesis, 187–189
post-normal environmental education
learning in post-normal times, 636–638
post-normal science, 636
risk society, 635–636
post-occupancy evaluation (POE)
buildings, 281
health care environment, 299
neighborhood, 232
post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), 361, 362, 366
power distance, 183, 184
pragmatists, 14
Predicted Mean Vote–Predicted Percent Dissatisfied (PMV–PPD), thermal comfort, 258–259
preference
design of health care environment, 296–297
natural landscapes, 333–335
sociocultural models for natural landscapes, 338–343
preparation time, hurricane evacuation, 398
Present State Examination, 384
present-time perspective (PTP), water misuse, 584
The Principles of Psychology, James, 19, 20
privacy
classroom, in schools, 283–284
correctional environment, 318–319, 326
work environments, 251–252
procedural justice, environment, 97–98
pro-environmental attitudes, 65–66
actions, 81
beliefs, norms, and choices, 85
constructs leading to behavior, 72–73
pro-environmental behavior, 557–559
behavioral spillover, 574–575
behavioral wedge, 556–557
biospheric approaches, 561–562, 569–571
considerations, 573–575
context, 571–573
domains, 559
egotistic approaches, 561, 562–565
emotional affinity toward nature, 532
emotional valence, 138–139
environmental education and emotions, 139–141
household actions and carbon emissions, 558
impact-oriented approach, 557–558
information campaigns, 560–561
intention-orientation, 558–559
knowledge about motivation, 129
limitations, 564–565
means of travel, 132
models of, 137
opposite, 144n. 1
person, 560–571
person or context, 559–560
place attachment, 157
rebound effects, 574
self-interest, 562–565
social-altruistic approaches, 561–562, 565–569
socio-ecological dilemma, 134
sustainable development, 129, 134–135
targets, 573–574
willingness to sacrifice, 423
progressive movement, school buildings, 278–279
promoted action, 530
prompts, behavior, 562
proportionality, equity, 96
prospect and refuge model, natural landscapes, 335–336, 343
protective-action perceptions, hurricane, 399
Protective Action Decision Model (PADM), 392, 393
proxemics, correctional environment, 318–319
proximity
city dwellers, 212–213
hazard, 406
human health and nature, 516
hurricane hazard, 399–400
psychiatric disorder, noise sensitivity and vulnerability to, 384 (p. 696)
psychiatric morbidity, noise exposure and, 378–380
PsychInfo, 189, 645
psycho-evolutionary theory
comparison to attention restoration theory, 448–449
integration, 449
stress reduction, 447–448
psychological approach, environmental epiphanies, 491–492
psychological consequences, water conservation, 591–592
psychological effects
Antarctic stations, 355–357
climate change, 653–654
genocides, 365–367
mountains, 354–355
natural disasters, 361–364
space stations, 358–360
psychological preparation, evacuation, 398
psychological resources, environment, 36
psychology
environment, 23–24
importance of scale, 676, 678
integration of environmental and conservation, 682–683
mental health and well–being, 513–514
place attachment, 149
role and responsibility of, 682–683
worldview in, 14–19
Psychology and Environmental Change, 4
The Psychology of Environmental Problems, 4
psychology of sustainability, 3
Psychology of Sustainable Development, 4
The Psychology of Vandalism, Goldstein, 282
PsyEcology, 4
public commitments, pro-environment, 565–566
public housing, Chicago, 512, 514–515
“Publicolor” school design, Shuman, 281
public policy, fairness, 99–100
Putnam, Robert, 602
Q
quality of life
environmental fit, 225
model for examining, 223, 225
noise, 381, 386
outdoor spaces, 238
quantum change, elements of, 493–494
quasi-stable systems, ecosystems, 12
Quebec, 227, 542
questionnaires
environmental action, 533–534
water conservation, 587
R
radical empiricism, James, 19–21
RAER (realistically achievable emissions reductions), 557, 558
Ralston, Aron Lee, 348, 352
rational choice models, sustainable behavior, 135–136
reality, people and environment, 225–226
realization epiphanies, 499, 503
recreation, restorative environment, 452
recreational environment, 353–355
recycling behavior, 136, 572
rehabilitation centers, 453
relationships, urban dwellers, 210–211
relativistic field theories, 14
religion, environmental concern, 69–70
representational realism, 26
Rep Trak, 241
Republicans, climate change, 648, 650, 651
reputation. See branding and reputation
Reputation Institute, 241
residence (urban-rural), environmental concern, 69
residential environments
branding and reputation, 239–242
definition, 221
ecological theory, 224
ecological view and affordances, 222–224
explaining environmental fit, 224–226
future directions, 242
matrix of, by topic, 226
model for examining, 223, 225
perception, evaluation, and satisfaction, 227–233
place-specific approach, 222–224
quality of life, 223–224
segregation and aggregation, 236–239
theoretical framework, 221–222
traditional research, 226–227
uses and activities, 233–236
residential ethnography, 230
residential quality (RQ)
evaluation and satisfaction, 232–233
urban, 228–229
residential satisfaction, neighborhood, 228
resilience, 368
climate change, 655–656
Holocaust survivors, 366–367
resource management, motives and interventions, 568
respiration, relational properties, 18
response-time, hurricane evacuation, 397–398
responsibility, equity, 96
restoration, work environments, 263–264
restorative environments
attention restoration theory (ART), 446–447
favorite places, 453
fluency and fractals, 454–455
future, 455
home, 452
hospitals, 453
managed nature, 450–452
museums, 453
nature as restorer, 450–452
perceived restorativeness, 454
psycho-evolutionary theory of stress reduction, 447–448
rehabilitation centers, 453
similarities and differences between ART and stress reduction, 448–449
social context of restoration, 455
specific concepts of interest, 453–455
spiritual environments, 453
theories on restoration, 445–446
wild nature, 450
workplace, 452–453
restricted environmental stimulation therapy (REST), 321
risk characterization, analysis and deliberation, 606–607
risk perception
hazard adjustment, 402–403
measures of, 407
Road Traffic and Aircraft Noise Exposure and Children’s Cognition and Health (RANCH) study, 380
road traffic noise study, 379–380
Robert Taylor Homes (RTH), public housing, 514
Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, 515
Roots and Shoots clubs, Tanzania, 543
Rousseau, Jean-Jacques, 114
Rwanda genocide, 364, 367
S
salutogenesis, 366
salutogenic, 349
Salyut program, 358
San Antonio, TX, urban watersheds, 618–619
San Francisco, 241
San Francisco Estuary Project, 599–600
satisfaction. See also perception, evaluation, and satisfaction
workplace, 251–252
savanna hypothesis, natural landscapes, 338
Scenic Beauty Estimation (SBE), 333
school design
classroom design, 282–284
future, 288–290
guides for high-performance, 285–286
open-space, 278–279
“Publicolor” by Shuman, 281
school environments
classroom design, 282–284
classroom privacy, 283–284
classroom seating, 283
design guides, 285–286
future directions, 290
green schools impact on health and performance, 286–287
high-performance schools, 285–287
historical evolution of American buildings, 276–279
information technology classroom, 284
learning, 280–282
natural materials, niches and paths, 285
outdoor environment, 284–285
progressive movement, 278–279
reform pedagogy (1890–1932), 277–278
school condition, 281–282
school size, 279–280
schools of future, 289–290
school trends, 287–289
user evaluation of school buildings, 280–281
visual appearance, 282
School of Lost Borders, 437
School of Natural Resources, 446
Schools Health & Environment Study, 380
Schwartz, Shalom, 185, 186, 189, 190–191
Schwartz’s value theory, 83–84
ScienceDirect, 148
scientific consensus, climate change, 648–649
scope of justice, 107
Scope of Justice Scale, 415, 422
Scopus, 189
Scott-Amundsen South Pole Station, 355
Seabourne, Malcolm, 283
segregation and aggregation
city, 238–239
neighborhood, 236–237
outdoor spaces, 237–238
residential place, 226
self, identity, 165
Self and Identity, 164
self-centered, 297
self-concept, wilderness programs, 435
Self-Determination Theory, 166, 168
Self-enhancement, Schwartz, 83–84, 87
self-esteem, 366
self-evaluation, privacy supporting, 318
self-interest
fairness, 99, 100
pro-environmental behavior, 562–565
self-limiting, ecosystems, 13
self-organizing
consensus–building process, 610
ecosystems, 12–13
self-presentation, environmental identity, 175
self-regulation, cognitive-experiential self-theory (CEST), 154–155
self-reported behavior, 66
self-reports, water conservation, 587
self-transcendence, Schwartz, 83–84, 85, 87
Senge, Peter, 623n. 5
Sense and Sustainability: Educating for a Low Carbon World, Webster and Johnson, 630
The Sense of Wonder, Carson, 530
The Senses Considered as Perceptual Systems, Gibson, 24
sensitivity, noise, 384
Service Experiences Survey, 543
service learning, environmental, 542–543
Shepard, Paul, 428
Shuman, Ruth Lande, 281
Shuttle/Mir, 359
sick building syndrome (SBS), work environment, 261
Sierra Club, 532
signage, wayfinding, 50, 55–56
significant life experiences. See also environmental action
environmental activism developing through, 534–536
environmentally active citizens, 531–537
extended mixed-method research program, 531–532
memory research, 536
questionnaires and interviews, 533–534
strengths and weaknesses of research, 536–537
surveys, 532–533
Silent Spring, Carson, 630
Silvadon, Paul, 295
simulations, nature, 123
site attachment, space and justice, 103–105
situational context
disaster response, 392
hurricanes, 399–400
water conservation, 590
skills, water conservation, 588
Skinner, B. F., 562
Skylab, space station program, 359
slavery, Civil War, 416
sleep
correctional environment, 323, 326
health care environment, 306–307
noise exposure and, disturbance, 381–383
sleeping pills, noise exposure and health, 378
slipping baseline syndrome, 122
SMART Boards, information technology, 284
sociability, urban inhabitants, 211–212
sociable introversion, 357
social-altruistic approach, pro-environmental behavior, 565–569
social behavior
noise, 385
urban life, 208–209
social capital theory, collaborative partnership, 602
social conditions, correctional environment, 319–321
social connections
environmental epiphanies, 500–501
prison environment, 321
social context, restoration, 455
social density, work, 253
social deprivation, isolated inmates, 321
social design, health care environment, 296–297
social dilemmas
attitudes, 342–343
environmental conflict resolution (ECR), 620
pro-environmental behavior, 567–569
social discounting, justice, 108, 109
social environment
indicators for physical activity, 469
perception, 470–471
social group
children in nature, 119
wilderness experience program, 432, 433, 435
social identities, environment, 168–169
social interaction, city, 217n. 1
social justice research
climate change, 655–656
public, 425
society and justice, 107–108
space and justice, 103–105
time and justice, 105–107
social justice theory, benefits approach, 95
social learning theory (SLT), wilderness experience, 435
social movements, environmental justice and, 418–419
social networks, human mitigation behavior, 662
social norms
human mitigation behavior, 659
pro-environmental behavior, 566–567
social psychology, 674
The Social Psychology of Procedural Justice, Lind and Tyler, 97
social relations, work environments, 250–253
Social Science Quarterly, 188
social solidarity, human-environment interactions, 186–187, 188
social trap, water misuse, 586
social values
orientations, 82–83
Schwartz, 83–84
societal factors, human mitigation behavior, 659–660
society, socio-ecological dilemma, 134
Society for Environmental, Population, and Conservation Psychology, 4
Society for Psychological Study of Social Issues, 645
socio-ecological dilemma, emotions, 134
socioeconomic status
children’s access to nature, 118
climate change, 656
environmental concern, 68
environmental degradation, 415–417
natural disasters, 362–363
nature and human health, 511
sociofugal spatial settings, 295
sociopetal settings, 295
soft fascination
attention restoration theory (ART), 447
notion of, 434
soft systems methodology, environmental conflict resolution (ECR), 604–605
soroche, 353–354
South Africa, segregation, 238
Southern California Environmental Justice Collaborative, 420
Soviet Union, mass murder, 367
space. See also personal space
correctional environment, 318–319
justice and, 103–105
space stations
extreme environment, 357–360
psychological effects, 358–360
space stupids, 358
space syntax, 54
Spain, water management, 94
Spanish-American cultures, 182–183
spatial cognition
definition, 42
Garling’s model, 48
spatial density, work, 253
spatial orientation, gender differences, 53
special housing unit syndrome, 321
specificity, environmental behavior, 66
spectator theory, knowing, 26
speech intelligibility index (SII), 254
sphere of needs (SON), water, 94, 95
spillover, behavioral, 574–575
spiritual places, restorative environment, 453
stakeholder characteristics, hazard adjustment, 403
state conservation agreements (SCAs), 615
Steiner, Rudolf, 114
strangers, city inhabitants, 210
stress
health care environment, 304–305, 306
noise, 376
noise in prisons, 322
physical health and physiological, 510–511
post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), 362
prisoners, 317
work environment, 260–261
stressors, urban environment, 205–206
stress reduction theory (SRT)
natural landscapes, 336–338, 343
psycho-evolutionary, 447–448
structure, environmental attitudes, 67
Student Conservation Association (SCA), 545, 547–548
student motivation to participate (SMP), 283
student/teacher participatory interaction (STPI), 283
subcultures, city inhabitants, 210 (p. 698)
subjective norm (SN), water conservation, 589
Superfund site, Oklahoma, 420
Supermax prisons, 320
Survey of Environmental Issue Attitudes, 67
surveys
environmental educators, 534
significant experiences, 532–533
survivors
Holocaust, 366–367
natural disasters, 363–364
survivor syndrome, 365
sustainability, from environmental protection to, 129, 134–135
sustainability competence, 641
sustainable, 285
sustainable behavior
general action theories, 136–137
models of pro-environmental behavior, 137
rational choice models, 135–136
sustainable development (SD)
cities, 203–204
education for, 631–632
emancipatory perspective, 634–635
instrumental perspective, 633–634
interpretations of education for, 632–635
monitoring and evaluation, 638–639
Sweden, nuclear facilities, 97
system justification, environmentalism and, 176
systems thinking research, 103
T
Tanzania, 543, 551
Taylor County No Coal Coalition, 421, 423
Tbilisi Declaration of UNESCO, 527, 528, 529, 537
Technological Nature, Kahn, 550
technologies
access to nature, 122–124
school trends, 288–289
telegarden, 123
territoriality
correctional environment, 319
work environment, 253
terror management theory, 173
Theater of the Oppressed, Boal, 419
theory of affordances, water misuse, 586
theory of moral exclusion, space and justice, 103–104
theory of planned behavior (TPB), 72, 589
theory of reasoned action, 136
therapeutic uses of nature
ecopsychology, 428–429
education, 437
family involvement in treatment, 439
framework for understanding, 432–436
future directions, 442
healing, 437
history, 429–432
licensure and accreditation, 438–439
Outward Bound, 429–431, 437, 440
personal growth, 437
program models, 438
programs, 436–437
wilderness experience concurrent model, 432–436
wilderness therapy client characteristics, 439–440
wilderness therapy program controversy, 441
wilderness therapy program outcomes, 440
youth and adolescents, 437–441
thermal comfort
green schools, 287
work environment, 258–259
Thompson, Michael, 185
Thoreau, Henry David, 114–115, 429, 509
threat perception, hurricane, 399
time
changing human mitigation behavior, 661–662
children and nature, 117–118
discounting, 109
environmental fit, 225
environmental psychology, 678–679
evacuation preparation, 398
inclusionary change over, 423–424
justice and past, 106–107
justice in future, 105–106
perceiving path, 28
psychological events, 23
warning distributions, 398
Todai Health Index, 379
tornadoes
behavioral response, 396
disaster response, 394–397
National Weather Service (NWS), 395–396
toxic waste, environmental racism, 416–417
traffic, 380
traffic safety
perception, 470
physical activity, 467–468
traffic stress, 380
tragedy of commons, water misuse, 586
trait meta-theory, worldview, 14
transactional approach
healthy behavior, 476–477
lifestyles, 461–463
transactionalism, 22–23, 29
transactional meta-theory
person-environment processes, 17–19
worldview, 16–17
transportation
car driving, 140
environmental behavior, 560, 572
environmentally relevant behavior, 132
walking, 464–465
trash collection, 560, 564
traumatic environment, 353, 360–361
travel, environmental epiphanies, 500
treatment, family involvement, 439
Tribal Efforts Against Lead (TEAL), Oklahoma, 420
tripartite framework, place attachment, 149–150
Trout Unlimited, 532
Trump, J. Lloyd, 278
Turner, Fredrick Jackson, 429
Twenty Statements Test, 170
U
Uganda, 543, 551
Ukrainians, starvation under Stalin, 361
Ulrich, Roger, 447–448, 510
uncertainty avoidance, 183, 184
UN Convention on the Rights of the Child, 527
United Church of Christ, toxic waste and race, 417
United Kingdom
children and nature, 118
children’s exposure to nature, 122
home perception, 227
hospital bed space, 301
hospital design, 301, 311
knowledge of local nature, 122
older population, 238
United Nations, 340, 341
Decade of Education for Sustainable Development (DESD), 631
ecosystems and human well-being report, 416
genocides, 364
United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED), 631
United States
children and nature, 118
children’s activities outdoors, 117
Energy Policy Act of 1992, 584
environmental concern, 69
environmental degradation, 416
history of school buildings, 276–279
home perception, 227
innovative work arrangements, 265
obesity and insufficient physical activity, 460
pleasurability features, 468
public health challenges, 474
social identity, 169
traffic safety, 467–468
wilderness programs, 432, 437–439
United States National Institute of Mental Health, 295
University of Idaho, Wilderness Research Center, 436
University of Michigan Fresh Air Camp-1944, 430
unusualness, 350
urban diversity
city, 238–239
home, 236
neighborhood, 236–237
outdoor spaces, 237–238
segregation and aggregation, 236
urban environment
adaptive behaviors, 207–208
characteristics, 204, 205
design and planning, 240
environmental stressors and living conditions, 205–206
social behavior, 208–209
urban civilities, 208
vandalism, criminality, and insecurity, 206–207
See also 204–207; cities
urban green areas, attitudes, 222, 341–342
urban identity
attachment and place of identity, 214–215
centrality, 213
proximity, 212–213
spatial extension of appropriation, 214–215
urban spatial investments, 212–213
urban-rural residence, environmental concern, 69 (p. 699)
urban watersheds, San Antonio, 618–619
US Bureau of Prisons (BOP), 324
US Department of Education, school size, 279
US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), 583, 657
user-centered design
environmental humanization, 299
health care environment, 296–297
influence on health care users, 303–304
user evaluation, school buildings, 280–281
uses and activities
city, 235–236
home, 233–234
neighborhood, 234–235
outdoor spaces, 235
residential place, 226
US McMurdo Station, 355
V
value-belief-norm theory (VBN), 72, 137
values
affecting behavior, 87–89
environmental concern, 70
environmental identity, 175
human mitigation behavior, 658–659
natural landscapes, 340–341
predicting behavior, 569
water conservation, 589–590
value-sensitive design, children and nature, 123–124
vandalism, 206, 282
Vandenberg and Kuse Mental Rotations Test (MRT), 42
Varieties of Religious Experiences, James, 492
ventilation, work environment, 259
vicarious nature, category, 122
videophilia, 117
video-viewing, wayfinding, 49
Vietnam War, 363
violence, environmental model, 325–326
virtual environment (VE)
new research, 681
wayfinding, 47
virtual reality, wayfinding, 46–47
visitor environment relationship, 496
visitors, health care environment, 310–311
visual impairments, wayfinding, 51
visual perception
correctional environments, 322–324
work environments, 254–256
vulnerability
climate change, 655–656
noise, 384
vulnerability hypothesis, noise annoyance, 383
W
waiting area, health care environment, 307
walkability
environmental behavior, 572
macro-environment, 463–465
walking. See also physical activity
accessibility features, 466–467
crime safety, 467
perceived environments, 469–471
pleasurability features, 468–469
social environmental indicators, 469
traffic safety, 467–468
transportation vs. leisure, 464–465
warning time, natural disasters, 398
waste disposal, environmental behavior, 560, 564
wastewater program, procedural justice, 97
water
conservation behavior, 586–588
contextual factors, 584–585
freshwater scarcity, 582–583
justice, 94–96
management cycle, 102, 109
managing systems, 102–103
psychological determinants of, misuse, 583–584
psychological explanatory theories of, misuse, 585–586
sphere of needs (SON), 94, 95
water conservation, 586–588
archival analysis, 588
awareness, knowledge, skills and competence, 588
behavioral intentions, 589
behavioral interventions, 590–591
beliefs and perceptions, 589
consumption metering, 587–588
direct observations, 588
future directions, 593–594
methods for studying behaviors, 587–588
model, 594
personal norms, values and future orientation, 589–590
positive psychological consequences, 591–592
practices, 587
self-reports, 587
situational factors, 590
water management, justice, 95–96
water problems, psychology of, 582
watershed development (WSD)
evaluation, 101–102
future, 108–109
managing systems, 102–103
storm-water, 104
watershed partnership, 609
National Estuary Program (NEP), 614
processes and outcomes, 612–614
wayfinding, 49
applying research, 55–56
brain areas underlying, 44–46
cognitive impairments, 50–51
definition, 42
head-mounted displays (HMD), 56
legibility of place, 43–44, 55–56
perceiving path, 28, 37
research in natural environments, 56–57
signage, 50, 55–56
verisimilitude in, 46–47
visual impairments, 51
Wayfinding Strategy Scale, 52
Web of Science, 189
Weigel Environmental Concern Scale, 67
weight. See healthy weight
Wenatchee National Forest (WNF), 617–618
Wenchuan earthquake, 363–364
West Harlem Environmental Action (WE ACT), 419–420
West London Schools Study, 380
West London survey, noise, 377
West London Survey of Psychiatric Morbidity, 379
Wildavsky, Aaron, 185
wilderness, restorer, 450
wilderness effect, 434
wilderness experience, 432, 495
wilderness experience concurrent model
active self, 432, 433, 434–435
activity reflection, 432, 433, 435–436
factors, 433
nature, 432, 433–434
social group, 432, 433, 435
therapeutic use of nature, 432–436
wilderness experience programs (WEPs)
education, 437
healing, 437
nature as therapeutic tool, 436–437
personal growth, 437
stewardship outcomes from, 545–548
Wilderness Research Center, 436, 442n. 1
Wilderness Road, Loughmiller, 430
wilderness therapy programs
client characteristics, 439–440
controversy, 441
family involvement in treatment, 439
licensure and accreditation, 438–439
outcomes, 440
program models, 438
therapeutic use of nature, 437–441, 441–442
youth and adolescents, 437–441
Wildlife Clubs, Uganda, 543
Wild Rockies Field Institute (WRFI), 546
Williams, Suni, 359
Wilson, Pete, 600
windows, correctional environment, 323
winter-over syndrome, 358
Wisconsin Trappers Association, 532
Wordsworth, 114, 509
work environments
attention and distraction, 253–254
behavioral consequences, 250–266
BOSTI books, 248
BOSTI study of productivity, 251
cognition, 265
comfort, 258–260
communication and collaboration, 252–253
conceptual model, 249
control, 261–263
density, 253
future directions, 268–269
innovative work arrangements, 265–266
integrated models of comfort, 259–260
noise, 260–261
ocular light-initiated processes, 254–258
office type, 248, 250–251
personal space, 253
photobiology, 256–258
positive affect, 264–265
privacy, 251–252
restoration, 263–264
school conditions, 281–282
sick building syndrome, 261
social relations and personal space, 250–253
stress and health, 260–261
territoriality, 253
thermal comfort, 258–259
ventilation, 259
visual perception, 254–256
(p. 700)
workplace
environmental consequences of, behavior, 266–268
restorative environment, 452–453
work space stress, 262
World Commission on Environment and Development, 105
World Health Organization (WHO), 260, 467
World Hypotheses, Pepper, 14, 37n. 2
world of strangers, city inhabitants, 210
worlds in miniature (WIM), wayfinding, 47
World Values Survey, 187, 189, 192
worldviews
comparing values and environmental concern to, 89
interactionist meta-theory, 14–16
natural landscapes, 340–341
organismic meta-theory, 16
psychology, 14–19
trait meta-theory, 14
transactional meta-theory, 16–17
World Wildlife Fund-UK, 5
wrist-actimetry, sleep disturbance, 383
Y
Yellowstone National Park, 629
youth, wilderness experience programs (WEPs), 437–441
Youth Conservation Corps, 545
Youth-Outcome Questionnaire, 440
Yugoslavia, mass murder, 367
Z
Zimbabwe, 367
zone of proximal development, 422
zoos, 122, 169–170