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date: 06 December 2019

(p. 959) Index Note: Page numbers followed by “f” and “t” refer to figures and tables, respectively.

(p. 959) Index

Note: Page numbers followed by “f” and “t” refer to figures and tables, respectively.

A
a priori weighting, 303
Ability, individual differences in, 132. See also specific abilities
origins and consequences of, 35–36
Ability requirements scales, 132
Absences as performance measure, 534–35
Accidents, 617–18
employee tenure and, 623, 623f
Accountability, 823
authority and, 905
Accuracy training, 607
ADA Amendments Act of 2008 (ADAAA), 704
episodic and temporary impairments, 705–6
mitigating measures, 704–5
working as a major life activity, 705
Adaptability and trainability, 595–96, 609–10
common criterion measures, 606–9
measuring, as criteria in selection research, 604
defining adaptive performance and trainability for criterion measurement, 604–5
measurement needs to isolate change in response to situations, 605
more behavior is not always better, 605–6
Adaptability dimensions, 597t, 597–98
Adaptive performance, 595–96, 609–10
defining, 599–600, 604–5
eight-factor taxonomy of, 151, 597t, 597–98
future research on, 610
in the larger job performance domain, 600
models of, 596–98
predictors of, 600–603
hypothesized predictor-adaptability dimension linkages, 601–2, 602t
Adaptive performance criteria, assessing the relevance of, 603–4
Adverse Employment standard, 713, 714
Adverse impact, 21, 394–95, 504–5, 817–18, 821–26, 893. See also under Predictor composites; Title VII
age-specific, 702–4
methods of minimizing, 696–97, 697t
alternative tests or combinations, 698
banding, 697
discarding test results, 698–700
manipulating test content, 697–98
subgroup norming, 697
physical test preparation and reduction of, 292–93
Aerobic capacity tests, 280, 283
Affirmative action (AA), 708
Affirmative action plans (AAPs), 708–9, 815, 825
Age Discrimination in Employment Act of 1967 (ADEA), 687, 690
adverse impact in, 703, 703t
selection issues associated with, 700–704
Age-specific adverse impact, 702–4
Aggression, conditional reasoning test of, 217
Aging and human performance, 736–37
Alblemarle v. Moody, 693
Alternative forces, 579
American Psychological Association (APA)
Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct (APA), 427, 883, 897
Task Force on Psychological Testing on the Internet, 489–90
Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 (ADA), 22, 130, 289–90
accommodations for testing, 892
issues associated with, 704–8
Anger and counterproductive work behavior, 457t, 457–58
Animation technology, 507–8
Anxiety
counterproductive work behavior and, 457t, 457–58
test, 644
Applicant attraction. See Attraction
Applicant Attribution-Reaction Theory, 645f, 645–46
Applicant reactions, 629, 659–60. See also Selection techniques and processes
consequences of, 650, 653–54
on attitudes, 650–51
on behaviors, 651–52
on self-perceptions, 653
on test results, 652
integrated model of, 646–47, 647f
literature on, 630, 630t
moderators of, 657
applicant characteristics, 657–58
cross-cultural influences, 658–59, 762–63
job type, 657
research questions, 660
theoretical frameworks, 631
invasion of privacy models, 646
organizational justice theories, 631–43
social psychological theories, 644–46
test-taking motivation models, 643–44
theoretical integration, 646–50
Applicant tracking system (ATS), 497
(p. 960) Applicants-Experts method, 14
Application forms, applicant reactions to, 655
Appraisal. See Performance ratings
Arline, School Board of Nassau County v., 705
Army, U.S., 17
Army General Classification Test (AGCT), 17
Assessment centers (ACs)
AC dimensions, 216, 385, 388–93
AC exercises, 383–96. See also Simulations
AC guidelines, 384, 386, 387
AC matrices, 392
AC performance, 392, 394, 396
AC research, 391, 394
cognitive abilities and, 205, 214–16
counterproductive work behavior and, 562
cross-cultural AC, 404–5
vs. individual assessment, 412
overview, 562
Assessment interviews. See Interviews
Assessment methods, 944–46. See also specific topics
Attitude surveys, prehire, 584. See also Prehire attitudes
Attitudinal interventions, 475
Attraction, applicant, 82–83
and selection processes, questions for organizational audit of, 827t
of temporary workers, 868–69
Attraction-selection-attrition (ASA) model, 59, 814
Attribution model/attribution theory, 645–46
Attrition, natural
downsizing via, 853, 856–58
Authority and accountability, 905
Avatar technology, 507–8
Awareness, 267
B
Background data (biodata), 353–54, 377–78, 944–45
content, 357
definitions
operational, 354–55
substantive, 355–57
substance, 355–57
turnover and, 584
Background data items
developing, 361–63
response formats, 360–61
response options, 364–65
screening, 363–65
examples of screened items, 364t
that encourage good vs. poor levels of recall, 359t
variability in responses to, 356–57
Background data measures, 353–54, 377–78
administration, 365
bias in, 480
scaling, 365
clustering, 368–69
comparison studies, 369–70
empirical, 365–66
factorial scales, 367–70
rational, 366–67
utility, 373–74
validity, 370
construct, 376–77
generality, 372–73
incremental, 371–72
predictive, 370–71
process, 374–75
Background item content, 357
frameworks, 357–58
objective features, 358–59
substantive features, 359–60
types of, 360, 360t
Bakke, Regents of University of California v., 708
post-Bakke rulings, 708–9
Banding, 697, 824–25
Baritz, Loren, 20
Basic ability tests, 279–81
Basic skills, 132
Battles. See Contests/battles
Beck v. University of Wisconsin Bd. of Regents, 707
Behavioral consistency model, 21
Behavioral forces, 579
Behavioral observation scales (BOS), 522, 524
Behaviorally anchored rating scales (BARS), 522
Bell, B. S., 599
Bew v. City of Chicago, 695, 696
Bias. See Predictive bias
Big-Five personality traits, 22, 37, 37f, 216, 733, 941
facets of, 38t, 38–39
Binary items, 36
Biodata forms, 758
Biodata measures, 216. See also Background data measures
Biographical information blanks, applicant reactions to, 655
Breyer, Stephen, 711, 713
British Army, 17
Brown, C. W., 18, 19
Bultmeyer v. Fort Wayne Community Schools (FWCS), 707
Burdine, Texas Dept. of Community Affairs v., 687, 688
Burlington Northern Santa Fe Railway Company (BNSF) v. White, 713, 714
Business units, 849
C
Calculative forces, 579
Campbell, J. P., 467, 600
Candidate Assistant, 496
Career success, cognitive ability and, 201
Carnegie Institute of Technology (CIT) industrial psychology program, 12, 13, 24n11
Case studies, 608
Castaneda v. Partida, 690
Cattell, James McKeen, 10, 11
Cattell-Horn-Carroll model of cognitive ability, 34, 34t
Causal ambiguity, 670
Certification testing, 139–41
Changing-task and changing-person models, 730–31
Cheating (on assessment)
effects of, 494
in unproctored Internet testing, 499
cheating detection methods, 500–501, 504, 510
cheating deterrent methods, 499–500, 504, 510
prevalence, 510
Chen, G., 599
Choosing (teams), 836
Citizenship performance. See also Organizational citizenship behavior
dimensions of, 545–46
moderators of the influence of individual differences on, 553–54
predictors of, 548, 552–53
personality characteristics, 548, 549–50t, 551–52
Citizenship performance measures, 546–48, 547t
Civil Rights Act of 1964. See Title VII
Civil Service Commission (CSC), 21
Classical test theory (CTT), 486
Cleary Model, 463
Climate, organizational, 57–58
and performance, 58, 58f
Cluster-based scaling of background data measures, 368–70
Coefficient of equivalence and stability (CES), 182
Cognitive ability-job performance relationship, 183, 189
conceptual basis of, 183–84
Cognitive ability measures, 181, 424
criterion-related validity, 184, 189, 195–96, 198
equivalence of computer- and paper-based assessment, 492
operational validity of specific ability tests for overall job performance, 192–95t
operational validity of specific ability tests for test performance, 197t
operational validity of specific ability tests for training sessions, 187–88t
reliability of measurement, 181–82
research on group differences and bias in, 476–78
(p. 961) Cognitive ability tests
applicant reactions to, 654–55
cultural influences and, 758
scores on, 182–83
Cognitive ability(ies), 33–34, 131, 179–80, 217–18. See also General mental ability
counterproductive work behavior and, 560–62
definitional and theoretical issues, 180
general mental ability vs. specific abilities vs. special abilities, 180
general, 841
hierarchical structure of, 34, 34f
inhibitory effect of, 198–99
predicting work behaviors, 183
task performance and objective performance measures, 189, 195
predictor-criterion relationships, 201–2
criterion dynamicity and implications for validities, 202–3
linearity of, 203–4
relating it to other criteria, 199–201
tapping into them in other selection tools, 204–17
overlap with employee selection methods, 215–16
overlap with noncognitive measures, 211–13t, 216–17
overlap with other cognitively-based selection tools, 204–5, 206–10t
at work, conceptual importance of, 183–84
Cognitive complexity, 268
Cognitive conflict tasks, 836
Cognitive domain, 33–34, 34f
Cohesion (teams), 839
Collazo v. Bristol-Meyers Squibb, 712
College campuses, recruiting on, 75
Communication, two-way, 639
Community embeddedness, 572–73
Computer- and paper-based assessment, equivalence of, 492, 655–56
Computer access and Internet knowledge, 495–96
Computer-adaptive testing (CAT), 486, 487, 500, 913–14
Concurrent validity, 15
Conditional reasoning tests, 217, 563
Confidentiality, 427
Conscientiousness, 38, 39, 236, 558–59, 583. See also Big-Five personality traits; Five Factor Model (FFM) of personality
occupational safety and, 621, 623
Consistency of administration, 635
Constituent forces, 579
Construct-based scaling procedures, 366–67, 369–70
Construct domains
empirical approaches to linking
generalized, 110–11
local, 109–10
rational/logical approaches to linking, 111
Constructed response item format, 488, 489
Content-oriented validity evidence, 92
used to support predictive inferences, 104–8
what it tells us about validity, 105–7
Content validity, 107–8, 139–41, 448
Content validity evidence, 92
Contests/battles, 836
Context, 48, 122, 948–51
defined, 48–49
Contextual influences on personnel selection, 52–60
Contextual performance, 195–96, 198–99, 308–9, 544, 553, 838
Contingent labor, 851
Contingent worker outcomes, 871
job performance, 871
job satisfaction, 871–72
organizational commitment, 873, 876
role ambiguity and role conflict, 873
Contingent workers, 859, 865, 877. See also Temporary workers
selection challenges and future research directions, 873–77
Contractual forces, 578–79
Convergent validity, 446
Core self-evaluations (CSEs), 41–42, 235
origins and stability of, 42–43
Correlation, 11
Counterproductive work behavior (CWB), 198–99, 226, 308, 544, 564–65, 947
correlations with trait anger and anxiety, 457t, 457–58
CWB-interpersonal and CWB-organizational, 549–50t, 556, 559, 561
definitions, 555
formative vs. reflective indicator scales and, 456–58
implications in organizational settings, 563–64
layoff decisions and, 859
measurement, 557–58
nature of, 554–64
organizational citizenship behavior and, 554
predictors of, 558
personality, 558–60
teams and, 838, 839
validity of integrity tests for predicting, 560, 561t
Counterproductive work behavior (CWB) domain, models and dimensionality of, 555–57
Counterproductivity. See also Counterproductive work behavior
vs. counterproductive behaviors, 555
Crawford v. Metropolitan Government of Nashville, 712
Creativity and cognitive ability, 199
Creativity tasks, 836
Criteria research, 22
Criterion, 14
Criterion contamination, 532
Criterion-focused validation, 111–12, 135–36. See also specific topics
Criterion measures, appropriateness of, 292
“Criterion problem,” 14, 414
Criterion-related validation studies, local, 98–100
Criterion-related validity, 156, 168, 310–11, 447–48. See also specific topics
Criterion-related validity evidence, 92
Criterion validity, 15
Criterion-value curvilinearity, impact on prediction and perception, 809–10
Critical incident technique (CIT), 125–26
Cross-criteria generality, 372
Cross-cultural generality, 373
Cross-cultural influences on applicant reactions, 658–59, 762–63
Cross-functional skills, 132
Cross-job generality, 372
Cultural bias. See Predictive bias
Cultural considerations in turnover, 589–90
Cultural dimensions, 742, 743t
Cultural Impression Management Scale (CIM-A), 756
Cultural influence in personnel selection, 53t, 54–55, 740–41, 763–64. See also International contexts
areas of, 755
factors influencing selection practices internationally, 752–53
future directions, 764
most important questions needing attention regarding, 764
selection practices around the world, 744–45, 746–51t, 752–54
Cultural issues in individual psychological assessment, 436–37
Culture
and international selection practices, 741–43
national, as context for using selection methods, 761–63
Cultures, equivalence of assessments across, 493
D
DACUM (Developing a Curriculum), 125, 128–30
Davis, Washington v., 693
Decision-making tasks, 836
Declarative knowledge (DK), 184, 467, 724–26
bias in capacity to acquire needed, 471–72
(p. 962) Demographic similarity, 822
Demographics, encounter, 816
Demography, relational, 822
Deontic outrage motives, 648–49
Derailers, understanding, 419
Desert Palace v. Costa, 689–90
Deviance, employee, 555, 559. See also Counterproductive work behavior
Deviation rule, 690–91
Diagnostic value, 14
Differential item functioning (DIF), 493, 820
Differential test functioning (DTF), 493
Direct vs. indirect range restriction, 98
Disciplinary cases, 539
Discipline, personal, 540t
Discriminant validity, 446
Discrimination, pattern or practice of, 690
Discrimination law, 763. See also Adverse impact; Disparate treatment; Title VII
Disparate impact, 697–700, 703
Disparate treatment, 687–91
recent trends, 691
Disparity (teams), 843
Distributive justice, 640–41
Diversity in workplace, 826, 828
“business justification” for, 818
legal issues regarding, 708–11
recruitment strategy and method choices and, 815–17
selection implementation choices and, 822, 827t
accountability, 823
banding, 824–25
existence of AAPs, 825
how scores are considered, 824
order of administration, 823
orientation programs, 825
salience of social categories, 823
stereotype threat from contextual cues, 823–24
test-taker patterns, 824
time limits, 823
who implements the process, 822–23
selection system content choices and, 817, 827t
choices in predictor development, 820–21
choosing methods of assessment, 819–20
considering predictors in combination, 821–22
deciding which constructs to assess when selecting, 818–19
defining the criterion space, 817–18
Diversity-oriented recruitment messages, 78–79
Diversity reputation of organization, 816–17
Diversity-validity dilemma, 312–13
Diversity validity tradeoff, 817
Division of Applied Psychology (DAP), 12, 24n9
Downsizing, 861, 862. See also Layoffs; Reductions in force
factors influencing the decision to downsize, 850–51
macrolevel strategic choices about, 861
mesolevel operational choices about, 861–62
microlevel choices about, 862
strategies for, 851–53
Dukes v. Wal-Mart, 691
Dunnette, Marvin, 20
Duties, 120
Dynamic performance, 728–29
defined, 728
evidence for, 728
E
Early departure incentives (EDIs), 852
Early retirement incentives (ERIs), 852–57. See also Voluntary early retirement packages
Economy model (background data measures), 357
EEOC (Equal Employment Opportunity Commission), 21. See also Uniform Guidelines on Employee Selection Procedures
consent decrees, 692t
EEOC Deterrence standard, 713–15
EEOC v. Dial Corp, 292
EEOC v. Mitsubishi Motor Manufacturing of America, Inc., 691
Emergence enabling process, 674
Emergence enabling states, 674
Emergent (bottom-up) influences on selection, 59–60
Emotional intelligence (EI), 214, 217, 267–68
Empirical keying procedures, 365–66, 369–70
Employee-centered perspective. See Person-centered approach
Employee recruitment. See Recruitment
Employee referrals, research on, 74–75
Employee sales, studies of, 770–71
Employee tenure and accidents, 623, 623f
Employee value, 768–70, 786. See also Human capital; Utility analysis
approaches to considering, 770–76
future directions for research on monetary value, 783–84
multilevel theory of, 785
at organizational level, 774–75
potential theoretical perspectives on, 784–86
ramifications at a societal level, 775–76
roles of research on, 776–80
SDy as a theory of, 785
seeking explicit theoretical development of, 782
Encounter demographics, 816
Equal Employment Opportunity Commission. See EEOC
Equal Employment Opportunity (EEO) laws, 686–87
Equivalence (assessment procedures), 492. See also under Web-based assessments
Error training, 607
Essays, 480
Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct (APA), 427, 883, 897
European Union (EU) Privacy Directive, 490–91
Evidence-based selection, mental models as overlooked variable in, 795–97
Evidence-based staffing decisions
implications of ROIP for, 802–3
portfolio risk implications for improving, 807–8
supply-chain implications for improving, 799
Executing (teams), 836
Experience. See also Openness (to experience)
internal vs. external, 243–44
Experience requirements, 132
External information, 425
Extra-role behaviors, 544. See also Organizational citizenship behavior
Extra-role performance (teams), 838, 839
F
Face validity, 448–49
Factor-analytic evidence, 92, 447
and complexities in equating factors with constructs, 453–56
Factorial scales, 367–70
Factorial validity, 447
Fairness, 762. See also specific topics
defined, 462
Faking
on background data measures, 374
in personality assessment, 39
with self-reports of personality, 451–52
simulations, 397–400
Feedback setting, 267
Feedback timeliness, 637
Fidelity, psychological, 385
Fink v. NYC, 708
Firm Rank method, 14
(p. 963) Fit, 254, 422. See also Person-environment (PE) fit
anticipatory
from applicant's perspective, 264–68
objective, 261–62
from organization's perspective, 260–64
implications and future research on, 152–53
integrated model from organization and applicant perspectives, 257f, 257–60
to job/role, 417
with manager/executive leadership, 417
modes of, 255–56
nature of, 254
to organizations (unit/whole), 418
perceived, subjective and actual/objective, 256–57
as person-job match, 149
as person-organization match, 149–50
posthire implications of, 258–59
applicant perspective, 259–60
organizational perspective, 259
prehire anticipatory, 258
as strategy-staffing match, 150
subtypes of, 254–55
to team/peers, 417–18
Fit and flexibility framework, 148–52
Five Factor Model (FFM) of personality, 37, 37f, 227–30, 243–45. See also Big-Five personality traits
and assessment of broad vs. narrow characteristics, 458
citizenship performance and, 548, 549–50t, 551, 553
counterproductive work behavior and, 558–60
validity of FFM traits predicting job performance, 233–34
validity of FFM traits predicting life outcomes, 235–36
Fleishman's taxonomy of psychomotor abilities, 35t
Flexibility
in individuals and teams, 151
system/practice-level, 151–52
Flynn effect, 182–83
Forced distribution (scale), 523, 524
Forgotten forces, 579
Formative indicator scales, 456–58
Frame-of-reference (FOR) training, 524–25
Functional job analysis (FJA), 126–27
Functionalist orientation, 10
G
g (general intelligence) factor, 181
Galton, Francis, 11
Garufis, Nicholas G., 699
Gender bias, 477, 689
Gender differences in applicant reactions, 658
General mental ability (GMA), 182, 184, 226, 229
operational validity of
in combination with other predictor measures and constructs, 215f
for overall job performance, 190–91t
for task performance, 196t
for training success, operational validity of, 185–86t
validity of specific abilities vs., 201–2
Generality of background data measures, 372–73
Generating (teams), 836
Ghiselli, Edwin E., 18–21
Gillespie v. State of Wisconsin, 696
Gilliland, S. W., 631–43, 652–54, 658
Global Personality Inventory (GPI), 757
Globalization, 752
Goal attainment (teams), 839
Goal-setting interventions, 475
Graphic rating scales (GRS), 522, 524
Gratz v. Bollinger, 708–10
Gravitational hypothesis, 137
Great Eight competencies, 133
Green, Percy, 687–88
Greene v. Safeway, 701
Griggs v. Duke Power, 21, 692–93
Gross v. FBL Financial Services, 690
Group performance, 58
Group-values motives, 647–48
Grutter v. Bollinger, 708–11
Guardians of NY v. Civil Service Commission (CSC), 695–96
Guion, Robert, 20, 21, 413–14
Gully, S., 599
H
“Harvard Plan,” 708
Hayden v. Nassau County, 696–99
Hazelwood School Dist. v. United States, 690–91
Hazen v. Biggens, 702–3
Heart rate (HR) response, 279
Hicks, Melvin, 688
Hierarchical linear modeling (HLM), 734
High-performance work systems (HPWS), 670, 672, 673
High-risk populations, psychological assessment for, 435
Holistic assessment, 412
Honesty, 637–38
Honeymoon effect, 733
Hopkins, Anne, 689
Hopkins v. Price Waterhouse, 688–89
Horizontal cuts, 852–54, 857
“Hub of motivation,” 238–39
Human capital, 775. See also Employee value; Utility analysis
defined, 670
evidence for consequences of, 677–79
microperspectives and macroperspectives on
personnel selection (microview), 668–69
resource-based theory (macroview), 669–71
sustained competitive advantage paradox, 671–72. See also Sustained competitive advantage paradox
multilevel principles and, 672–75
selection (practices) contrasted with, 671–72
Human capital resource emergence. See also Multilevel selection model
determinants for, 672, 679–81, 680t
evidence for, 677
multilevel theory of, 673f, 673–75
Human capital resources, 670
Human resource accounting, 774
Human resource information systems (HRIS), 113
Human resource management (HRM), 147–49
Human resource management (HRM) programs, cost-benefit analysis of, 773–74
Human resource specialists, 141
Human resource (HR) systems, 56–57, 148
strength, 60
Hunter, J. E., 21, 22
I
Ideal point principle, 454t, 454–56
Identification (teams), 839
Impression management, applicant, 327–28, 337–39, 756
In-house recruitment. See Recruitment: internal
In-role performance (teams), 838, 839
Incremental validity, 15, 201, 204, 205, 206–13t, 214–17, 300
Incumbent assessment, use of physical performance tests for, 291
Independent contractors, 867
Indirect range restriction, 98
Individual assessment. See also individual psychological assessment; specific topics
defined, 412–13
Individual difference constructs, 953t
Individual difference domains, 32–33, 33t
and validity, 942–44
Individual differences, 31–33, 43. See also specific topics
future directions, 43–45, 952t
Individual psychological assessment (IPA), 438–40
assessment for high-risk populations, 435
cultural issues, 436–37
assessment challenges, 437
defined, 412–13
frameworks for, 413–15
(p. 964) internal vs. external assessment programs, 437
external “cons,” 438
external “pros,” 438
internal “cons,” 438
internal “pros,” 437–38
length, 426
measuring/evaluating success, 433
psychometric qualities, 433–34
qualitative indicators, 434–35
norms, 425
opportunities to test hypotheses and self-correct, 435–36
organizational purposes, 416
fostering individual growth, 418
identifying high-potential employees, 418
identifying “how to manage” or “how to coach” strategies, 419
initiating or expanding individual coaching, 418–19
performance management and development decisions, 418–19
selection/promotion decisions, 416–18
support for organizational change, 419
understanding problematic behavior, 419
preparing I/O psychologists for, 433
scope/use of, 415–16
sharing assessment outcome information, 421
information gathering, 421–22
interpretation and integration, 422
reporting, 422
restrictions/limitations/opportunities, 421–23
Individual psychological assessment data integration, 422, 427–28
feedback and assessment reports, 430–31
content, 431–32
delivery timing, 432
“first, do no harm,” 431
life spans, 432
oral vs. written, 431
overinterpretation, 432–33
recipients, 432
models for using data, 428
descriptive/qualitative measures, 428–29
scored approaches, 430
structured approaches, 429
stages of, 427–28
Individual psychological assessment design, 419–20
assessment objectives, 420
organizational context, 420
participants (assessees/assessors), 420–21
Individual psychological assessment development and implementation, 423
assessment batteries, 425
due diligence and ethical issues, 426
fairness, 427
informed consent, 426–27
legal compliance, 427
preparing and disseminating communications, 426
selecting/creating assessment tools/instruments, 424–25
work analysis, 423–24
Individualism vs. collectivism, 742, 756, 759–61
Industrial-organizational (I-O) psychology, history, 10, 24n9
Industrial psychology, history of, 10–12, 15–18, 23, 24n9
Informational justice, 635–38
Informed consent, 426–27
Inimitable resources, 670
Initial public offerings (IPOs), 805
Injuries, 617–18
Innovation, 839
cognitive ability and, 199
Input-Process-Output (IPO) model, 834
Integrity testing, reactions to, 655
Intellective tasks, 836
Intellectual abilities, 131, 214. See also Cognitive ability(ies)
Intellectual tendency vs. intellectual capability, 214
Intelligence, 181. See also Emotional intelligence
crystallized vs. fluid, 33–34, 181
Interactionist approach in personnel selection research, 61–62
Interactivity, level of, 488
Interconnected resources, 670
Interest measures, 424
Interests, 39–41
defined, 39
International Brotherhood of Teamsters v. United States, 690
International contexts, psychometric issues in selection in, 754–55, 761
applicant reactions, 658–59, 762–63
criterion concerns, 759–60
criteria beyond productivity, 760–61
discrimination law, 763
measurement concerns, 755–58
minority group validity internationally, 761
validity issues, 758–59
International Guidelines on Computer-Based and Internet-Delivered Testing (ITC), 490
International issues related to temporary workers, 877
International Test Commission (ITC) guidelines for Internet-based testing, 490
Internet, growth of, 485–86
Internet Applicant Rule, 491
Internet-based testing. See also Unproctored Internet testing; Web-based assessments
APA task force on, 489–90
Interpersonal effectiveness of administrator, 638–39
Interpersonal justice, 638
dimensions, 638–40
Interview structure types, 325
Interview validity and reliability
differences across interviewers, 333–34
meta-analyses of, 333–36
Interviewer beliefs and expectations
beliefs about ideal applicant, 326
beliefs about ideal procedure, 326–27
variations in, 328
Interviewer judgments of applicants, 332–33
applicant characteristics that influence interviewer judgments, 332–33
reliability and validity of, 324
applicant factors that influence, 334
Interviewers, 343
framing the selection process, 342
goals of, 327–28
decision making vs. judgment, 327
variations in, 328
guidelines for, 343–44
incorporating warmth and rapport in a structured procedure, 342–43
note-taking, 331
preinterview planning, 328–29
ratings of applicants, 330–31
split role selection, 342
tensions within, 339–40
approaches to dealing with, 342–43
training, 343
Interviewees (applicants)
beliefs and expectations, 336
beliefs about interview procedures, 336
beliefs about self-presentation, 336–37
how they process information, 332
interviewer ratings of, 330–31
judgment of the position and the organization, 339
preinterview vs. postinterview evaluations of organization, 337
preinterview planning, 337
preparation for interview, 337
tensions between interviewers and, 341
approaches to dealing with, 342–43
tensions within
approaches to dealing with, 342–43
conflicts between seeking information and presenting a good impression, 340–41
conflicts involving management of emotions, 340
(p. 965) tensions between creating a good impression and telling all, 340
training, 343
Interviewing, 343
guidelines for, 343–44
from the perspective of applicant, 336–39. See also Interviewees
from the perspective of interviewer, 325–36
Interviews, 22, 215–16, 266, 424
bias research on, 478
conduct of, 329–31
questioning, 329–30
transparency of procedures, 331
counterproductive work behavior and, 562
as a dance, 341–43
focusing on constructs that are best measured with, 343–44
group differences and bias in, 478
multiple objectives of, 344
reactions to, 656–57
reasons for popularity of, 324–25
structured
construct validity of, 335
incremental validity of, 334
vs. unstructured interviews, 335–36
using good test construction to develop, 343
Isabel v. City of Memphis, 696
Isokinetic testing, 281
Isotonic tests, 280–81
Item format
defined, 488
types of, 488, 489
Item response formats, 360–61, 820
Item response theory (IRT), 486, 487
J
Job analysis, 120. See also Work analysis
background data measures and, 362
conventional task-oriented procedures used for, 125–30
decisions and, 121–25
job performance and, 113, 114
purpose and definitions, 119–21
validation and, 95, 102, 111–14, 133–34
Job analysis methods, turnover-centered, 114–15
Job boards, 76
Job category and downsizing, 854
Job component validity (JCV), 136, 284–85
research findings, 137–38
Job context, 122. See also Context
Job knowledge tests, 538–39. See also Knowledge
Job-level studies, 137
Job offers, 80–81
Job performance. See Performance
Job previews. See Realistic job previews
Job relatedness, 632–34
Job satisfaction, 871–72. See also Team satisfaction
Job specifications, 120
K
Kano analysis, 800, 800f
Karraker v. Rent-A-Center (RAC), 706
Kennedy, Anthony, 699, 710, 711
Knowledge. See also Declarative knowledge; Procedural knowledge
job, 205. See also Job knowledge tests
acquisition of, 183–84
bias in, 480
counterproductive work behavior and, 560–62
group differences in, 479
Knowledge (worker requirement), 132
Knowledge, skills, abilities, or other characteristics (KSAOs), 48–64, 102, 121–24, 129–30, 134, 135, 141, 143, 299. See also Human capital; specific topics
human capital resources and, 672–73. See also Human capital resource emergence
psychology of personnel selection and, 121
selection method considerations, criteria, and, 152–53
Knowledge, skills, and abilities (KSAs). See also Knowledge, skills, abilities, or other characteristics; specific topics
teamwork, 840
Kozlowski, S. W. J., 599
L
Languages, equivalence of assessments across, 493
Lanning v. Southeastern Pennsylvania Transportation Authority (SEPTA), 287, 291, 696
Latent growth modeling (LGM), 734, 735
Latent semantic analysis (LSA), 508–9
Law school admissions (LSA) plan, 709–10
Layoffs, 849–50, 861, 862. See also Downsizing; Reductions in force
best practice in managing, 858
attending to legal environment of the downsizing, 859
being realistic in assessing transaction costs of layoff, 859–60
considering citizenship and CWB in layoff decisions, 859
making strategic decisions before operational decisions, 858
not underestimating the signaling effects of layoffs, 860–61
putting defensible performance measurement systems in place before layoffs, 858–59
reconsidering the mix of incentives used to generate voluntary exit, 860
reengineering work processes before laying off workers, 858
selecting specific individuals to lay off, 853–56
Leadership, 540t
cognitive ability and, 199
influence of, 57
Leadership effectiveness, 199
Leadership performance, cross-cultural perspective on, 760
Learning
bias produced by differences in historical learning and opportunity to learn, 472–73
bias produced by differences in opportunities to learn, 473
measures of historical learning and opportunity to learn, 472–74
new tasks, technologies, and procedures, 597t, 599–601, 603, 609
Legal compliance, 427, 927
Legal constraints on personnel selection, 53t, 55, 615–17, 686–87. See also specific topics
recommendations regarding, 715–17
Letters of recommendation, 480
Lewis v. Chicago, 700
Life history. See Background data
LinkedIn, 76
Live action simulations, 508
Live Action technology, 507–8
Location attachment, 572–73
Longitudinal research, expanding, 736
M
Macroscholarship, 667
Management, 419
Management competencies, 133
Manager mental models. See Mental models
Managers
employee fit with, 417
exploring why they are skeptical, 808–9
Mastery of opposites approach, 606
Materially adverse actions, theories of, 712–13, 713t
Maximal performance, 727–29
McCortsin v. U.S. Steel Corp., 701
McDonnell-Burdine disparate treatment scenario, 687t, 687–88
McDonnell Douglas v. Green, 687–88
McKay v. Toyota, 704
Meacham v. Knolls Atomic Power Laboratory (KAPL), 287, 291, 703–4
Measurement, 17
(p. 966) Measurement bias. See under Self-reports
Measurement error, 160
Measurement integrity. See under Web-based assessments
Measurement theory, advances in, 486
Media inclusion, 488
Medical examinations, 706
Meehl, Paul E., 18
Mental models. See also Team shared mental models
definition and nature of, 795
as overlooked variable in evidence-based selection, 795–97
Mental tests, 11
Merit and downsizing, 854
Messick, S., 94
Meta-analysis, 21–22, 100–102, 110–11, 172–73
of an employment test, information commonly reported in, 161
definition and nature of, 156
departures from principles of systematic literature reviews, 161–63, 166
future directions, 171–72
genesis of, 157–58
information recommended for inclusion in articles reporting, 163, 164–65t
information to be reported in, 166, 166t
life before, 157
methods for conducting, 158–59. See also Psychometric meta-analysis
and poor reporting practices by primary study authors, 171–72
reporting standards, 163, 164–65t
used to draw conclusions about tests in specific applications, 170–71
Meta-analysis credibility, 170
as function of data source, 168–69
as function of evidence concerning publication bias, 169
as function of number of effect sizes, 170
as function of reasonableness of nonsampling error artifact data, 167–68
as function of unexplained variance, 170
Method variance, 452–53
Mickelson v. New York Life Co., 714
Microaccidents, 618
Microscholarship, 667
Military bearing, 540t
Minimum qualifications (MQs), 141–43
Mixed-motive scenario, 688–90
Mixed-motive tasks, 836
Mood, 451
Moral forces, 579
Motivation and motivational choices (M), 467
bias produced by differences in historical motivation, 472–73
capacity to acquire needed, 470–71
bias in, 471–72
direct measures and evaluations of, 467
measures of historical motivation, 472–74
motivation to learn, 471
Motivation hub, 238–39
Motivational functions (teams), 836
Motor requirements, 130–31. See also Psychomotor abilities
Multiattribute utility analysis (MAU), 313, 314
Multilevel principles, 672–75
Multilevel selection, pressing questions for, 680t. See also Human capital resource emergence
broader views of validity, 680t, 681–82
Multilevel selection model, 673f, 673–77, 676f. See also Human capital
empirical support for, 677–79
future research directions, 679–83
Multinational organizations, approaches to selection in, 742–43
Multiple choice questions, 360–61
Multistage selection strategies, 298–99
Münsterberg, Hugo, 12
N
Narcissism, 552
Natural language processing, 509
Navy, U.S., 17
Near miss accidents, 618–19
defined, 618
Negative affectivity (NA), 450–51, 582
Negotiating (teams), 836
Nonreplacement, downsizing via, 853, 856–58
Normative forces, 579
O
Objective measures and ratings, 532
criterion model integrating, 539–41
Occupational commitment, 573, 873, 876
Occupational Personality Questionnaires (OPQ), 757
Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970 (OSHA), 614, 616
Occupational values and interests, 132
O’Connor, Sandra Day, 689–90, 710
Office of Contract Compliance Programs (OFCCP), 691
Older Worker Benefits Protection Act of 1990 (OWBPA)., 701, 702
On-site tours, 265–66
O*NET Work Value taxonomy, 40t, 40–41, 132, 138, 735–36
Opportunity to perform, 634
Organizational behavior (OB), 52
Organizational citizenship behavior (OCB), 195–96, 226, 544, 564–65
counterproductive work behavior and, 554
defined, 544
Five Factor Model and, 548, 549–50t, 551
layoff decisions and, 859
nature of, 544–54
vs. task performance, 545
Organizational citizenship behavior directed toward individuals (OCB-I), 545–46, 548, 553
Organizational citizenship behavior directed toward the organization (OCB-O), 545–46, 548, 553
Organizational influences on personnel selection, 48, 53t, 55–58, 955–56t
Organizational justice theories, 631–32, 641. See also specific theories
future directions, 641–43
Organizational performance, thinking in terms of, 62–65
Organizational strategy, 55–56. See also Strategy
Organizations
four competing-value types of, 262
information available on. See also Web site
influence on impressions of the organization, 337
Orientation functions (teams), 836
Outcomes assessment. See Performance measures
Overall assessment ratings (OARs), 388
Oxygen uptake mechanisms (VO2), 279, 280, 283
P
Paired comparison (scale), 523, 524
Parents Involved in Community Schools v. Seattle School Dist., 708, 711
Path dependency, 670
Paths to validity, 468–69, 469t
multiple, 474
Pension plans, fixed-benefit vs. fixed-contribution, 855
Performance, job. See also specific topics
direct and indirect determinants of, 467, 467f
most important dimensions of, 307–9
multifaceted interpretation of, 543–44
(p. 967) Performance determinant causal models, 467–68, 468f. See also Adaptive performance: models of
Performance factors, criterion measures hypothesized to represent various, 540t, 541
Performance measures, 517–18, 946–48, 954–55t
Performance quality (teams), 839
Performance quantity (teams), 839
Performance rating scales
absolute, 522
format, 521–23
relative, 523
Performance ratings, 527, 606–8
criteria for, 518–20
information processing “errors,” 519
interrater agreement, 519–20
interventions to improve quality of, 527–28
predictability of, 520–21
psychometric rating “errors,” 518–19
rater and ratee perceptions, 520
rater training approaches, 607
strategies for improving, 521–24
rater motivation, 525–27
rater training, 524–25
Performance tests, 266
applicant reactions to, 654–55
Performance trends
approaches for studying, 734–35
predicting, 734–35
Performance-value relationships, curvilinear, 799–800
Performances (teams), 836
Permanent placement of temporary workers, 869
Person-centered approach, 589
Person-environment (PE) fit, 252–53, 268–70. See also Fit
individual difference moderators of P and E assessment, 267–68
sources of P and E information for organization, 263–64
Person-group (PG) fit, 254
Person-individual (PI) fit, 253–54
Person-job (PJ) fit, 254, 269. See also Fit
Person-organization (PO) fit, 254, 269
assessment in interviews, 327
Person-person (PP) fit, 255
Person-situation (PS) fit, 255
Personal statements, 480
Personality, 32–33, 36–39, 131–32
affects work outcomes, 237
explaining how, 238–39
moderator effects: isolating the boundary conditions, 237–38
and applicant reactions, 658
composites vs. facets as predictors of performance, 38–39
of contingent workers, 873, 875–76
defined, 36, 226
importance in work settings, 226
nature of, 226
Personality scales, compound, 216, 217
validity, 234–35
Personality taxonomies, 37–38
Personality testing, 246, 706. See also Psychological testing
legal implications, 245
modern approaches to, 227–29
study design and measurement issues, 239
alternatives to self-report measures, 243–45
response distortion, 239–43
Personality tests, 22, 424
bias in, 479
perceived job relatedness of, 655
turnover and, 584–85
Personality traits
group differences in, 478–79
interactions among, 236–37
relation to other individual differences, 229–31
validity in predicting work outcomes, 231–37
recent predictive validity evidence, 233
Personnel selection
context in the process of, 52–59
holistic view of, 60–61
Personnel selection and assessment, 9–10
history of, 22–24, 952t
developments to 1900, 10–11
1900–1909, 11–12
1910–1919, 12–14
1920–1929, 14–16
1930–1939, 16–17
1940–1949, 17–18
1950–1959, 18–19
1960–1969, 19–20
1970–1979, 20–21
1980–1989, 21–22
1990 to the present, 22
Personnel selection model, classic, 49f, 49–50
emphasis on job performance, 50–51
emphasis on the individual level, 51
implications, 52
legal emphasis on jobs and individuals, 52
validity generalization, 51–52
Physical abilities, 34–35, 540t
identification of, 277–78
psychological capabilities compensating for lack of, 943
Physical ability definitions, 277, 278t
Physical capacity evaluation (PCE), 290
Physical demand, quantifying, 277–78
with direct measurements, 278–79
Physical jobs, job analysis for, 275–76
identification of essential tasks, 276–77
Physical performance, environments that affect, 279
Physical performance tests
administration and application of, 292
passing scores
evidence of the job relatedness of, 291–92
setting, 286–87
scoring, 285–86, 292
Physical test implementation, steps to ensure, 287–88
Physical test preparation and reduction of adverse impact, 292–93
Physical test validity, 283–84
alternative validation methods, 284–85
Physical testing
applicant reactions to, 655
litigation related to, 289–92
Physical tests
benefits of preemployment, 275
parameters related to test design or selection, 282–83
types of, 279
basic ability tests, 279–81
job simulation tests, 281–82
Picture-item test, 539
Planning tasks, 836
Portfolio risk implications for improving evidence-based staffing decisions, 807–8
Portfolio risk optimization. See also Risk optimization in validation and assessment
situational dynamics, situational uncertainty, and, 803–8
Position Analysis Questionnaire (PAQ), 21, 131, 137–38, 285
Positions and jobs, 121
Positive affectivity (PA), 450, 582
Posthire attitudes, 651
Posthire behavior, 652
Potency (teams), 839
Powell, Lewis F., Jr., 709
Pragmatism, scientific, 10
Predicting behavior, challenges in, 722
Predictive bias, 463–64, 480–81
approaches to evaluating bias, 464–66
bias scenarios, 463f, 463–64
defined, 462–63
resulting from measure construction errors, 474
resulting from reactions to predictor measures, 474
sources of construct-level, 468–69, 469f
toward a theory of, 466–70
Predictive bias analyses, confounds that can affect results from, 474–75
bias produced by performance variables, 475–76
differences in how predictors are used to form composites/combined, 476
measurement error, 476
nonequivalent performance (dependent) variables, 475
omitted direct determinants, 476
(p. 968) unequal motivational interventions after hire, 475
unequal opportunities or encouragement for transfer, 476
unequal organizational influences on job attitudes, 475
unequal training after hire or admission, 475
Predictive bias research, group differences in, 476–80
Predictive inferences, 93–94
vs. evidence supporting them, 94–96
routes to establishing, 95f
strategies for establishing, 96–97
using construct-oriented validity evidence to support, 109–11
using content-oriented validity evidence to support, 104–8
using criterion-related validity evidence to support, 97–104
Predictive validity, 15. See also specific topics
Predictor composite formation
combining predictors to form a composite, 300–301
nominal vs. effective weights, 301
weighting test elements in personnel selection, 301–4
implications of multidimensional nature of job performance for, 307–10
forming composite predictors for multidimensional criteria, 310–12
logic of, 298–99
Predictor composites
choosing predictors, 299–300
empirical evidence of criterion-related validity and adverse impact
implications and limitations, 306–7
multistage selection strategies, 305–6
single-stage selection strategies, 304–5
expanding the criterion domain to include other outcomes and levels of analysis, 312–14
Predictor constructs, measures of, 953–54t. See also specific topics
Predictor-focused validation, 111–12, 134
Predictor-performance correlations, causality of, 473–74
Predictor-performance relationships, paths to validity, 468–69, 469t
Preemployment inquiries, legal issues regarding, 706
Prehire anticipatory fit, 258
Prehire attitudes, 584, 650–51
Prehire behavior, 651–52
Prejudice, external and internal motivation to control, 822
Previews. See Realistic previews
Price Waterhouse v. Hopkins, 688–89
Principles for the Validation and Use of Employee Selection Procedures, 883, 928
Proactive personality, 551–52
Proactive personality measure, 234–35
Procedural justice, 632–35
Procedural knowledge (PK), 184, 467, 724–25
bias in capacity to acquire needed, 471–72
direct measures and evaluations of, 470
Procedure maintenance functions (teams), 836
Process validity, 374–75
Proctored and unproctored conditions, equivalence between, 493–94
Production rates as performance measure, 536
Professional commitments, 573
Profit growth, rate of, 850
Promotions, 536
Propriety of questions, 639–40, 646
Prosocial organizational behavior (POB), 544
Psychological testing (in employment settings)
faking in, 39
history of. See also Personnel selection and assessment: history of
historical approaches from early 1900s to 1980s, 226–29
Psychometric meta-analysis, 158–61, 163, 167
Psychomotor abilities, 34–35. See also Motor requirements
Q
Qualitative methods in developing background data items, 362–63
Questions
multiple choice, 360–61
propriety of, 639–40, 646
single choice, 360, 361
situational choice, 360
situational exposure, 360
Quitting, reasons for, 571, 580
attitudinal and perceptual antecedents, 571–73
neglected issues in assessing, 572–73
economic, 576
external, 576
motives/motive forces, 578–79
assessment of, 579–80
predictors vs. causes as assessments of, 573
reasons as causes of turnover, 573–74
assessing reasons, 574–77
practical and methodological challenges, 574
refining the “why” research, 588
shocks, 577
assessing, 577–78
socioemotional, 576
“why do people quit” assessments, 575–76t
Quotas, sales, 535–36
R
Race-neutral approach, 697
Racial and ethnic differences. See also Predictive bias
in applicant reactions, 657–58
Racial and ethnic discrimination, 691. See also Adverse impact; Disparate treatment
Racial and ethnic diversity. See Diversity in workplace
Random coefficient modeling (RCM), 734, 735
Random sampling error, 159–60
Range restriction, 160–61
and applicant population issues, 757–58
direct vs. indirect, 98
Rare resources, 670
Rational scaling methods, 366–67, 369–70
Realistic job previews (RJPs), 77–78, 876
Realistic previews, 266–67
Reapplication behavior, 651–52
Reasonable accommodations, 706–8
Reasonable Factors Other Than Age (RFOA) defense, 703
Reconsideration opportunity, 635
Recruiter effects, 79–80
Recruiters and applicants, demographic similarity of, 816
Recruitment, 68–69, 84–85, 941. See also Fit
external, 68–69
future research directions, 84
internal, 81–82
international issues and, 81
interviews and, 327
targeting individuals for, research on, 71–72
Recruitment actions, timing of, 72–73
Recruitment communication, recent studies relevant to, 79
Recruitment message, 77–79
research on, 77–79
future research directions, 79
Recruitment methods, 73–77
research on, 73–75, 84
methodological weakness of, 74–75
more nuanced, 84, 85t
(p. 969) Recruitment process
attracting applicant attention, 82–83
flow diagram of, 82f, 82–84
generating applicants, 83
maintaining interest, 83
model of, 69, 69f
conducting recruitment activities, 70
developing a recruitment strategy, 70
establishing recruitment objectives, 69–70
evaluating recruitment outcomes, 70
intervening job applicant variables, 70–71
postoffer closure, 83–84
Reductions in force (RIFs), 700–702, 715–16. See also Downsizing; Layoffs
suggestions in conducting, 716
Reeves v. Sanderson Plumbing, 687, 688
References, 758
Reflective indicator scales, 456–58
Regression weighting, 302
Relative percentile method (RPM), 523, 524
Reliability, 15
Reliability coefficient, 11
Reliability weighting, 302–3
Replacement schemes, 700–701
Research (on personnel selection). See also specific topics
future directions, 61–62
methodological and analytical considerations, 64–65
studying variability in selection practices, 63–64
tinking in terms of organizational performance, 62–65
Research questions, 952–56t. See also specific topics
Research strategies, 941–42, 952–53t
Resource-dependent vs. resource-insensitive tasks, 726
Resource distribution functions (teams), 836
Resources. See also Human capital resources
nonsubstitutable, 670
Response action, 488
Response coordination functions (teams), 836
Response distortion, 239–41
effects of, 494
methods to reduce, 241–43
Response styles and response bias, 755–57
Retaliation claims, prongs for proving, 712, 712t
establishing a causal connection, 714
establishing a material adverse action, 712–13
establishing protected activity, 712
Retaliation provisions, 711
Title VII, 711–12
Retention of temporary workers, 869
Retesting, 495, 889
administrative concerns, 890
number of equivalence forms, 890–91
opportunity for skill improvement, 889–90
political concerns, 890
practice effects, 889
type of test and, 890
Retirement. See also Early retirement incentives; Voluntary early retirement packages
physical performance testing and challenges to mandatory, 290–91
“Retooling HR,” 794–95, 797
“Retooling” staffing and assessment, 794
enhancing engagement and understanding, 811–12
Return on improved performance (ROIP), 801
and the assumption of linearity, 799–803
implications for evidence-based staffing decisions and utility analysis, 802–3
implications for validation paradigm, 801–2
Rewards, job, 131
Ricci v. DeStefano, 698–99, 715
Ringers method, 14
Risk management. See Portfolio risk optimization
Risk optimization in validation and assessment, scenario planning as enhancing, 810–11
Role-plays, 608–9
Royal Navy, 17
S
Safety, occupational, 624
future directions for research, 624
and health in organizations, importance of, 614–16
history, 615–16
old vs. new views of, 615, 616t
Safety climate, 622–23
dimensions, 622–23
Safety-conscious workforce, creating a, 620–21
putting the pieces together, 623–24
selection, 621–22
supervision and climate, 622–23
training, 622
Safety knowledge, 621–23
Safety motivation, 621–23
Safety outcomes
vs. safety behavior, 619
safety performance and, 616–19
unsafe behavior, 616–17
Safety-related outcomes, methodological issues in, 619
measuring and predicting accidents and injuries, 619–20
measuring and predicting unsafe behaviors, 619
Salary level, 536–37
Sales as performance measure, 535–36
Satisfaction (teams), 839
Scale development, 445. See also specific topics
Scales, choice of, 123
Scenario planning enhancing risk optimization in validation and assessment, 810–11
Schmidt, F. L., 21, 22
Scoring algorithm, 488
Scott, Walter Dill, 9, 12–13
Scott Company, 13
Security needs of client organization, 870
Seeding, 843
Selected response item format, 488, 489
Selection decision making, 927
Selection information, 636–37
Selection justice model, 631, 632, 632f
dimensions of selection justice, 632–39, 633t
Selection method considerations. See also Fit; Staffing
criteria, KSAOs, and, 152
“Selection out” and “selection in” processes, 849, 854, 859. See also Downsizing; Layoffs
“Selection out” strategies. See also Downsizing; Layoffs
effectiveness of different, 856–58
Selection policies. See Diversity in workplace; specific topics
Selection practices
as imitatable, 671
studying variability in, 63–64
Selection procedures
administration, 926
selecting those who administer, 822–23
Selection process, applicant access to, 927
Selection program changes
consequences of, 932–34, 934t
managing, 930–34
reasons for, 931
advances in selection research/technology, 932
legal considerations, 931–32
organizational considerations, 931
union considerations, 932
work changes, 932
Selection program governance, 926
compliance with legal and professional governance, 928
ADA compliance in selection procedures, 929–30
compliance with monitoring, reporting, and responding requirements, 929
validation, 928–29
(p. 970) governing policies and rules, 926–28
authorities, 927–28
data management, 926–27
Selection programs
life cycle of successful, 903
monitoring and maintaining, 915–17, 922–26
positioning in organization
authorities of owners and experts, 903–5
public vs. private sector considerations, 905–6
tracking retention over time, 917, 923f
Selection services, delivery of, 912
technology and, 912–14
Selection solutions to organizational needs, 906–7
common organization- and individual-level needs, 907
delivery of, 912
factors impacting complexity of, 912, 913t
technology and, 912–14
designing and implementing, 910
the role of research, 911
union and labor relations considerations, 914–15
validity rationale--technical considerations, 911–12
evaluation criteria, 907, 908t
alignment with other HR practices/systems/strategy, 909–10
alternative solutions, 909
culture fit, 910
current selection practices, 909
generalizability of validity evidence to the local situation, 909
leader beliefs about selection, 910
stable individual differences, 908
validity research foundation, 908–9
Selection systems
implementation and sustainability, 956t
stakeholders in, 915, 916t
Selection systems success
interests, stakeholder groups, and metrics of, 917, 921–22t
stakeholder groups and their interests in, 917, 918–20t
Selection techniques and processes, reactions to, 654–59
Self-concept, 33
Self-description, 425
Self-evaluations, 41–43
Self-interest motives, 647
Self-monitoring, 267
Self-ratings of citizenship performance, 547
Self-reported admissions of CWBs, 556
Self-reports, 443–44, 459, 945–46
assessment of broad vs. narrow characteristics, 458–59
of background, 374, 444
biases that affect, 449–50
sources of bias, 450–51
common method variance, 452–53
complexities in equating factors with constructs, 453–56
construct validity of scales, 456–59
multi-item scales, 444–45
formative vs. reflective, 456–58
of personality, faking with, 451–52
reliability of scales, 445–56
Seniority and downsizing, 854
Sensitivity reviews of items, 820
Sensory ability, 130
Separation (teams), 843
SEPTA, Lanning v., 287, 291, 696
Shared mental models (SMMs). See Team shared mental models
Simplex process, 729, 730, 732, 734
Simulations, 281–82, 383–84, 405, 424, 945
applicants like, 400–402
characteristics of, 384, 387–88
behavioral consistency, 384
content sampled, 384–85
cost and scope, 387
fidelity, 385–86
interactivity, 386
scoring, 387
standardization, 386–87
comparative evaluations of, 402–3
cross-cultural transportability, 404–5
directions for future research, 402–5
effects of coaching, 400
effects of faking, 398–99
effects of retesting, 399–400
enable organizations to make predictions about KSAOs, 388–91
as less fakable and coachable than personality inventories, 397–400
reduce the adverse impact on organizations’ selection system, 394–95
structure and, 403–4
subgroup differences and, 395–96
moderators of subgroup differences, 396–97
toward an integrative theory of performance on, 393–94
validity
criterion-related, 388–89
external validation research, 393
incremental, 389–90
internal validation research, 391–93
the search for moderators of, 390–91
what is measured by, 391–94
Single choice questions, 360, 361
Site visit, organizational, 80
Situational choice questions, 360
Situational dynamics, situational uncertainty, and portfolio risk optimization, 803–8
Situational exposure questions, 360
Situational judgment tests (SJTs), 214, 216, 245, 383–84, 609, 819–20. See also Simulations
bias in, 479
counterproductive work behavior and, 562–63
organizational citizenship behavior and, 552–53
Situational specificity hypothesis, 51, 157
Skill acquisition theory and research, 731–32
nonability predictors, 732–34
Skills
basic, 132
knowledge and, 724–26
SMIRP (Sensory, Motor, Intellectual, Rewards, and Personality), 130–32
Smith v. City of Jackson, 703, 704
Social complexity, 670
Social context of selection, 60, 952t. See also Context
Social desirability (SD), 450
Social networking, 76–77, 328
Social Process Questionnaire on Selection (SPQS), 336
Social psychological theories, 644–46
Social skills, 841
Societal constraints on selection, 955–56t. See also specific topics
Southeastern Pennsylvania Transit Authority (SEPTA), Lanning v., 287, 291, 696
St. Mary's v. Hicks, 687, 688
Staffing. See also Evidence-based staffing decisions
defined, 147
and fit, 149–50
and flexibility, 150–52
as a supply chain, 797–99. See also Supply chain
Standards for Educational and Psychological Testing, 883, 928
Statistical artifacts
effects of, 161
recognition of, 161
Statistics, 17
Stereotype threat from contextual cues, 823–24
Stevens, John Paul, 703
Stewart v. Happy Herman's Cheshire Bridge, 707–8
Stigma associated with being a temporary worker, 870, 874t, 875
Strategic human resources management (SHRM), 147, 148, 775. See also Employee value
effects of, 780
a possible new approach to, 782
SHRM research, 677
and utility analysis approaches, synthesizing, 782–83
Strategic staffing. See also Fit; Staffing
defined, 147–48
(p. 971) Strategy, defined, 147
Streaming validation model, 113
Strict scrutiny test, 708
Strong theory(ies), 770, 782–86
Structural equation modeling (SEM), 109
Subject matter experts (SMEs), 126–29, 141, 142, 303, 537
Substantive theory (background data measures), 362
Succession plans, supporting, 418
Supervisory performance ratings. See Performance ratings
Supply chain
staffing as a, 797–99
variance of the distribution of criteria and value across, 810
Supreme Court rulings related to testing, early, 692–94, 693t
Survival analysis, 533–34
Sustained competitive advantage paradox, 667–83
resolving the, 680t, 682–83
Sutton v. United Air Lines (UAL), 705
Synthetic validity, 136–38, 285
Systems monitoring functions (teams), 836
Systems perspective, 777
T
Targeted recruiting, 815
Targeting individuals for recruitment, research on, 71–72
future directions for, 72
Task complextiy, 674, 726
Task consistency, 726
Task inventory analysis, 127–28
Task performance, defined, 189
Taylor, Frederick, 10
Teal, Connecticut v., 694
Team effectiveness, overall, 839
Team functioning, models of, 833–35
Team identification, 839
Team learning, 839
Team performance episodes, 834
Team performance functions, 836
Team placement, multilevel perspectives on, 844
Team processes, 835. See also Teams: performance processes in
Team role knowledge, 840–41
defined, 841
Team roles, 836–37
Team satisfaction, 839
Team selection, 832–33, 844
multilevel perspectives on, 844
Team selection research, areas for future, 845t
Team settings, criteria in, 838
individual-level criteria, 838–39
performance measurement in team contexts, 839–40
team-level criteria, 839
Team shared mental models (SMMs)
enhancing understanding, decisions, and action, 809
importance to evidence-based staffing, 797
positive effects, 796–97
research model based on, 796–97
Team tasks, 835–36
Teams
creating, 842–44
defined, 832–33
individual contributions to, 840
experience, 842
knowledge, skills, and abilities, 840–41
personality traits, 841–42
performance processes in, 836. See also Team processes
placement and staffing, 842–44
the work of, 835–38. See also Teamwork
Teamsters v. United States, 690
Teamwork, 58. See also Teams: the work of
Technical Design Advisory Committee (TDAC), 697
Technical proficiency, 540t
Technology. See also Web technology
and delivery of selection services, 912–14
Temperament, 42
Temporary employment
selecting candidates with diverse motivations for seeking, 870
as “working test,” 876
Temporary help service agencies, 866–67
Temporary help services (THS), 866
Temporary work arrangements
rise in prevalence of, 867–68
types of, 866–67
Temporary worker selection, 868–69
challenges in, 869–71
hiring temps who will display high levels of commitment, 870–71
job characteristics and, 869
limited opportunities for onboarding, 869–70
limited opportunities for satisfying social needs of job incumbents, 870
selection methods and selection context, 876
Temporary workers. See also Contingent workers
socialization, 876–77
vs. standard employees, findings between studies on, 872t
stigmatization, 870, 874t, 875
types of, 866t
Test administration, 881–84, 900–901. See also Testing policies and procedures
administrators, 885–86
environment, 884–85
equipment, 886–88
order of administration of tests, 893
adverse impact, validity, and, 893
applicant reactions and, 893–94
costs and, 893
feasibility of administration and, 894
time allowed for test, 892–93
verification testing, 894
Test anxiety, 644
Test Attitude Scale (TAS), 643
dimensions of, 643, 643t
Test attitudes
dimensions of, 643–44
self-serving bias mechanisms of, 644
“Test-criterion” method, 14
Test fairness. See Applicant reactions
Test materials, storage of, 894, 896
defending the selection process, 897
defending the test score and selection decision, 896–97
discarding scratch paper, 896
scoring tests, 896
understanding test-taker's performance, 896
Test recordkeeping, 894
accuracy, 895
completeness, 895–96
storage of test scores, 895–96
contemporary, 896
sorting and filtering capability, 896
Test scores
converted scores, 898
cutoff scores, 899
combination of procedures, 900
direct assessment of skill, 899
level of predicted performance, 899
percent passing, 899
evaluating, 898–900
top-down selection, 898–99
use of normative information, 900
percentile scores, 898
presenting, 897–98
raw scores, 897
reporting, 897
Test scoring, 894
mechanics of, 894
computer-administered tests, 895
paper-and-pencil tests, 894–95
test scores based on ratings, 895
Test-taking motivation models, 643–44
Test validation. See also Validation
job analysis and, 133–34
Testing policies and procedures, 888. See also Retesting
ADA accommodations, 892
eligibility, 888
disqualification, 889
exemptions and waivers, 888–89
length of time a test score is valid, 891
test feedback, 891–92
test information and preparation materials, 891
test security, 890, 892
(p. 972) Tests. See also specific topics
belief in, 644
organizational goals, organizational environment, and decisions about, 881, 882f
reactions to, 654–56. See also Applicant reactions
Thomas, Clarence, 689–90
Thorndike, Robert L., 18, 517
Threshold traits analysis, 132–33
Time, 721, 734–37, 823
changing validities over, 729–31
human performance over, 736–37
measurement, prediction, and, 722–23
understanding job tasks over, 735–36
Timing functions (teams), 836
Title VII, adverse impact and standardized tests in, 692
current issues related to testing, 694
identification and causation, 694–95
job relatedness and business necessity, 695–96
valid alternatives with less adverse impact, 696–700
early Title VII precedents, 692–94, 693t
Title VII adverse impact judicial scenario, 692, 692t
Title VII precedents, early, 692–94, 693t
Title VII provisions for retaliation, 711–12
Tomassi v. Insignia Financial Group, Inc., 701
Toyota Motor Manufacturing, Kentucky, Inc. v. Williams, 705
TRACON (Terminal Radar Approach CONtroller), 732
Trainability, 595–96, 609–10
defining, 598–600, 604–5, 608
in the larger job performance domain, 600
models of, 598–99
Trainability criteria, assessing the relevance of, 603–4
Training, 822
defined, 723
selection, prediction, and, 723–24
Training and experience (T&E), meta-analysis of validity of ratings of, 168
Trait theory, 36–37
Traits, standard lists of, 130
taxonomy, 130–32
Translation/back-translation (TBT), 493
Transportability, test, 284
Transportability studies, 102–3
Turnover, voluntary, 533–34, 580, 586–87. See also Quitting
cognitive ability and, 199–200
costs and benefits, 585–86
functionality, 584–89
future research directions, 588, 590
cultural considerations, 589–90
expanding the “who” research, 588–89
improving “how much” assessment, 589
refining the “why” research, 588
individual characteristics related to
age, gender, and race, 580
education, overeducation, and overqualification (or underemployment), 580–81
performance, 581
personality, 581–83
potential selection assessment tools and strategies to reduce, 583–85
Turnover problems, assessment of, 587, 587f
Turnover rate-firm productivity relationship, nature of, 585
Typical performance, 727–29
U
Ultimate Employment standard, 713
Undergraduate admissions (UGA) plan, 709, 710
Uniform Guidelines on Employee Selection Procedures (UGESP), 158, 172, 491, 692, 694–96, 911, 928, 929, 931
revision or abolishment of, 172
Unions, 914–15, 932
Unit weights, 303
Unproctored Internet testing (UIT), 489, 490, 884, 885, 894. See also Internet-based testing; Web-based assessments
benefits of, 496–97
convenience, efficiency , and cost benefits, 497–98
integration with applicant tracking systems, 497
challenges of, 498
accessibility and user experience, 501
cheating, 499–501
ethical and legal concerns, 498–99
constructs to be measured by, 502–3
context for, 502
deciding whether to implement, 502
defining objectives for, 502
design and implementation considerations, 503
accounting for verification testing, 503
adhering to professional standards and guidelines, 505
closely tracking adverse impact, 504–5
developing multiple hurdle selection process, 503
ensuring data and test security, 504
establishing decision rules (cut scores), 503–4
gathering user experience perceptions, 504
implementing strategies to deter and detect cheating, 504
recommendations for balancing benefits and risks of, 501–5
return on investment (ROI), 503, 510
Utility, 15
Utility analysis, 669, 674, 771–73, 778–80. See also Employee value; Human capital
in the classroom, 781
for decision makers, 781–82
future roles for, 780–82
implications of ROIP for, 802–3
multiattribute, 313, 314
and SHRM approaches, synthesizing, 782–83
as a theoretical tool, 782
V
Validation, 115. See also specific topics
definitions, 104
predictor- vs. criterion-focused, 111–12
synthetic, 103
Validation paradigm, 793–94
implications of ROIP for, 801–2
portfolio risk optimization and, 804–5
validation against an assumed or unknown future, 805–6
validation as portfolio risk optimization, 806–7
validation using generic traits, 806
retooling it using mental models accepted by decision makers, 794–95
supply-chain implications for, 798–99
when turnover is a selection criterion, 114–15
Validation research, amount and type of, 911
Validation strategies
alternative, 136
judgment-based, 139–43
synthetic validity, transportability, and validity generalization, 136–39
conventional, 134
the criterion side, 135–36
the predictor side, 134
Validity, 15, 91, 115. See also Paths to validity; Predictive inferences; specific topics
concept of, 91–96
definitions of, 91, 104
individual difference domains and, 942–44
as inference, 92–93
about test scores, 93–94
limited to inferences about individuals vs. including broader consequences of test score use, 93
as predictor-criterion relation vs. broader conceptualization, 92
(p. 973) as strategy for establishing job relatedness, 92–93
of tests, 92–93
types of, 93
vs. validity evidence, 93
Validity coefficients, 157–61
Validity evidence, types of, 93
Validity generalization (VG), 20, 51–52, 97, 100–102, 138–39, 166
considerations in relying on VG to support test use, 167
definition and nature of, 156–57
Validity streams vs. validation studies, 112–14
Validity studies, 112–14
factors that limit inferences from primary, 159
Validity transport, 138
Valuable resources, 670
Values, 40–41
Variety (teams), 843
Velez v. Novartis Corp, 691
Verification testing, 494, 894
Vertical cuts, 851, 853, 856–57
Viability (teams), 839
Visiting workplace, 265–66
Vocational Accomplishments method, 14
Vocational psychology, 12
Voluntary early retirement packages, 702. See also Early retirement incentives
voluntary waiver rules, 702, 702t
W
Walk-through test, 538–39
Wards Cove Packing Co. v. Atonio, 694, 703, 704
Watson v. Fort Worth Bank, 694
Web-based assessments, 510–11, 946. See also Internet-based testing
bottom-line impact, 486
access to a larger, more diverse candidate pool, 487
demonstrated value as a strategic investment, 487–88
expanded construct coverage, 487
improved efficiency, 486–87
increased precision in measurement, 487
candidate-driven assessments, 508
candidate experience in, 507
future innovations, 510
future of, 505
test deployment, 508
test design, 506–8
test scoring, 508–10
test security, 505–6
history and current trends, 485–88
measurement issues associated with, 491
standardization and equivalence, 491–94
standards and best practices, 489–91
suggestions for future research, 510
equivalence of tests and testing methods, 510
threats to measurement integrity of, 494–95
user experience, 510
Web site, employer's, 265
recruiting via, 75–76
Web technology, common assessment methods deployed in, 488–89
Wet-bulb globe temporary index (WBGT), 288
White, Sheila, 713, 714
Williams, Ella, 705
Withdrawal, applicant, 816
Wonderlic Personnel Test (WPT), 671–72
Woodworth Personal Data Sheet, 226–27
Work activities, 120
Work adjustment, theory of, 41
Work analysis, 423–24, 837–38. See also Job analysis
Work attitudes, cognitive ability and, 200
Work group influences, 58–59
Work Locus of Control Scale, 445, 445t
Work sample tests, 205, 266, 537–38
Work samples, 608–9
bias in, 480
group differences in, 479
Work styles, 132
Worker attributes, 120
Worker characteristics, categories of, 132
Worker requirements, 132
Workforce reduction. See Downsizing; Layoffs; Reductions in force
World War I, 13
World War II, 17
Wundt, Wilhelm, 10, 11
Y
Yerkes, Robert, 13
Z
Zaccagnini v. Chas Levy Circulating Co., 701