Show Summary Details

Page of

PRINTED FROM OXFORD HANDBOOKS ONLINE (www.oxfordhandbooks.com). © Oxford University Press, 2018. All Rights Reserved. Under the terms of the licence agreement, an individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a title in Oxford Handbooks Online for personal use (for details see Privacy Policy and Legal Notice).

date: 20 August 2019

(p. 398) Index

(p. 398) Index

Abbas I (Safavid shah), 297–303, 309
Abbasid Caliphate (750–1258 ce), 223–39, 287. See also medieval Iran
ideological message of, 229–30
Khurramdin movement in, 224–25
Muslim civil war and, 222–23
political fragmentation, 230–31
religious syncretism of, 224, 230
rulers of, 395
rural class oppression, 224
sharia faction competition in, 231
taxation, 225
Umayyad historiography and, 228, 232
urban centers of, 223–24
Abbas III (Safavid shah), 309
Abbas Mirza (Qajar crown prince), 323, 324, 325, 326
Abd al-Malik, 218
Abdullah ibn Amir ibn Kurayz, 214, 215
Abu Muslim al-Khurasani, 224, 229
Abu Rayhan Biruni, 7
Abu Sʿid (Mongol ruler), 264–65
Achaemenid Persian Empire, 120–39
agriculture in, 133
armed forces of, 134, 144
art in, 137–39
capital cities of, 132
chronology of Alexander's conquest of, 160
conquest of, 130–31, 139, 160
emergence of, 46–47
finance and taxation, 132–33
language and scripts, 135–36
multinational nature of, 131–32, 190
organization of, 131–32
overview, 120–21
political history of, 122–31
religion in, 132, 134, 136–37
rulers of, 392
sources on, 121, 142
The Acts of Religion. See Denkard
Adharak, Hamza, Kharijite revolt under, 225
Afghan era (1722–1795), 306–17. See also Zand Empire
British-Iranian treaty against, 322
conquest by, 8
Safavid Empire invasion by, 303, 307–8, 316
Sunni, 316
Afshar dynasty (1736–1796 ce), 308–17
rulers of, 399
Agha Mohammad Khan, 310
Aghasi, Haji Mirza, 328
agriculture
in Achaemenid Persian Empire, 133
Arab introduction of new crops, 221
Avesta, 90–91
Central Zagros, 19
irrigation, 18, 38, 313
sites of early shift to, 17
Ahmadinejad, Mahmoud, 11, 385–88
rigged reelection of, 387–88
Ahmad Shah (Qajar dynasty), 338–45
Ahura Mazda¯ (ruling lord in Avesta), 63–67, 69–70, 74, 75, 87–88
Achaemenid and, 132, 134
Darius the Great worship of, 136
Holy Word of, 72, 104
House of Songs, 64, 73, 80
later names for, 66
living beings created by, 77–87
sacrifices to, 86, 98–99
Ajudanbashi, Nezam al-Dowleh, 328
Akhbari-Usuli debate, 316–17
Akkadian Empire, 40–41, 52
Albania, Sasanian period independence of, 196
Alexander (Russian tsar), 322
Alexander the Great, 4, 143–52
Achaemenid Persian Empire conquered by, 130–31, 139
chronology of Achaemenid conquest, 160
conspiracies against, 150
Darius and, 145, 146, 152
death of, 152
destruction of Persepolis and, 148–49
enigma of, 152
King of Asia proclamation of, 148
marriages of soldiers to Iranian women, 151
marriage to Roxana, 150
second and third wives of, 151
Shahnameh representation of, 233
sources on, 142
Alexandria, founding of, 147
algebra, 6, 7
algorithm, 6
Ali (spiritual leader), 278, 286, 292, 296
mystic lover of, 291
Alids, Sunni and Shi‘i worship of, 278
Ali Quli Khan (son of Nader), 310
Allied Powers, 342, 353
amirs, fifteenth-century tax collectors as, 274
Anahita/Anahid, 187
Anatolia
Ottomans in Balkans and, 280
Urartians of eastern, 33
ancient Iran, ruling dynasties of, 5, 391–94
Andronovo culture, 31
an-Era¯n territory, 188
Anglo-Persian Agreement, 343, 344
animals, Avestan society, 96, 97–98, 105
anjomans, 334, 335
(p. 399) anthropology, 13–14
anticollectivist laws, 352
Antipater, 151
anti-Western authenticity, 360–61
Antony, Mark, 172, 173
Apame, 153–54
Aq Qoyunlu (White Sheep) (1378–1508 ce), 281, 399
Arabs
Christian, 210
Sasanian Empire conquest by, 193, 202, 203, 204, 208–11
water rights conflict between Persians and, 221
Arabia, Islamic community loss of Prophet, 227
Arabic, Classic, 278
Arab settlement
eighth-century, 220
seventh-century, 208–20
western Iran, 220–21
archaeology, 13–14, 34
Arsacid Empire, 167
Avestan society, 57–58
Central Asia, 57–58
Archaic Susiana, 18
architecture
burning as preserving details of, 15
Elamite religious, 50
Late Bronze Age, 32
Paleolithic period, 15
Proto-Elamite, 25
ritual evidence from, 17
shift to rectangular, 27
traditional, 33
Yanik sphere, 27
Ardabil, 8, 299
Sufi Order, 281, 287–89
Ardashir (Sasanian king), 178, 187, 188, 189
Armenia
Arsacid war over, 171–75, 177, 179
Narseh as king of, 191, 192
Roman conquest of, 194
Roman-Sasanian contentions over, 190, 194
Zoroastrianism in, 195
Arpa Khan (Mongol ruler), 265
Arsacid Empire (247 bce–224 ce), 164–86
administration of, 180
archaeology of, 167
aristocratic clans of, 182–83
army of, 181
Arsaces’ historicity, 169
astronomical diaries of, 167
Bactrian alliance with, 168
conflict, 169, 170
cultural variety of, 184–86
Greek population of, 183
historical and scholarly neglect of, 167
history of, 168–78
institutions and organization of, 180–84
Iranism of, 179
Jewish population of, 184
kingship and traditions of, 178–80
major war of, 171–72
Parthian monarchy of, 178–80
Roman relations, 166, 173, 174, 177–78
rulers of, 392–93
society of, 181–84
sources on, 164–67, 180
trade, 175–76
art. See also specific dynasties
first object of, 16
Artabanus II (Arsacid ruler), 174, 179
Artaxerxes III, 130
Artaxias III, 174
artisans
Avestan, 91
forced patronage of, 282
Mongol/Ilkhanid Empire, 248, 266
Aryaman (deity), 68
Aryans
Expanse of, 5
Iran's name from, 122
tribes of, 122
yashts on lands of, 75
Asia Minor, 1258–1335 decentralization of Iran and, 287–90
Assyrian Empire
destruction of, 34
Medes and, 33–34
war against Elamites, 45–46
Zagros in texts of, 32–33
astrological text, Mesopotamian, 52
astronomical diaries, Arsacid, 167
Avesta and Avestan society, 5, 57–116
body parts described in, 79, 82
coin minting law in, 204
cosmogonic myth in, 63–65, 80
on death, 73, 79–80, 104
deities in, 65–73, 79
geography of two worlds, 73–77
historicity, 85
human activities described in, 87–107
illness and healing, 104–5
incompleteness of, 62
kingship ideology in, 200, 203
language of, 57, 59–60
lexicon of good and evil, 81–82
on mankind, 77–87
manuscripts of, 60
Mazdak teaching opposing, 196–97
mental constitution of humans in, 67–68
mythical-ritual functions in, 66
mythical sacrificers listed in, 82–87
older and younger forms of, 58, 59
oral, 59–60
on pollution, 104, 106
Rigvedic relation of, 57
rituals and sacrifices in, 98–99
Sasanian canonizing of, 194, 198, 230
texts of, 59, 60–62
Tosar's codification of, 189
trees and plants in, 98
two worlds of, 73–77
wars in, 84–85, 89–90
weaponry in, 90
Western study of, 107–8
world view of, 62–63
Zand and, 58–59, 60, 235
Zoroastrianism and, 59, 108
axis of evil, Bush use of phrase, 385
Ayd-e Fetr, 296
Azerbaijan, 32
eighth century, 221
Qajar period, 323
reconquest of, 212–13
(p. 400) Azod al-Molk (Qajar dynasty), 338–39
Azraqites, 218–19
Baath Party, 373
Bab movement, 329
Babylon
Cyrus's occupation of, 46, 124–25
religious centers in, 185–86
Seleucus in, 152–53
Babylonia, Cyrus and, 124
Bactrian alliance with Arsaces, 168
Bactrian Margiana Archaeological Complex (BMAC), 31–32, 57–58
Bactrian Margiana complex, 31–32
Baghdad Khatun, 264–65
Baghdad pact, 357
Bahram (Sasanian king), 199–200, 203
Bahram II, 191–92
Bahram V, 195
Bakhtiar, Shapur, 363, 368
Bakun culture, 21
Balami, 232–33
Balkans, Ottomans in Anatolia and, 280
Banu Tamim, 211
Barmakids, 229–30
Bartholomae, Ch., 108
Basra, 209, 217, 219
battle at Gaugamela, 147–48
battle of al-Qadisiyya, 209
Battle of Ankara, 280
Battle of Chaldiran, 294
battle of Granicus, 145
battle of Issus, 146
battle of Kerman, 320
battle of Madhar, 209
battle of Nahavand, 211–12
battle of Siffin, 216–17, 293
Battle of the Bridge, 208–9
Batu Khan (son of Chinggis), 250, 251
Bayezid I, 280
Beijing
Chinggis Khan conquest of, 245
Mongol period observatory in, 265–66
Berlin letter, 44
Bessus, 149
beverages, Avestan, 91
Bible, 3, 86, 121, 124, 135
bitumen mastic, 49
Black Sheep. See Qara Qoyunlu
Bølling-Allerød phase, 16
Bolshevik Revolution, 342
Bonaparte, Napoleon, 322
Book of Kings.See Shahnameh
Boran (Sasanian queen), 201, 210
breath-soul (urwan), 78, 79, 86
Britain
Ajudanbashi negotiations with, 328
Fath Ali Shah and, 322, 323–27
free press criticism of, 342
Iran-Russia mediation by, 323
Karim Khan relations with, 314–15
Mohammad Shah recognized by, 327
occupation by Russia and, 347
oil industry and, 354, 357
Qajar dynasty and, 322, 323–27, 332–33, 342–43
Reza Shah Pahlavi and, 348
Tabriz consulate of, 328
treaties with, 322, 324
British Empire, 8, 355
British occupation in Iran, 353
Buddhism, 205, 233–34, 260
Tibetan, 250–51
Bush, George W., 10, 383
Bustan (Sa‘di), 7–8
Buyids (934–989 ce), 230, 396–97
Byzantines, 5, 198–200, 202, 208, 289
Ottomans and, 280
Caesar, Julius, 172
Cambyses II, 125–26
Carter, Jimmy, 362, 365, 366, 367
castration, Agha Mohammad Khan, 310
Catherine II (Russian tsarina), 320, 322
Caucasian states, Russian conquest of, 321
Central Asia
Andronovo culture of, 31
archaeology of, 57–58
eighth-century raid of, 218
Iranian Plateau links with, 28–29
Muslim conquest of, 219–20, 222
Naqshbandis of, 279
Parthians as originating in, 164
Central Intelligence Agency, U.S. (C.I.A.), 9, 355–56
Central Plateau
Early Bronze Age, 26
Yanik culture of, 26–28
Central Zagros
agricultural economy in, 19
food production sites in, 16
Chalcolithic period, 18
Middle, 17–21
chaos, deities of, 72
chemical weapons, 374, 375
China
Mongol exodus from, 267
Mongol influence on, 251
Mongol raids in northern, 245, 246–47
Persians in, 265–67
Piruz's refuge in, 214, 217–18
Sasanian kings in, 202
Chinggis Khan
childhood of, 245
death of, 248
legacy of Shi‘i integration, 267
sons of, 250
successors of, 250–52
Tartar dominance prior to, 243
Turco-Mongols prior to, 243, 244–45
Chogha Mish, 22
Chogha Zambil, 39, 44
Chopan, 264
Christensen, Arthur, 85
Christian Arabs, 210
Christianity, 3
Mongol period, 260
as proselytizing religion, 198
in Sasanian Empire, 192–93, 194, 195, 198, 205
(p. 401) civil war
Qajar dynasty, 321
in Rome, 177
Safavid Empire, 291, 297
Classic Arabic language, 278
clergy
debate over IRI involvement of, 369
IRP, 372
climate
Avestan meteorology and, 74
settlement patterns determined by, 15
Clinton, Bill, 383
clouds (dunman), 74
coinage
Arsacids/Parthians, 166–67, 175
Avesta on, 204
Safavid, 302
Sasanian, 200
Cold War, 356, 373
colleges, Sufi madrasa, 239
Committee of National Defense, 341, 342
conflict
Arsacid aristocracy, 182–83
Arsacid Empire, 169, 170
Elamite period, 43, 45–46
India in Qajar, 322, 326
Islamic period Khuzistan, 211
in Kuwaiti, 375
Ottoman-Safavid, 290
Persian-Arab water rights, 221
Persian-Muslim, 209–19, 221
Roman-Parthian, 166, 173, 174
Sasanian-Roman, 188
Susiana Plain, 22
conservative faction, Pahlavi era, 384, 392
Constantine the Great, 193
Constantinople, 280
constitution
IRI, 370, 374, 377
Mohammad Ali Shah and, 337
1977 protests for, 362
open letter asking for observing of, 366
Pahlavi police state and, 359
revolution for observance of, 358–59
Reza Shah dictatorship with, 350, 351
Constitutional Revolution of 1906, 9, 335–36, 337, 339, 346–47
contracts, 87–88
copper, 20–21, 26, 28
Corbin, Henri, 360
cosmic Order, 66–67
cosmogonic myth in Avesta, 63–65, 80
cosmos, 73–77
Cossack Brigade, 337, 342, 343, 344, 347
coup of 1953, 356
cows
Ahura Mazda creation of Gaw, 77
early food production and, 17–18
craft activities
Middle Susiana period, 19
Proto-Elamite, 24–25
Crimean War, 330
Ctesiphon, 228
cultural heritage
historiography, myth and, 86–87
Western perception of, 4
cultural objects
Mesopotamian resemblances in, 22, 23
Persian influence in Yuan dynasty, 266–67
site of first art object, 16
from Susa, 49–51
cultural renaissance, 6–7
Mongol Empire, 256–57
cultural revolution
1980s, 371–72
IRI, 373
culture
Andronovo, 31
Arsacids/Parthians, 184–86
Bakun, 21
cultural production of 1970s, 361
Early Transcaucasian, 27, 28
Elamite history of, 49–51
Greek, 185
Iranian paideia as, 4
Islam, 6
midcentury political, 354
1970s crisis of, 361–62
Persian court, 198
post-1953, 357
Proto-Elamite sphere of, 23, 24–26
under Reza Shah, 352
Susa I, 21–22
Timurid art and, 281–82
Yanik sphere, 23, 26–28
Cyaxares, 122
Cyrus (son of Darius), 130
Cyrus Cylinder, 3, 46, 124, 125
Cyrus II, 34
Cyrus the Great, 3
Achaemenid Persian Empire and, 46–47
Babylon occupation by, 46, 124–25
Bible honoring, 124
incorporation strategy of, 123
palaces built by, 138–39
dagger, Elamite period, 51
Dar al-Islam, Iran as part of, 6
Darius III, 233
Darius the Great
Achaemenid Persian Empire reorganized by, 126
Alexander and, 145, 146, 152
armed forces of, 134
European expedition of, 127
first world empire of, 131
Greek relations of, 127–28
inscription of, 121
last battle of, 147–48
religious toleration under, 136–37
successor of, 149
taxation under, 132–33
Dark Spirit, 72–73, 80–81, 101, 104
daughter of Kisra, 216
Daylamis, 225n2
Day of Judgment, 286
death, Avesta on, 104
soul's progress after, 73, 79–80
Definitive Treaty, 325, 326
deities. See also Mithra
in Avesta, 65–73, 79
Avesta hymns to, 61–62, 63, 100, 101
(p. 402) of chaos, 72
cult of deity-savior, 158
evil, 80
souls of, 79
Young Avesta, 70–73
Delhi
Nader Shah's conquest of, 311
Timurid sack of, 276–77
Democrats, 339, 342
Denkard (The Acts of Religion), 230, 236
devas (deities of chaos), 72
diadem, 179
divination, 298
divine beings, three souls of, 79
domestic animals, Avestan society, 96
dragons and dragon slayers, 83–84
Dumézil, G., 85
dunman (clouds), 74
dynasties, chronology of rulers. See also specific dynasties
ancient Iranian, 391–94
Arsacids/Parthians, 392–93
Iranian Plateau, 396–400
medieval Iran, 394–95
modern Iran, 400
Mongol/Ilkanid, 398
Eannatum of Lagash, 40
Early Bronze Age (EBA) (ca. 3200 to 2200 bce)
Late Bronze Age to, 31–32
nomadic-sedentary dimorphic polity in, 23–28
Proto-Elamite sphere in, 23, 24–26
Yanik sphere in, 23, 26–28
Early Iron Age, 32
Early Transcaucasian Culture, 27, 28
Early Uruk phase, 22
economy
Central Zagros agricultural, 19
current, 386
fifteenth-century, 275–78
under Khatami, 382, 383
Mohammad Reza Shah's, 359
1970s, 362, 368
Paleolithic, 15
premodern Eurasian, 4
under Rafsanjani, 378–79
under Reza Shah, 350–51
U.S. aid to, 357
White Revolution and, 358
Zand Empire, 313–15
Egypt
Alexander's acceptance in, 146–47
medieval Iran and, 230
Protodynastic, 26
Elam dynasty (3000–530 bce), 37–53
in Achaemenid Persian Empire, 122
as Assyrian province, 46
Assyrian wars against, 45–46
capital of, 39
conflict, 43, 45–46
cultural history of, 49–51
environment of, 38
first historical figure in history of, 41
geographical boundaries of, 38
king lists, 40–43, 52
language of, 37, 39–40
literary history of, 51–53
marriages of, 41
political history of, 39–47
provinces controlled by, 37
religious architecture of, 50
rulers of, 391
Shimashki kingdom in, 42–43
sister's son dilemma, 48–49
social history of, 47–49
weaponry of, 50–51
elections
under Ahmad Shah, 340
first, 336
IRI open, 381
Reza Khan (Reza Shah Pahlavi), 345
rigged, 357, 358, 387–88
2005, 385
2009, 386–87
Enuma Anu Enlil (Mesopotamian astrological text), 52
Epipaleolithic and Early Neolithic (12000 to 6000 bce), food production and sedentism, 16–17
Ērān, Sasanian origin of, 188
Ērānshahr/Iranshahr
Iranian cultural world composition of, 11
medieval, 229, 235
original meaning of, 5
Sasanian conquest and emergence of, 187
Euphrates
as dividing line, 172, 174
raid of Khalid on frontier of, 208–9
Eurasia, premodern economy, 4
Europe
Darius the Great expedition to, 127
Naser al-Din tour of, 331
Europeans, Indo-, 31–32
European Union (EU), 379
evil, Avesta on, 67, 80–81
Expanse of the Aryans, 5
Expediency Council (EC), 382
fabulous animals, 97–98
factionalism, 230–31, 374–76, 380, 384, 392
Sasanian era, 201–2
farhang, 4
Fars. See also Persis/Fars
Muslim conquest of, 212–14
varying accounts of conquest of, 213–14
Fath Ali Shah, 320, 321–27
Ferdowsi, 6, 86, 233, 253
fertility goddess, 70
Fire, Ahura Mazda's son, 69–70
fire-temples
of Anahita, 187
destruction of, 217
Sasanian Empire, 187, 204–5
FitzGerald, Edward, 7
food production, Epipaleolithic and Early Neolithic, 16–18
Ford of the Accountant, 79, 80
foreign fiction translations, 354
France-Qajar relations, 322
free press, 340, 342, 353, 383
French Revolution, 320
(p. 403) Gabrs (Persian Zoroastrians), 107
Ga¯tha¯s (Avestan text), 65–66, 81, 85–87, 101–2
kawis in, 85
Zarathustra as author of, 87, 107–8
Gaw, 77
Gaya Marta¯n, 77–78, 82
Gendarmerie, 339
gender
kingship and, 297–98
segregation, 303
Genghis Khan. See Chinggis Khan
Geographical Names, 40
Georgia, 299, 320
Germans, expulsion of, 352–53
ghazal, 285
Ghazan Khan (Mongol ruler), 258–64
alleged reforms under, 258, 261–64
Buddhist and Christian suppression by, 260
historiography, 258, 261, 263–64
Islam conversion of, 258, 260
speech to fellow Mongols, 260
ghazis, 280, 281
Ghaznavids (963–1050 ce), 397
Ghilzai, Mahmud, 307
Ghilzai, Mir Vais, 307
God, intermediaries between believers and, 303
goddesses, 68, 70
god of rewards (Sraosha), 48, 68. See also deities
Golden Horde, 263
Golestan (Sa‘di), 7–8
Good Thought (vohu manah), 66, 101
grain and grain foods, 18
Greeks
in Arsacid Empire, 183
culture of, 185
Darius's relations with, 127–28
Iranians and, 4, 143
Medizing, 128
Parthians viewed by, 165
Seleucids and, 156
Greek cities, in Arsacid Empire, 180, 184
Greek expedition of Xerxes, 128–30
Griboedov, Alexander, 325–26, 327
Hafez, 8, 312
Haft Tepe site, 39
Haji Mirza Aghasi, 327
Halil Rud basin, Jiroft, 30–31
Hanbalis, 235
Hangzhou, 266
Haoma, 68, 69, 71, 72, 100
Haoshiyangha, 82–83
harm, Videvdad on, 105
Haug, M., 107
Haute terrasse, Susa period, 20
healing, Avestan illness and, 104–5
Hedayat, Sadeq, 357
hejab (veil), 9, 351, 371
Hellenic League, 143–44
Hellenistic period, Greek sources on, 165
Hephthalites, 195–97, 199, 214–15
Herat, 214, 326, 327, 330
Mohammad Shah's march on, 328
hereditary ranking, 18–19
Herodotus, 21
heterosexuality, Shi‘i Islam and, 301–2
Hidden Imam, 291
Twelfth and, 303
High Council of Culture and the Arts, 361
historicity
Arsaces, 169
Avesta, 85
Zarathustra, 86–87, 108
Histories (Herodotus), 121
historiography, 41
Arsacid Empire, 167
cultural traditions and, 86–87
Ghazan Khan's court, 258, 261, 263–64
medieval Iran, 231–35
Mongol period, 244, 249
Pahlavi text debate over, 86–87
Rashid al-Din and Mongol, 258, 261, 263–64
Sasanian Empire, 232
Sunni, 289
Umayyad, 228, 232
Holocaust denial, by Ahmadinejad, 386
Holy Word of Ahura Mazda, 72, 104
Hormizd I (Sasanian king), 191, 192
Hormizd II, 192–93, 195
hostage crisis, U.S., 371
house construction, in Avesta, 91–92
House of Songs, 64, 73, 80
Hülegü (Mongol ruler), 245, 251, 253–57
humans
Avestan society activities of, 87–107
Old Avesta on constituents of, 78–79
human rights, 362, 366
Humility, 67
Hussein, Saddam, 371, 373, 376
Huyser, Robert E., 367–68
Hyde, Thomas, 107
hymns to deities, 61–62, 63, 100, 101
Ibn al-Muqaffa, 235–36
Igihalkid dynasty, 44–45
Ilkhanids.See Mongol/Ilkhanid Empire
illness, Avestan healing and, 104–5
Imamate, Shiʻism, 229, 238, 288, 291, 303, 316–17
Impetuous Wind, 71
India
Avesta texts obtained in, 60
Nader Shah in, 8
official language of, 12
Persian language in, 8
Qajar period conflicts and, 322, 326
Indo-Europeans, homeland debate over, 31–32
intelligence activities, U.S.-Iraq, 375–76
intermarriage, Islamic Empire, 221
intermediaries, between believers and God, 303
Iran. See also post-revolution Iran; specific archaeological periods; specific dynasties; specific regions of; specific topics
Alexander and, 143–52
anarchy period in, 254
ancient, 5, 391–94
an-Era¯n, 188
anthropology on, 13–14
archaeology on, 13–14, 34, 57–58
architectural tradition of, 33
Arsacid empire references to traditions of, 179
(p. 404) as Aryan name, 122
British mediation between Russia and, 323
British occupation in, 353
British policy in, 342–43
contribution of pre-Islamic, 234–35
cultural renaissance in medieval, 6–7
Dar al-Islam incorporating, 6
eighteenth-century, 313
first newspaper in, 324
German expulsion from, 352–53
historiography and, 86–87
Hülegü's welcome rule in, 253–55
imagined past of, 239
Khomeini's return to, 363
oil discovered in, 12, 335
origin of word, 5
reason for history study of, 3
revolution of 1979, 12, 362–63, 365–68
Russia occupation of, 338, 347
Shi’ism conversion of, 227–28
study of and interest in, 11–12
1258–1335 decentralization, 287–90
U.S. hegemony in, 355–56
U.S. stance towards, 10, 11, 367
West connection of, 334
Western perception of cultural heritage of, 4
world image of, 10
Zoroastrianism shaping disposition in, 5–6
Iran-Contra Affair, 375, 376
Iranians
Alexander's stance towards, 152
as contributors to Islam culture, 6
Greeks and, 4, 143
Islam conversion of, 227
Mongol contribution to identity, 267
Muslim army joined by deserting, 209, 225n2
Muslim conquest aided by, 228
original Iranian-speaking, 31–32
Sunnism of medieval, 232
Iranian culture
influence of, 11–12
paideia as, 4
Iranian independence, Russo-British Allies against, 342
Iranian Plateau, 13–34. See also Achaemenid Persian Empire; Susa; specific dynasties; specific sites
Central Asia links with, 28–29
Early Bronze Age, 23–28
eighteenth-century transition period on, 306–7
Epipaleolithic and Early Neolithic, 16–17
Late Bronze Age to Early Iron Age, 31–32
Late Chalcolithic rise of states in, 21–23
Middle Bronze Age, 28–31
Middle Neolithic to Middle Chalcolithic, 20–21
migration of Iranian-speaking people into, 31, 32
Paleolithic period, 14–15
population before and after Safavids, 315–16
Upper Paleolithic settlement in, 14–15
Iranian Plateau dynasties, chronology of, 396–400. See also specific dynasties
Iranian-speaking people, Zagros intermixing with, 32–33
Iran-Iraq War, 370–73, 375, 377
start of, 373
UN inquiry into, 379
Iranism, Arsacid, 179, 182
Iraq
Khomeini exile in, 366
seventh century Muslim conquest of, 208–11
war with Iran, 370–73, 375, 377
Ironside, Edmund, 343
irrigation agriculture
eighteenth-century, 313
Elamite, 38
social impact of, 18
Isfahan, 298–302
Afghan conquest of, 303, 307–8
Karim Khan in, 310
Ishaq the Turk, 224
Islam. See also Shiʻism
Arabia's loss of Prophet, 227
contribution of pre-Islamic Iran, 234–35
fifteenth-century popular, 278
Iranian conversion to, 227
Iranians as contributors to culture of, 6
Mongol conversion to, 252–53, 258, 260
Reza Shah's, 351
Tahmasp's conversion to, 293–95
Zoroastrianism replaced by, 208
Islamic Empire, 208–22
revolt of, 217
Sasanian administration style adopted by, 217
sources on, 208
tribute arrangements in, 212–13, 216
Islamic liberals, 369–70, 372
Islamic Marxism, 360
Islamic Republic of Iran (IRI), 10, 11, 369–88
clergy involvement debate, 369
confirmation of, 9–10, 369
constitution of, 370, 374, 377
cultural liberation under Rafsanjani, 380
cultural revolution of, 373
factional politics, 374–76, 380
foreign policy, 373
internal political opposition, 370
international basis for opposition to, 375–76
leadership summary for, 400
1963 events portrayed in, 359
opposition to, 372, 373, 376
Rafsanjani presidency, 377, 378
revolution preceding, 365–68
rigged election impact on, 388
Islamic Republic Party (IRP), 369–70, 372
Islamic state, Khomeini's decrees on, 376
Ismaʻil (Safavid shah), 254, 257, 271–73, 289–90
ghazi forces under, 281
messianic aspirations of, 289
religiosity of, 285–87
son Tahmasp compared to, 291, 292
Ismaʻil II (Safavid shah), 297
isolation, from international community, 371, 375, 377, 383, 386
Jaʻfari school, 309, 316
Jahan Shah (Qara Qoyunlu ruler), 273
Jalayirid dynasty (fourteenth century), 262
Jangalis, 342–43
Jews
in Achaemenid Persian Empire, 135
in Arsacids/Parthian Empire, 184
in Sasanian Empire, 198, 205
(p. 405) Jibal, Muslim conquest in, 212–13
Jiroft, 30–31
Jones, Harford, 322, 323
Junayd (Sufi master), 281
devoted followers of, 289
holy war against Byzantines fought by, 289
Juwayni, Ata Malik Ala al-Din, 251, 252, 253
Kaftari pottery, 29
Kalila and Dimna (al-Muqaffa), 236
Karim Khan Zand, 8, 306
British relations of, 314–15
as builder and arts patron, 312
death of, 320
ideal ruler image of, 312
length of rule as deputy, 319
Nader Shah compared to, 311–12
rise to power, 310–11
second half of reign, 314–15
Kavad I (Sasanian king), 196, 198, 199
Kavad II, 201
kawis, 84–85
non-historicity of, 85
Kerdir, 188, 190
Khalid ibn al-Walid, raid of, 208–9
Khamenei, Ayatollah Ali, 10, 377–78, 388
khanqah, 239
khanqahs, 256
Khanum, Pari Khan, 297–98
Kharijite revolt, 225
Khatami, Muhammad (IRI president), 368, 381–83, 384
election of, 10
end of presidency, 385
reform failure and, 384–85
U.S. stance causing weakening of, 11
Khatun (Sasanian queen), 218
Khatun, Baghdad, forced second marriage of, 264–65
Khayyam, Omar, 7
al-Khirrit ibn Rashid, 217
Khitans, 246
Khomeini, Ruhollah Musavi (Grand Ayatollah), 358–68, 370, 372, 384
death of, 376, 377
exile in Iraq, 366
IRI lead by, 373
Islamic state decrees of, 376
opposition leader, 365
return to Iran, 363
West opposed by, 9
Khorasan, 236, 310
Abbasid relations in, 223–24
Abbasids joining with forces of, 229
eighteenth-century rivalry over, 307–8
Mongol period, 259
in second Muslim civil war, 218–20
struggle for, 214–15
Khorde Avesta, 60, 61–62, 93
Khosrow I (Sasanian king), 197–98, 236
Khosrow II, 199–201
khshathra variya (Well-Deserved Command), 67
Khurramdin movement, 224–25
Khuzistan, Islamic period conflict in, 211
Khwandamir (historian), 272–73
Khwarazm, Mongol invasion of, 247–48
al-Khwarazmi, Muhammad ibn Musa, 6
Khwarazmshah, Jalal al-Din, 251
Khwarazmshah empire, defeat of, 247–48
Khwarazmshahid (1097–1220 ce), 398
khwarnah (Divine Fortune), 72
king lists, Elamite period, 40–43, 52
King of Asia, Alexander's proclamation as, 148
king of kings ideology, 122
Arsacids/Parthians, 170–71
Sasanian, 187, 200, 203–4
kings. See also Sasanian Empire; specific kings
Avesta on kingship ideology, 200
chronology of Seleucid, 159–60
Late Antiquity memorable, 198
Sasanian Empire summary of, 393–94
kingship
Arsacid, 178–80
gender and, 297–98
religion and, 236–38, 286–87, 292
Sasanian Empire, 200, 203–4, 235–36
kinship, voluntary, 289
Kisra, 216
Küchlüg, 246–47
Kura-Araxes, 27
Kur River Basin, EBA, 26
Kushan Kingdom, 176
Kuwaiti conflict, 375
lakes, Young Avesta on seas and, 76
land-grant system, fifteenth-century, 274
land holdings, Reza Shah Pahlavi, 357
lands
Avesta description of, 75
waaf, 315, 316
languages. See also Persian language
Achaemenid Persian Empire official, 135–36
Akkadian, 52
Avestan, 57, 59–60
Avesta texts containing dead, 59
Classic Arabic, 278
Elamite, 37, 39–40
Greek, 185
Old Iranian, 135
Sanskrit, 60
Sumerian-Akkadian bilinguals and, 52
Susa indications of Elamite and Akkadian, 52
Larsa-Elam conflict, 43
Late Antiquity
memorable rulers of, 198
Zoroastrianism, 194
Late Bronze Age to Early Iron Age (ca. 1600 to 900 bce), 31–32
Late Chalcolithic period (ca. 4000 to 3200 bce), 21–23
Late Iron Age (ca. 900–559 bce), rise of new polities, 32–34
laws. See also martial law; sharia law; specific dynasties
anticollectivist, 352
Lebanon, 379
left faction, IRI, 374
Les Kayanides (Christensen), 85
Liao dynasty, 246
liberals. See Islamic liberals
Life-Giving Humility, 67
life-giving immortals, 66, 73
(p. 406) life-giving poetic thought, 72
living beings, 77–78
Videvdad on, 77–87
Lommel, H., 85
loyalists, 381
lying, Zoroastrian view of, 189–90
Macedonians (330–301 bce), 392
madrasas, 239
Mahmud, Malik, 308
Majles (parliament), 335–36, 338, 339, 357
fourth, 345
midcentury, 353
Reza Khan path through, 349
third installment, 340–41, 374, 378
Majlisi, Baqir, 315
Maktabis, 369–70, 374
Malcolm, John, 322–23
Malyan city, 25, 26, 29
Ma’mun, 238
Mani, 190, 191, 205
Manicheans, Sasanian Empire, 205
Männerbünde, 81
al-Mansur, 229, 233–34
manthra spanta (life-giving poetic thought), 72
Maragheh (capital of Mongol rule), 255, 257
observatory in, 251, 265
Marlik cemetery, 32
marriage
Alexander the Great, 150, 151
in Avesta, 92
Islamic Empire, 221
Seleucus I, 153–54
martial law
Pahlavi, 362
Reza Khan use of, 350
Marxism, 353–56, 358
Islamic, 360
Marzpanate period, Armenia's, 195
mass grave at Susa, 20
matriarchal system, Elam possible, 48
Mazdak, 196–97
measures, Avestan society, 94–95
Medes
Assyrians and, 33–34
Greeks and, 128
Persians and, 123, 131
Medes dynasty (694–665 bce), 391
fall of, 34
medieval Iran, 222, 227–39
historiography, 231–35
Muslim historians of, 235
nationalism view of, 229, 232–33
nationalist concepts not applicable to, 229
Persian language in, 7–8, 227, 232
rationalism in, 235
rulers of, 394–95
sources on, 228
Sunnis of, 232
Medina, Muslim state of, 208
Melville, Charles, 249
Membré, Michele, 296
Memnon, 145, 146
menstruation, Avesta on, 107
Mesopotamia. See also Arsacid Empire
Assyrians of northern, 33
astrological omen of, 52
cultural object resemblance to, 22, 23
early links with, 28
Roman invasion of, 189
Susa influences of, 47–48, 49
temples in, 167
1258–1335 decentralization of Iran and, 287–90
meteorology, Avestan, 74
Mevlana Jelaluddin Rumi. See Rumi
Middle Bronze Age (CA. 2200–1600 bce), urbanism and interregionalism, 28–31
Middle Chalcolithic, 17–21
Middle East
change in political makeup of, 9–10
Persian culture assimilated by, 6
religiosity in 11th–15th century, 275
Middle Elamite period, 44–45, 47, 52
Middle Neolithic to Middle Chalcolithic (CA. 6000 to 4000 bce)
social complexity path in, 17–21
technological advances in, 20–21
Middle Paleolithic period, 14
Middle Persia, literature of, 5–6
Middle Susiana period, 19
migration, 31, 32, 38
Mithra (deity), 62, 64–68, 70–76, 88, 90, 94, 101, 108
cult of deity-savior and, 158
origins of Mithraism, 5
Sasanian form of, 189, 194
-Sraosha-Rashnu, 48
Mithradates I (Arsacid Empire), 169–70
Mithradates II, 170–71
modern Iran
dynasties ruling, 400
excavations in, 143
Hülegü's rule as precursor of, 267
modernization, 9, 359–63
Qajar period, 324, 330, 334
Mohammad Ali Shah, 336–37
Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, 9, 353
fall of, 365
open letter to, 366
raids in Northern Cina, 245, 246–47
U.S. contradictory advice to, 367
in Washington D.C., 366
Mohammad Shah (Qajar dynasty), 327–29
Mojahedin, 372, 376
Möngke Khan (oldest son of Chinggis), 250, 251, 252, 255
Mongol/Ilkhanid Empire (1256–1336 ce), 7, 243–69. See also specific rulers
alleged reforms in, 261–64
anarchy period after, 257–58
artisans and craftsmen exported by, 248, 266
brutality and glory of, 243, 267
Buddhists and Christians in, 260
central government of, 257
China and Iran transformed by, 251
Chopan-Abu Saʻid confrontation, 264
chronology of reigns, 398
cultural renaissance under, 256–57
dichotomy at end of, 250, 264
forced second marriage of Baghdad Khatun, 264–65
Golden Age portrayal of, 262
integration resulting from, 267
Islam conversion of, 252–53, 258, 260
(p. 407)
Juwayni's history of, 253
Khwarazm invasion by, 247–48
as Küchlüg liberators, 246–47
multiethnic state of, 252
notoriety desired by, 244, 249
observatory built by, 251, 265
portrayal and image of, 243–44
recent studies on, 249
rule of terror as overstated, 248–50
rulers of, 398
Shahnameh of, 253
sources on, 263
trade and cultural exchange in, 265–67
ulema in, 253, 255, 256
Montazeri, Hosein Ali, 374, 376, 378
Mosaddeq, Mohammad, 355, 356, 366
mountains, Young Avesta list of, 75–76
Mowlana Jalal al-din Balkhi (Rumi), 8
Mozaffar al-Din Shah (Qajar dynasty), 333–36
mu‘awiya caliphate, 217, 218, 293
Mughal Empire, 311
Muhammad (Prophet)
Ali as successor to, 278
descendants of, 316
Isma‘il's rule and, 290
Safavid devotion to, 285–87
Murray, Charles, 330
Muslim historians, of medieval Iran, 235
Muslims. See also Islamic Empire
Central Asia conquered by, 219–20, 222
civil war, 216, 218–20, 222–23
deserting Iranians joining army of, 209, 225n2
Iranian aid in conquest of Iran by, 228
Persian conflicts with, 209–19, 221
Sasanian Empire conquered by, 202, 203, 204, 208–14
Mu‘tazilis, 235
myths
in Avesta, 62–66, 77–78, 80, 85
kawis as figures of, 85
Zarathustra, 85–87
mythical plants, 68, 69
mythical sacrificers, Avesta list of, 82–87
Nabunaid, king, 124, 125
Nader Shah, 8, 306, 307, 326
Karim Khan compared to, 311–12
rise of, 308–10
Sunni Islam promoted by, 309, 316
waaf lands confiscated by, 315, 316
Nahavand, 211–12
Naqshbandis, 279
Narseh (king of Armenia), 191, 192
Naser al-Din Shah (Qajar dynasty), 7, 329–33
accession of, 329–30
European tour of, 331
National Front, 353, 355, 358, 363
suppression of, 359
nationalism
medieval Iran from angle of, 229, 232–33
midcentury Marxism and, 353–56
Mongol period and Chinese, 267
Nazi, 352
National Security Council, U.S. (NSC), 367
Naus, Joseph, 335
Neo-Elamite period, 45–47
New Nisa, 185
NIM.KI toponym, 40
Nisa, 167, 168, 185
Nishapur, 216
Nixon, Richard, 356–57, 362
Nizam al-Mulk, 237–39
nomadic-sedentary consolidation, EBA, 23–28
nomads, Zand period, 314
Non-dyingness, 67
Nuqtavis, 298
Nurbakhsh, 279
Ögödei (second son of Chinggis Khan), 250
Ohrmazd, 189–90, 201
oil
Britain and, 354, 357
discovery of, 12, 335
income from, 386
nationalization, 353
U.S. and Britain share in, 357
Old Avesta, 58, 67. See also Avesta
cosmogonic myth in, 59, 63–65
ritual myth in, 99–100
Old Indic, 107. See also Avesta and Avestan society
Old Iranian language, 135
Old Nisa, excavations at, 167, 168, 185
Old Testament, 3, 86
Operation ABC, 24
Operation EDD, 34
opposition
Khomeini as leader of, 365
misperception of, 366–67
1979 coalition of, 365, 366–67, 369
Pahlavi regime, 358, 365
polarization, 369
to Sunnism, 299–302
suppression of, 373, 376
Western influence, 9, 334
oral traditions
Avesta and, 59–60
Persian, 121
Orientalism, 11
Osman, 280
Ottomans
in Anatolia and Balkans, 280
army of, 271–72
art and culture of Timurids and, 282
conflict between Safavids and, 290
war between Qajars and, 324
Pabag (Sasanian king), 187
Pacorus II, 176
Pahlavi Iran (1925–1979 ce), 346–88
anti-Western authenticity discourse, 360–61
autocracy of, 359
Bakhtiar's caretaker regime in, 363
Cold War alliance with U.S., 356
collapse of, 363
election of Reza Khan as first leader of, 345
fall of Mohammad Reza Shah, 365
(p. 408) historical background 1906–1926, 346–50
intellectual and cultural production, 352
modern nation-state founding, 350–53
Nazi nationalism and, 352
1941–1953, 353–56
opposition coalition 1979, 365, 366–67, 369
opposition to reforms, 358
police state of, 352, 359
pre-revolution crises of 1970s, 359–63
reigns of, 400
scholars’ characterization of, 350
Pahlavi texts. See also Avesta and Avestan society
Avestan time divisions also in, 93
historiography debates over, 86–87
myth of first human couple in, 78
paideia, 4
Paleolithic period (ca. 1000000 to 12000 bce), hunters and gatherers in, 14–15
parliament. See Majles
Parmenion invasion, 144
Parni invasions, 168
Pars, 120
Parthians, 164–66. See also Arsacid Empire
art of, 184–85
conflict between Romans and, 166, 173
emergence of, 153
monarchy of, 178–80
name, 168
origin of, 164
parusa, Persian identity as, 234
pastoralism, divergence of agriculture from, 19
Paul (Russian tsar), 320
Peacock Throne, 311
Persepolis ruins, 139, 148–49
Persia
Anglo-Persian Agreement, 343, 344
epic tradition of, 85
world image of, 3
Persians. See also Achaemenid Persian Empire
in China, 265–67
Medes and, 123, 131
Muslim conflict with, 209–19, 221
parusa as identity of, 234
Persian Area Command of Yazdgerd III, 202–3
Persian culture
courts of, 198
farhang as, 4
Middle East assimilation of, 6
poets and, 8
prose and, 322
Yuan dynasty influence of, 266–67
Persian Empire. See Achaemenid Persian Empire
Persian Gates, 148
Persian Gulf
early links with, 28
Qajar period, 329
trade, 314–15
Persian language, 12
fifteenth-century, 282
in medieval Iran, 7–8, 227, 232
Persian religion, Zoroastrianism as, 5
Persian Zoroastrians (Gabrs), 107
Persis/Fars, 187
Bakun culture of, 21
Proto-Elamite period, 23, 29
revolt of Ardashir of, 178
Philip II of Macedon, 143–44
philosopher-king, Sasanian Empire, 197–98, 199
Phraates II, 170
Phraates III, 172
Phraates IV, 172–74
Piruz (Sasanian king), 195, 196, 212, 214, 217–18
poetry, 8, 285, 286
poet-sacrificer, Zarathustra as, 86
police state, Pahlavi monarchy as, 352, 359
political parties, 338, 340–41, 361–62. See also specific political parties
politics. See also specific empires
change in Middle East, 9–10
conservative Pahlavi era, 384, 392
midcentury culture of, 354
Qajar ulema, 340–41
religion and, 236, 315–17
Reza Shah Pahlavi, 348
Sunni-Shi‘i, 228
post-revolution Iran, 368–88
first stage of, 372–76
second stage of, 372–76
third stage of, 377–81
fourth stage of, 381–85
fifth stage of, 385–88
pottery, 21, 29, 32
pragmatists, 374, 377
pregnancy, in Avesta, 92
Preliminary Treaty, 323
presidents, of Iran, 371. See also Khatami, Muhammad
constitutional power of, 377–78
sixth, 11
pre-soul, 78
priests, Avestan, 89
proskynesis, 151
protest
against election of Ahmadinejad, 387
Pahlavi stifling of 1963, 359–60
suppression of peaceful, 362–63
Proto-Elamite period, 22. See also Early Bronze Age
cultural sphere of, 23, 24–26
interregional contact, 24
nomadic tribes of, 29
al-Qadisiyya, 209
Qa’em Maqam, 321, 327
Qajar dynasty (1789–1925 ce), 8, 319–45
administrative system of, 320
under Ahmad Shah, 338–45
American treasurer general of, 339–40
British bank opened in, 332, 333
British military superiority to, 324
British relations, 322, 323–27, 330, 332–33, 342–43
cabinet under Naser, 330–31
civil war, 321
Constitutional Revolution, 335–36, 337, 339, 346–47
criticism of, 345
crown prince of, 321
distinctive features of, 319
European studies of, 324
Fath Ali Shah's rule of, 321–27
first parliament in, 335–36, 338
foreign minister of, 321
foreign policy, 332
(p. 409)
government restructuring during, 331, 332
Griboedov assassination, 325–26
modernization efforts during, 324, 330, 334
Mohammad Ali Shah's rule of, 336–37
Mohammad Shah's rule of, 327–29
Mozaffar al-Din Shah's reign, 333–36
under Naser al-Din Shah, 329–33
opposition to Western influence in, 334
reforming minister of, 330
Reuter Concession, 331–32, 333
rulers of, 400
Russian bank opened in, 333
Russian hegemony during, 320–27, 328, 333, 334–35
Russo-Persian War during, 322–23
semicolonial status during, 346
trade in, 315
transition from Safavids to, 306–7
tribe of origin, 319
ulema rebellion and exodus in, 335
voting rights in, 336, 338
war with Turkey, 324
qalandars, 256, 280
Qara Khitai, 245–46
Qara Qoyunlu (Black Sheep) (1380–1468 ce), rulers of, 399
Qasem, Abol, 321–22
Qazvin, 252
Qizilbash Turkmen, 289, 291, 294, 295, 307
Abbas I demotion of, 299
in Safavid civil war, 297
Qubilai Khan, 245
Qubilai Qa’an (son of Chinggis Khan), 250–51
queens, Sasanian Empire, 201, 210, 218
Qum, Muslim conquest of, 213, 219, 223
Qur’an, 303
Rafsanjani, 377–81, 386
EC headed by, 382
Raga¯, 75
rahbar, 370, 377
Rajavi, Masoud, 376
ranking
agricultural innovation leading to, 18–19
Late Bronze Age, 32
Susa society, 20
al-Rashid (caliph), 223–24
Rashid al-Din, 262, 265
histories written by, 258, 261, 263–64
Rask, Rasmus, 60
Rastakhiz Party, 361–62
rationalism, medieval Iran, 235
Ray, Muslim Arab conquest of, 213, 219
Razi, Zakariya, 6–7
Reagan, Ronald, 371, 375
reform movement
elitist nature of, 385
Musavi candidacy hope for, 387
reasons for failure of, 384
rigged election response of, 388
religion.See also Avesta and Avestan society; ulema; specific empires
Christianity as proselytizing, 198
fifteenth-century, 275–78
kingship and, 236–38, 286–87, 292
marriage of politics and, 158–59, 236, 315–17
persecution of minority, 313
suppression of minorities, 313
syncretism of, 158–59, 224, 230, 278
religious architecture, 50
research, future, 14
Reuter Concession, 331–32, 333
revisionist historians, on Darius, 126
revolts, 143, 178, 217, 225
revolution, 285–87, 358–59, 365–68
Abbasid, 29
Bolshevik, 342
cultural, 371–72, 373
French, 320
Isma‘il's messianic, 289
1970s crises prior to, 359–63
White, 358
Revolutionary Guards, 11, 370, 384
revolution of 1979, 12, 362–63, 365–68
five stages of Iran after, 368–88
Pahlavi autocracy leading to, 359–63
U.S. response to, 365–66
Reza Khan (later called Reza Shah)
as first Pahlavi ruler, 9, 345
1906–1926, 346–50
as Sardar Sepah, 344, 345, 349
Reza Shah Pahlavi
armed forces of, 348–49
culture during rule of, 352
forced abdication of, 353
land holdings of, 357
modern nation-state created by, 347–48
political stance of, 348
religious policies of, 351
Reza Khan becoming, 345, 346–50
semiconstitutional dictatorship of, 350
Rhandeia treaty, 176
Rigvedic texts, 57
rituals.See also Avesta; Sufi rituals
architectural evidence of, 17
Avesta recitation, 61
dogs used in Avestan, 96–97
Elamite water procedure, 49
stick-beating, 296–97
Susa society, 20
Videvdad, 61, 100, 103, 106–7
videvdad sade, 61, 100, 103
Yasna, 100, 102–3
rivers, Young Avesta on, 76–77
rock reliefs
Arsacids/Parthians, 167
Sasanian, 188
Romans
conflict between Parthians and, 166, 173, 174
Mesopotamia invasion by, 189
Roman Empire, 164
Armenia becoming part of, 194
Armenia contentions and, 190, 194
Arsacid relations, 166, 173, 174, 177–78
civil war in, 177
conflict between Sasanian and, 188
fall of, 5
during Yazdgerd I rule, 195
Rostam, 209
Roxana (wife of Alexander), 150, 152
Royal Style of art, 138
rulers. See also specific empires; specific rulers
Elamite lists of, 40–43, 52
list of dynasty, 391–400
list of kings found at Susa, 40–41
Sumerian King List, 40
Rumi, 8
Rushdie, Salman, 376
Russia
bank opened by, 333
British mediation of Iran and, 323
intervention of US and British compared to, 355
Mohammad Shah and, 328
occupation, 338, 347
privileges in Iran, 328
Qajar hegemony of, 320–27, 328, 333, 334–35
Qajar loans from, 334–35
Russo-Persian War, 322–23
Second, 324–25
sacred formulas, Avestan, 101–2
sacrifices
to Ahura Mazda¯, 86, 98–99
animal, 100
to evil deities, 80
mythical sacrificers, 82–87
people excluded from, 81, 105
Zarathustra, 86
Sa‘di, 8, 312
Sadr, Abol Hasan Bani (president), 10, 371, 372
Safavid Empire (1501–1722 ce), 285–303. See also Tahmasp
Abbas I as shah of, 297–303
Afghan invasion of, 303, 307–8, 316
birthplace of Safavids, 279
civil war, 297
control and absolutism of, 300
Edict of Sincere Repentance, 292
Isfahan phase of, 298–302
Ismaʻil as shah of, 289–90
Isma‘il's messianic revolution in, 289
Isma‘ils of, 254, 257, 271–72, 273
line of descent, 308
longevity of, 317
Nader's reign of, 308–10
Ottoman conflicts of, 290
Persian identity in, 227
Qizilbash tribes in, 295
religious leadership of, 273, 289–90
revolutionary message of founder, 285–87
rise of, 278–79
rulers of, 399
sex between men in, 301
sharia orthodoxy established in, 303
Shi‘ification of, 290, 303, 315–16
slaves in, 298, 299
Sufi order in, 281, 287–90, 291
Sufi rituals suppressed in later, 300–301
Tahmasp's memoirs of, 291–92
Tahmasp's Sufism in, 295–97
Timurids compared to, 272
transition to Qajar, 306–7
Saffarids (867–1002 ce), 230, 396
Safi al-Din (Ardabil shaykh), 8, 288–89
Saljuqs (1037–1157 ce), 397–98
sama, 288, 289, 295, 300
Samanids (875–999 ce), 230, 232, 397
Samarqand artists, 282
Sanskrit, 60
Sanuto, Francesco, 290
Sarbadarid movement, 279
Sarimas, 75
sarissa, 144
Sasanian Empire (224–651 ce), 187–205. See also specific rulers
administration of, 190–91, 197–98, 217
apex of, 199
Avesta canonization during, 194, 198, 230
centralization in, 196
Christianity in, 192–93, 194, 195, 198, 205
Christian persecution in, 193, 198
coinage in, 200
conflict with Romans, 188
Era¯n territory under, 188
factionalism and division within, 201–2
fall of capital city, 228
historiography, 232
Jewish community in, 198, 205
kingship and political ideology of, 203–4, 235–36
Mazdak teachings in, 196–97
metropolis of, 225n1
Muslim conquest of, 193, 202, 203, 204, 208–14
official end of, 228
Persis/Fars campaign of, 187
philosopher-king of, 197–98, 199
quadripartition of, 198
queens of, 201, 210, 218
regional borders during, 190
religion and politics married in, 236
religions of, 190, 192–93, 196–97, 204–5
Roman Empire destroyed during rule of, 5
Roman relations during Yazdgerd I, 195
royal ideology of, 200
rulers of, 393–94
succession crisis, 208
Satanic Verses (Rushdie), 376
satraps, 155
revolt, 143
SAVAK, 357, 361
scholar scribes, Middle Elamite period, 52
scientists and philosophers, cultural renaissance, 6–7
sealings, 21
seas and lakes, Young Avesta on, 76
Second Russo-Persian War, 324–25
sedentism
consolidation of nomadic life divergence from, 23–28
Epipaleolithic and Early Neolithic food production and, 16–17
segregation, gender, 303
Seleucid dynasty (305–146 bce), 152–59, 392
administration of, 154–56
autocracy of, 154
chronology of, 160
economic innovations of, 157
end of, 153
Greek aspects introduced in, 156
kings of, 159–60
literary texts of, 52
official language of, 155
religion in, 157–59
religion-politics connection in, 158–59
satraps under, 155
(p. 411)
sources of information on, 142
taxation, 156
territorial battles with Parthians, 169, 170
urbanism, 156
Seleucus I
areas ruled by, 152–53
kingship ideology of, 153, 154
marriage to Apame, 153–54
settlement
Arab pattern of, 220
EBA I, 27
hierarchy, 19
Proto-Elamite, 25–26
Upper Paleolithic shift in, 14–15
Yanik period, 28
seven rivers, Young Avesta on, 76–77
sexual behavior, Sufi view of, 300
sexual transgressions, 81
Shahnameh (Ferdowsi), 6, 86, 233
Mongol, 253
Shah-People Revolution, 358
Shah Rukh (Timur's son), 279
Shapur (Sasanian king), 190–91
Shapur II, 193, 194
Shapur III, 194
sharia law
Abbasid faction of followers, 231
gender segregation in, 303
Safavid Empire orthodox interpretation of, 303
Tahmasp as shah and follower of, 291
Shi‘i Buyids, 230
Shi‘ism
of Abbas I, 299–302
anti-Sufi discourses in seventeenth-century, 301
Chingiss Khan and, 267
conversion of Iran to, 227–28
Corbin interpretation of, 360
heterosexuality in, 301–2
Imamate in, 229, 238, 288, 291, 303, 316–17
Iranian imagined past and, 239
patrilineal descent in, 302
political borders of Sunnism compared to, 228
Safavid dominion of, 285
Safavid Empire, 290, 303, 315–16
Sufi opposition of, 299–302
Sufi sensuality feared by Safavid, 300
Sunni Islam replaced by, 315–16
Sunni syncretism, 278
Twelver Shi‘ism, 277, 279, 309
ulema, 277–78
Shimashki kingdom, 42–43
Shiraz, 312
Shulgi letter, 52
Shush site, 39. See also Susa
Shuster, Morgan, 339–40
Sialk settlement, 26
Silk Road, 203
sinfulness
lies as, 189–90
Videvdad, 104–5
Sino-Iranian treaty, 4
Sirius, the Dog Star, 71, 73
sister's son, 48–49
sites. See also specific sites
food production, 16
shift from cave to open-air, 14–15
southwestern Iran excavations and, 38–39, 53
western Iran, 16
Yanik culture, 27
Siyar al-muluk (Nizam al-Mulk) [Ways of Kings], 237
slavery, Safavid Empire, 298, 299
sociopolitical structures, Avestan, 88–89
Soltan Hosein (Safavid shah), 303, 307
soma, 68, 69
souls
breath, 78, 79, 86
after death, 73, 79–80
three, 78
wicked, 80
sources
Achaemenid Persian Empire, 121, 142
Alexander the Great, 142
Arsacid Empire, 164–67, 180
Hellenistic period, 165
Islamic Empire, 208
medieval Iran, 228
Mongol/Ilkhanid Empire, 263
Seleucid Empire, 142
South Persia Rifles (SPR), 342, 344
southwestern Iran
excavations and sites for, 38–39, 53
lowlands of, 21–23
occupation of 1980–1981, 373
prehistoric sites of, 38
Soviet Union
regimes backed by, 355
revolution of 1979 response of, 368
spells, 104–5
Sraosha (god of rewards), 48, 68
stars and constellations, Avestan view of, 73–74
state, separation of ulema from, 317
The Strangling of Persia (Shuster), 340
student protest in Tehran, 356–57
Suez Canal, Darius's construction of, 128
Sufi-Byzantine war, 289
Sufi masters
of Ardabil order, 281, 287–89
in Mongol period, 256, 260–61
Sufi rituals
Abbas I suppression of, 300–301
sama, 288, 289, 295
zikr, 288, 295, 300
Sufism
brotherhoods of, 296
class distinctions nullified in, 288
fifteenth-century, 277, 287–90
institutionalized, 239
medieval Iran and, 239
Nizam al-Mulk's support of, 239
Safavid, 281, 287–90, 291, 295–97
Sarbadarids and, 279
Shi‘i opposition to, 299–302
Shi‘ism competing with, 297
sukkalmah period, 43–44, 48
cultural objects from, 50–51
Sulla, 171
Sumerian King List, 40, 52
Sumerian language, Susa texts with Akkadian and, 52
Sunnis, Safavid overthrow by Afghan, 316
(p. 412) Sunnism
fifteenth-century, 277–78
historiography of, 289
of medieval Iranian Muslims, 232
Nader's promotion of, 309, 316
political borders of, 228
Shi‘i Islam replacing, 315–16
Supplementary Fundamental Laws, 341
Susa
Akkadian rulers of, 40–41
Alexander in, 148, 151
Darius the Great palace in, 138
deity of, 29, 40
Elamite finds in, 49–53
kings lists found in, 40–43, 52
Mesopotamian influence on, 47–48, 49
Middle Elamite rulers of, 44
Sasanian period, 193
site of, 39
text dates and calendar of, 47–48
Susa I culture, 21–22
Susa IV period, 29
Susa society, 20–21
Susiana Plain
abandonment of, 23
Archaic, 18
conflict, 22
Late Chalcolithic period, 21–23
Middle Neolithic to Middle Chalcolithic, 20–21
population of, 21, 22
in Proto-Elamite region, 23
Sykes, Percy, 343
Tabriz, 330, 337
Abbas Mirza defeated at, 325
British consulate in, 328
Tahirids (821–873 ce), 230, 396
Tahmasp (Safavid shah)
Afshar and, 308–9
Ali and, 291, 292
brothers of, 294–95
comparison of father (Isma‘il) to, 291, 292
dream accounts of, 292
education and Islam conversion of, 293–95
imperial and spiritual governance of, 295–97
as master-saint-king, 294
memoirs of, 291–92, 294
stick-beating ritual of, 296–97
Takhma Urupi, 82–83
Tal-e Malyan, 39, 47
Tao Zongyi, 267
Tartars (Tatars), 243, 250
Tehran
Allies and, 342
British regime in, 347
elections in, 336
1978 protests in, 363
as Qajar capital, 320
riots in 1963, 358–59
Russian march on, 341
Russo-British pressure in, 342
student protest and killing in, 356–57
Treaty of, 324, 327–28
2009 election protests in, 387
temples
fire-, 187, 204–5, 217
horns on Elamite, 50
Mesopotamian, 167
Tepe Farukhabad site, 39
Thais (Athenian courtesan), 148–49
Tibetan Buddhism, 250–51
Tiflis, 320
Timur (Tamerlane), 280
conquest regions of, 271
death of, 272–73
drunkenness and neglect of, 277
religious contradictions of, 275–76
son of, 279
Timurid dynasty (1370–1506 ce), 271–79
art and culture of, 281–82
Delhi sacked during, 276–77
religion and economy, 275–78
Safavids compared to, 272
social protest movements during, 278–79
society, 274–75
after Timur's death, 271, 272–73
Tishtriya, 71, 73
Tobacco Concession, 332–33
Tosar (Tansar), Zoroastrian doctrine of, 189
treaties
Arsacid, 175
with Britain, 322, 324
Definitive, 325, 326
Sino-Iranian, 4
Treaty of Erzerum, 324, 329
Treaty of Finkenstein, 322
Treaty of Gulistan, 323, 324
Treaty of Paris, 330
Treaty of Tehran, 324, 327–28
Treaty of Tilsit, 322–23
Treaty of Turkmanchai, 342
Trogus, Pompeius, 165
Tudeh Party, 35, 354, 355, 356, 375
Tukharistan, Muslim invasion of, 215
Tulunid family, 230
Turcomans, 273, 281, 319. See also Timurid dynasty
Turco-Mongol tribes, 243, 244–45
Turks
as devotees of Isma‘il, 289
entry of, 6
Mahmud as, 233
in Mongol Empire, 260
Turkey
Khomeini's exile to, 359
during Russo-Persian war, 322
war between Iran and Ottoman, 324
Turkish Republic, Pahlavi modernization emulating, 348
Tusi, Nasir al-Din, 254–55, 265
Twelver Shi‘ism, 277, 279, 309
Tyre, resistance to Alexander by, 146
ulema (religious classes), 274, 276, 277
Afghan era, 316–17
fifteenth-century, 274, 276–78
in Mongol Empire, 253, 255, 256
parting of state from, 317
political group of, 340–41
Qajar period, 329, 331, 333, 335, 338–41, 345
(p. 413)
Safavid Empire, 298, 299, 300
Shi‘i-Sunni syncretism of, 278
Umar (Arab caliph), 209, 212
Umayyad Caliphate (661–750 ce), 222, 394–95
historiography, 228, 232
United Nations (UN), 379
United States (U.S.)
Baghdad pact and, 357
British oil industry and, 354
embargo led by, 373
hostage crisis, 371
influence on Pahlavi regime, 366
intervention strategy of, 354
Iranian revolution response of, 365–66
Iran stance of, 10, 11, 362
Iraq intelligence activities of, 375–76
missed opportunities for aiding Iran, 383
in Mosaddeq's overthrow, 355–56
1970s crisis response of, 362
oil share of, 357
response to crisis of 1970s, 362
Reza Shah advised by, 367
White Revolution sponsored by, 358
Upper Paleolithic period, settlement pattern, 14–15
Urartian-Assyrian battle, 33
urbanism
Abbasid Caliphate, 223–24
Middle Bronze Age interregionalism and, 28–31
Seleucids, 156
Ur III period, 43
urwan (breath-soul), 78, 79, 86
U.S.See United States
Usuli-Akhbari debate, 316–17
Utba ibn Ghazwan, 209
Uthman caliphate, 212–13
veiling, women's, 9, 351, 371
Videvdad, 64, 68, 75, 91
disposal of dead bodies mentioned in, 105
on harm and killing people and animals, 105
living beings and social structures in, 77–87
on pollution, 106
purification rituals in, 106–7
on sinfulness, 104–5
soul after death described in, 80
surgery described in, 104–5
videvdad sade rituals, 61, 100, 103
villages, earliest known, 16–21
Vishta¯spa, 84–85
vision-soul, 78
vispered ritual, 100
vohu manah (Good Thought), 66
Vologases I (Arsacid ruler), 175
Vologases III, 176
Vologases IV, 176–77
Vologases V, 177
voluntary kinship, in Ardabil Sufi movement, 289
voting rights, 336, 338
waaf lands, Nader Shah's confiscation of, 315, 316
war.See also civil war
Arsacid, 171–72
Assyrian-Elamite, 45–46
Assyrian-Urartian, 33
Avestan, 84–85, 89–90
Cold, 356, 373
Crimean, 330
Iran-Iraq, 370–73, 375, 377, 379
kawis, 84
over Armenia, 171–75, 177
Roman civil, 177
Russo-Persian, 322–23
Second Russo-Persian, 324–25
Sufi-Byzantine, 289
World War I, 341, 347, 353
Washington, D.C., Mohammad Reza Pahlavi in, 366
water procedure, Elamite, 49
The Ways of Kings (Siyar al-muluk), 237
weaponry
Alexander the Great and, 144
Avestan, 90
chemical, 374, 375
Elamite, 50–51
Well-Deserved Command (khshathra variya), 67
West
anti-Western authenticity, 360–61
Avesta study in, 107–8
cultural heritage perceived in, 4
Iranian cultural heritage viewed by, 4
opposition to, 9, 334
Qajar dynasty influences of, 334
Westergaard, Niels L., 60
western Iran, sites in, 16
White Revolution, 358
White Sheep.See Aq Qoyunlu
Wholeness and Non-dyingness, 67
wicked souls, 80
wild animals, Avestan society, 97
wind, 71, 74
women's rights, 10, 351
veil issue denial of, 9, 371
World War I, 341, 347, 353
Xenophon, 121
Xerxes, 128–30, 149
Yanik sphere, Early Bronze Age, 23, 26–28
yashts, 61, 63, 73, 75, 78, 82
Yasna (Avesta text), 61, 101
ritual of, 100, 102–3
Yazdgerd I (Sasanian king), 195
Yazdgerd II, 195
Yazdgerd III, 202–3, 208–12, 214–15, 228
Yima, 83
Young Avesta, 58, 59, 64, 68, 75–77
other deities in, 70–73
Younger Dryas, Bølling-Allerød phase of, 16
Yuan dynasty, 265, 266–67
Zagros, 14–15, 16, 19
Zagros Mountains
early villages in, 19
Late Iron Age changes in, 32–33
Proto-Elamite settlement in, 25
Zand tribe in, 310
Zand, Avesta and, 58–59, 60, 235
(p. 414) zandaqa, 235
Zand Empire (1750–1794 ce).See also Afghan era
economy of, 313–15
Karim Khan Zand rise to power, 310–11
religion and politics, 315–17
rulers of, 400
succession rivalries, 311, 320
Zarathustra, 77, 80, 81, 82, 224
Ga¯tha¯s as written by, 87, 107–8
historicity of, 86–87, 108
myth of, 85–87
Zoroastrianism and, 86–87
Zarzian period, 15
Zhongdu (present day Beijing), Mongol atrocities in, 245
Zhou Mi, 266–67
zikr, 288, 295, 300
Ziyad, ibn Abihi, 217
Ziyarids (928–1043 ce), 396
Zoroaster.See Zarathustra
Zoroastrianism, 48, 101
Alexander's policy toward, 149
as Armenian official religion, 195
Avesta and, 59, 108
dating of texts and dogma of, 236
Iranian disposition shaped by, 5–6
Islam replacing, 208
kawis debate and, 85
khwarrah kingship in, 203
Late Antiquity, 194
as Persian religion, 5
sacred prayers in, 66–67
Sasanian Empire, 204–5
Sasanian father of, 188
Sasanian-period inclusiveness of, 190
Seleucid dynasty continuance of, 158–59
sin of lying in, 189–90
Tosar's codification of, 189
twentieth century, 108
yashts arranged as calendar of, 61