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date: 21 August 2019

(p. 390) Ruling Dynasties of Iran: The relationship of each ruler to the previous one is noted in brackets.

(p. 390) Ruling Dynasties of Iran

The relationship of each ruler to the previous one is noted in brackets.

Ancient Iranian Dynasties

Elam (3000–530 bce)

  1. 1) Puzur-Inshushinak (circa 2100 bce)

  2. 2) Kindattu (circa 2000–1900 bce)

  3. 3) Kidinuids (1500–1400 bce)

  4. 4) Igihalkids (1400–1200 bce)

  5. 5) Shutrukids (1200–1100 bce)

Medes (694–665 bce)

  1. 1) Deioces (694–665 bce)

  2. 2) Phraortes (665–633 bce) [son]

  3. 3) Cyaxares (625–585 bce) [son]

  4. 4) Astyages (585–550 bce) [son]

Achaemenid Dynasty

  1. 1) Cyrus II the Great (559–530 bce) [fourth in descent from Achaemenes]

  2. 2) Cambyses II (530–522 bce) [son]

  3. 3) Bardiya (522 bce) [son of #1]

  4. 4) Darius I (550–486 bce) [fifth in descent from Achaemenes]

  5. 5) Xerxes I (485–465 bce) [son]

  6. 6) Artaxerxes I (465–424 bce) [son]

  7. 7) Xerxes II (424 bce) [son]

  8. 8) Sogdianus (424–423 bce) [son of #6]

  9. 9) Darius II (423–404 bce) [son of #6]

  10. 10) Artaxerxes II (404–358 bce) [son]

  11. 11) Artaxerxes III (358–338 bce) [son]

  12. 12) Artaxerxes IV (338–336 bce) [son]

  13. 13) Darius III (336–330 bce) [grandson of #9]

(p. 391) Macedonians (330–301 bce)

  1. 1) Alexander the Great (330–323 bce)

  2. 2) Antigonus Monophthalmus (306–301 bce) [one of Alexander's commanders]

Seleucids (305–146 bce)

  1. 1) Seleucus I (305–281 bce) [one of Alexander's commanders]

  2. 2) Antiochus I Soter (292–261 bce) [son]

  3. 3) Antiochus II Theos (261–246 bce) [son]

  4. 4) Seleucus II Callinicus (246–225 bce) [son]

  5. 5) Seleucus III Soter (225–223 bce) [son]

  6. 6) Antiochus III the Great (223–187 bce) [son of #4]

  7. 7) Seleucus IV Philopator (187–175 bce) [son]

  8. 8) Antiochus IV Epiphanes (175–164 bce) [son of #6]

  9. 9) Antiochus V Eupator (164–162 bce) [son]

  10. 10) Demetrius I (162–150 bce) [son of #7]

  11. 11) Alexander Balas (150–146 bce) [son of #8]

Arsacids/Parthians (247 bce–224 ce)

  1. 1) Arsaces I (247–211 bce)

  2. 2) Arsaces II (211–191 bce) [son]

  3. 3) Phriapatius (191–176 bce) [cousin?]

  4. 4) Phraates I (176–171 bce) [son]

  5. 5) Mithradates I (171–138 bce) [brother]

  6. 6) Phraates II (138–127 bce) [son]

  7. 7) Artabanus I (127–124 bce) [son of #3]

  8. 8) Mithradates II (123–88 bce) [son]

  9. 9) Gotarzes I (95–90 bce) [grandson of #3]

  10. 10) Orodes I (90–80 bce) [brother?]

  11. 11) Sinatruces (77–70 bce) [son of #3?]

  12. 12) Phraates III (70–57 bce) [son]

  13. 13) Mithradates III (57–54 bce) [son]

  14. 14) Orodes II (57–38 bce) [brother]

  15. 15) Phraates IV (38 bce–2 ce) [brother]

  16. 16) Phraates V (2–4 ce) [son]

  17. 17) Orodes III (6 ce) [son?]

  18. 18) Vonones I (8–12 ce) [son of #16]

  19. 19) Artabanus II (10–38 ce) [?]

  20. 20) Tirdates II (35–36 ce) [grandson of #16]

  21. 21) Vardanes I (40–47 ce) [son of #20]

  22. 22) Gotarzes II (40–51 ce) [brother]

  23. 23) Vonones II (51 ce) [son of #22]

  24. 24) Vardanes II (54–58 ce) [son?]

  25. 25) Vologases I (51–78 ce) [son of #24]

  26. 26) Vologases II (77–80 ce) [son]

  27. 27) Pacorus I (78–105 ce) [brother?]

  28. 28) Artabanus III (80–90 ce) [?]

  29. 29) Khosrow I (109–129 ce) [?]

  30. 30) Vologases III (105–147 ce) [?]

  31. 31) Mithradates IV (129–140 ce) [brother?]

  32. (p. 392) 32) Vologases IV (147–191 ce) [son]

  33. 33) Vologases V (191–208 ce) [son?]

  34. 34) Vologases VI (208–228 ce) [son]

  35. 35) Artabanus IV (216–224 ce) [brother]

Sasanians (224–651 ce)

  1. 1) Ardashir I (224–240 ce) [grandson of Sasan]

  2. 2) Shapur I (240–270 ce) [son]

  3. 3) Hormizd I (270–271 ce) [son]

  4. 4) Bahram (Wahram) I (271–274 ce) [brother]

  5. 5) Bahram II (274–293 ce) [son]

  6. 6) Bahram III (293 ce) [son]

  7. 7) Narseh (293–302 ce) [son of #2]

  8. 8) Hormizd II (302–309 ce) [son]

  9. 9) Adurnarse (309 ce) [son]

  10. 10) Shapur II (309–379 ce) [brother]

  11. 11) Ardashir II (279–283 ce) [brother]

  12. 12) Shapur III (383–388 ce) [son of #10]

  13. 13) Bahram IV (388–399 ce) [brother]

  14. 14) Yazdgerd I (399–420 ce) [son of #12]

  15. 15) Bahram V (Gur) (420–438 ce) [son]

  16. 16) Yazdgerd II (438–457 ce) [son]

  17. 17) Hormizd III (457–459 ce) [son]

  18. 18) Piruz (Peroz) (459–484 ce) [brother]

  19. 19) Balash (Walash) (488–488 ce) [brother]

  20. 20) Kavad (Kawad) I (488–496/498–531 ce) [son of #18]

  21. 21) Jamasp (Zamasp) (496–498 ce) [brother]

  22. 22) Khosrow I (Anushirvan) (531–579 ce) [son of #20]

  23. 23) Hormizd IV (579–590 ce) [son]

  24. 24) Bahram VI Chubin (590–591 ce) [usurper]

  25. 25) Wistahm (usurper) (591 ce) [maternal uncle of #26]

  26. 26) Khosrow II (Aparviz) (591–628 ce) [son of #23]

  27. 27) Kavad II (Shiroe) (628 ce) [son]

  28. 28) Ardashir III (628–629 ce) [son]

  29. 29) Shahrbaraz (629 ce) [usurper]

  30. 30) Boran (Buran, Puran) (630–631 ce) [daughter of #26]

  31. 31) Azarmidokht (632 ce) [sister]

  32. 32) Yazdgerd III (632–651 ce) [grandson of #26]

Dynasties Of Medieval Iran

Umayyad Caliphate (661–750 ce)

  1. 1) Mu‘awiya I (661–680 ce) [third in descent from Umayya, the eponymous founder of the line]

  2. 2) Yazid I (680–683 ce) [son]

  3. 3) Mu‘awiya II (683–684 ce) [son]

  4. 4) Marwan I (684–685 ce) [third in descent from Umayya]

  5. (p. 393) 5) Abd al-Malik I (685–705 ce) [son]

  6. 6) Al-Walid I (705–715 ce) [son]

  7. 7) Sulaiman (715–717 ce) [brother]

  8. 8) Umar II (717–720 ce) [son of #4]

  9. 9) Yazid II (720–724 ce) [son of #5]

  10. 10) Hisham I (724–743 ce) [brother]

  11. 11) Al-Walid II (743–744 ce) [son of #9]

  12. 12) Yazid III (744 ce) [son of #6]

  13. 13) Ibrahim (744 ce) [brother]

  14. 14) Marwan II (744–750 ce) [grandson of #4]

Abbasid Caliphate (750–1258 ce)

  1. 1) Al-Saffah, Abdullah (750–754 ce) [fourth in descent from Abbas, uncle of Muhammad]

  2. 2) Al-Mansur, Abdullah (754–775 ce) [brother]

  3. 3) Al-Mahdi, Muhammad (775–785 ce) [son]

  4. 4) Al-Hadi, Musa (785–786 ce) [son]

  5. 5) Al-Rashid, Harun (786–809 ce) [brother]

  6. 6) Al-Amin, Muhammad (809–813 ce) [son]

  7. 7) Al-Ma’mun, Abdullah (813–833 ce) [brother]

  8. 8) Al-Mu‘tasim, Abbas (833–842 ce) [brother]

  9. 9) Al-Wathiq, Harun (842–847 ce) [son]

  10. 10) Al-Mutawakkil, Jafar (847–861 ce) [brother]

  11. 11) Al-Muntasir, Muhammad (861–862 ce) [son]

  12. 12) Al-Musta‘in, Ahmad (862–866 ce) [grandson of #8]

  13. 13) Al-Mu‘tazz, Muhammad (866–869 ce) [son of #10]

  14. 14) Al-Muhtadi, Muhammad (869–870 ce) [son of #9]

  15. 15) Al-Mu‘tamid, Ahmad (870–892 ce) [son of #10]

  16. 16) Al-Mu‘tadid, Ahmad (892–902 ce) [grandson of #10]

  17. 17) Al-Muktafi, Ali (902–908 ce) [son]

  18. 18) Al-Muqtadir, Jafar (908–932 ce) [brother]

  19. 19) Al-Qahir, Muhammad (932–934 ce) [brother]

  20. 20) Al-Radi, Ahmad (934–940 ce) [son of #18]

  21. 21) Al-Muttaqi, Ibrahim (940–944 ce) [brother]

  22. 22) Al-Mustakfi, Abdullah (944–946 ce) [son of #17]

  23. 23) Al-Muti, al-Fadl (946–974 ce) [son of #18]

  24. 24) Al-Ta’i, Abdulkarim (974–991 ce) [son]

  25. 25) Al-Qadir, Ahmad (991–1031 ce) [grandson of #18]

  26. 26) Al-Qa’im (1031–1075 ce) [son]

  27. 27) Al-Muqtadi, Abdullah (1075–1094 ce) [grandson]

  28. 28) Al-Mustazhir, Ahmad (1094–1118 ce) [son]

  29. 29) Al-Mustarshid, al-Fadl (1118–1135 ce) [son]

  30. 30) Al-Rashid, Mansur (1135–1136 ce) [son]

  31. 31) Al-Muqtafi, Muhammad (1136–1160 ce) [son of #28]

  32. 32) Al-Mustanjid, Yusuf (1160–1170 ce) [son]

  33. 33) Al-Mustadi, Hasan (1170–1180 ce) [son]

  34. 34) Al-Nasir, Ahmad (1180–1225 ce) [son]

  35. 35) Al-Zahir, Muhammad (1225–1226 ce) [son]

  36. 36) Al-Mustansir, Mansur (1226–1242 ce) [son]

  37. 37) Al-Musta‘sim, Abdullah (1242–1258 ce) [son]

(p. 394) Independent Dynasties Ruling over the Iranian Plateau until the Mongol Conquest

Tahirids (821–873 ce)

  1. 1) Tahir I (821–822 ce)

  2. 2) Talha (822–828 ce) [son]

  3. 3) Abdullah I (828–845 ce) [brother]

  4. 4) Tahir II (845–862 ce) [son]

  5. 5) Muhammad (862–873 ce, Khorasan only) [son]

Loss of territory to the Samanids

Saffarids (867–1002 ce)

  1. 1) Yaqub I (867–879 ce) [son of Layth, local ruffian]

  2. 2) Amro I (879–901 ce; deposed, died 902) [brother]

  3. 3) Ali (879–893 ce; pretender) [brother]

  4. 4) Tahir (901–909 ce) [grandson of #2]

  5. 5) Laith (909–910 ce) [son of #3]

  6. 6) Mohammad (910–911 ce) [brother]

  7. 7) Amro II (912–913 ce) [great-grandson of #2]

  8. 8) Ahmad I (923–963 ce) [married granddaughter of #2]

  9. 9) Khalaf I (963–1002 ce) (son)

Minor branches rule Sistan until the early twelfth century

Ziyarids (928–1043 ce)

  1. 1) Mardavij (928–934 ce) [son of Ziyar, local nobleman of Daylam]

  2. 2) Voshmgir (934–967 ce) [brother]

  3. 3) Bistun (967–976 ce) [son]

  4. 4) Qabus (976–1012 ce) [brother]

  5. 5) Manuchehr (1012–1031 ce) [son]

  6. 6) Anushirvan (1031–1043 ce) [son]

Minor princes of Gurgan under Saljuq tutelage

Buyids (934–989 ce) [main branch only]

  1. 1) Ali Imad al-Dowleh (934–949 ce; coregent, Fars) [son of Buyeh, Deylamite chief]

  2. 2) Hasan Rokn al-Dowleh (935–976 ce; coregent, Ray) [brother]

  3. 3) Ahmad Muizz al-Dowleh (945–967 ce; coregent, Iraq) [brother]

  4. 4) Fana Khosrow Azud al-Dowleh (949–983 ce) [son of #2]

  5. 5) Shirzil Sharaf al-Dowleh (983–989 ce) [son]

  6. 6) Marzuban Samsam al-Dowleh (989–998 ce) [brother]

  7. 7) Firuz Baha al-Dowleh (998–1012 ce) [brother]

  8. 8) Fana Khosrow Sultan al-Dowleh (1012–1024 ce) [son]

  9. 9) Marzuban (1024–1048 ce) [son]

  10. 10) Fulad Sutun (1048–1062 ce) [son]

(p. 395) Samanids (875–999 ce)

  1. 1) Nasr I (875–892 ce) [third in descent from Saman Khudah, local nobleman of Samarkand]

  2. 2) Isma‘il I (892–907 ce) [brother]

  3. 3) Ahmad I (907–914 ce) [son]

  4. 4) Nasr II (914–943 ce) [son]

  5. 5) Nuh I (943–954 ce) [son]

  6. 6) Abd al-Malek I (954–961 ce) [son]

  7. 7) Mansur I (961–976 ce) [brother]

  8. 8) Nuh II (976–997 ce) [son]

  9. 9) Mansur II (976–999 ce) [son]

  10. 10) Abd al-Malek II (999 ce) [brother], Ghaznavid conquest of Transoxiana

  11. 11) Isma‘il (II) (999–1001 ce; pretender) [brother]

Ghaznavids (963–1050 ce) [main branch only]

  1. 1) Alptigin (963–977 ce) [Turkish military commander of Samanid Ghaznin]

  2. 2) Sebuktigin (977–997 ce) [second in command to Alptigin]

  3. 3) Isma‘il I (997–998 ce) [son]

  4. 4) Mahmud I (998–1030 ce; declared himself Sultan in 999) [brother]

  5. 5) Mohammad I (1030–1031 ce; deposed) [son]

  6. 6) Mas‘ud I (1031–1041 ce) [brother]

  7. 7) Mohammad I (1041 ce; restored)

  8. 8) Mowdud I (1041–1050 ce) [son of #6]

  9. 9) Mas‘ud II (1050 ce) [son]

Saljuq conquest of Ghaznavid territories in Iran

Saljuqs (Great Saljuqs 1037–1157 ce)

  1. 1) Tughrul Beg (1037–1063 ce) [second in descent from Saljuq]

  2. 2) Alp Arslan (1063–1072 ce) [nephew]

  3. 3) Malek Shah (1072–1092 ce) [son]

  4. 4) Mahmud I (1092–1093 ce) [son]

  5. 5) Barkiyaruq (1093–1104 ce) [brother]

  6. 6) Malek Shah II (1104–1105v ce) [son]

  7. 7) Mohammad Tapar (1105–1118 ce) [son of #3]

  8. 8) Ahmad Sanjar (1118–1157 ce) [son of #3]

Oghuz invasion, fragmentation to minor Atabeg dynasties

Khwarazmshahid (Anushtiginid) (1097–1220 ce)

  1. 1) Qutb al-Din Mohammad I (1097–1127 ce; Saljuq vassal) [son of Anushtigin]

  2. 2) Ala al-Din Atsiz (1127–1156 ce) [son]

  3. 3) Il Arslan (1156–1172 ce; independence 1157) [son]

  4. 4) Ala al-Din Takesh (Tekesh) (1172–1200 ce) [son]

  5. 5) Ala al-Din Mohammad II (1200–1220 ce) [son], Mongol conquest of Khwarazm and Khorasan

  6. 6) Jalal al-Din Mingburnu (Mengübirti) (1220–1231 ce; pretender) [son]

(p. 396) Mongols/Ilkhanids (1256–1336 ce)

  1. 1) Hülegü Khan (1256–1265 ce) [grandson of Chinggis Khan]

  2. 2) Abaqa Khan (1265–1282 ce) [son]

  3. 3) Ahmad Tegüder (1282–1284 ce) [seventh son of Hülegü]

  4. 4) Arghun (1284–1291 ce) [son of Abaqa]

  5. 5) Gaykhatu (1291–1295 ce) [son of Abaqa]

  6. 6) Baydu (1295 ce) [grandson of Hülegü via father Taragay]

  7. 7) Ghazan (1295–1304 ce) [son of Arghun]

  8. 8) Öljeitü Khodabandeh (1304–1317 ce) [son]

  9. 9) Abu Sa‘id Bahadur (1317–1335 ce) [son]

  10. 10) Arpa Khan (1335–1336 ce) [descendant of Hülegü's father, Tolui]

Iran disunited (1336–)

Timurids (1370–1506 ce)

  1. 1) Timur (Tamerlane) (1370–1405 ce)

  2. 2) Pir Muhammad (1405? ce) [grandson of Timur]

  3. 3) Shah Rukh (1405–1447 ce) [son of Timur]

  4. 4) Khalil Sultan (1405–1409 ce) [grandson of Timur through Miranshah]

  5. 5) Ulugh-Beg (1447–1449 ce) [son of Shah Rukh]

  6. 6) Abd-al-Latif Mirza (1449–1450 ce) [son of Ulugh-Beg]

  7. 7) Abu Said (1451–1469 ce) [nephew of Khalil Sultan]

  8. 8) Husayn Bayqara (1469–1506 ce)

Qara Qoyunlu (Black Sheep) (1380–1468 ce)

  1. 1) Qara Muhammad (1380–1389 ce)

  2. 2) Qara Yusuf (1389–1420 ce)

  3. 3) Some fragmentation

  4. 4) Jahan Shah (before 1440s?–1467 ce)

Aq Qoyunlu (White Sheep) (1378–1508 ce)

  1. 1) Qara Osman (Uthman) (1403–1435 ce)

  2. 2) Eleven different claimants in this twenty-two-year period

  3. 3) Uzun Hasan (1457–1478 ce)

  4. 4) Civil war

  5. 5) Ya‘qub (1481–1490 ce)

  6. 6) Civil war

  7. 7) Rustam (1494–1497 ce)

  8. 8) Tripartite division before defeat by Safavids:

    • Alwand Aq-Qoyunlu (1497–1501 ce)

    • Murad (died 1514)

    • Third ruler?

Safavids (1501–1722 ce)

  1. 1) Isma‘il I (1501–1524 ce)

  2. 2) Tahmasp I (1524–1576 ce) [son]

  3. 3) Isma‘il II (1576–1578 ce) [son]

  4. 4) Mohammad Khodabandeh (1578–1587 ce) [son of Tahmasp I]

  5. (p. 397) 5) Abbas I (1587–1629 ce) [son]

  6. 6) Safi I (1629–1642 ce) [grandson]

  7. 7) Abbas II (1642–1666 ce) [son]

  8. 8) Sulayman (Safi II) (1667–1694 ce) [?]

  9. 9) Soltan Hosein (1688–1726 ce) [son of Sulayman], Afghan invasion in 1722

  10. 10) Tahmasp II (1729–1732 ce; pretender) [son]

Afsharids (1736–1796 ce)

  1. 1) Nader Shah (1736–1747 ce)

  2. 2) Adel Shah (1747–1748 ce) [nephew]

  3. 3) Ibrahim Shah (1748–1749 ce) [brother]

  4. 4) Shahrukh Shah (1748–1796 ce) [grandson of Nadir Shah]

  5. 5) Sulayman II (1750 ce) [grandson of Shah Soltan Hosein]

Zands (1750–1794 ce)

  1. 1) Karim Khan Zand (Wakil) (1751–1779 ce)

  2. 2) Abol Fath Khan (1779 ce) [son]

  3. 3) Sadiq Khan (1780–1782 ce) [brother of Karim Khan]

  4. 4) Ali-Morad Khan (1781/2–1785 ce) [nephew of Zaki?]

  5. 5) Ja‘far (1785–1789 ce) [son of Sadiq Khan?]

  6. 6) Lotf Ali (1789–1794 ce) [son of Ja‘far]

Modern Iran

Qajars (1789–1925 ce)

  1. 1) Agha Mohammad Khan (1789–1797 ce)

  2. 2) Fath Ali Shah (1797–1834 ce) [nephew]

  3. 3) Mohammad Shah (1834–1848 ce) [grandson]

  4. 4) Naser al-Din (1848–1896 ce) [son]

  5. 5) Mozaffar al-Din Shah (1896–1907 ce) [son]

  6. 6) Mohammad Ali Shah (1903–1909 ce) [son]

  7. 7) Ahmad Shah (1909–1925 ce) [son]

Pahlavis (1925–1979 ce)

  1. 1) Reza Shah (1926–1941 ce)

  2. 2) Mohammad Reza Shah (1941–1979 ce) [son]

Islamic Republic of Iran (from 1979 ce)

  1. 1) Ayatollah Khomeini (1979–1989 ce)

  2. 2) Ayatollah Khamenei (1989–)