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date: 30 May 2020

Abstract and Keywords

Unlike Mesopotamia/Egypt, which possesses a linear topography, Iran's broken topography renders documentation of its archaeological history difficult. An inconsistent topography has engineered development of region-based sociocultural diversity. As such, archaeological documentation has differentially highlighted across the Iranian spectrum. Since it is vertically bracketed between two seas, Iran was the only land bridge accessible to prehistoric hunter-gatherers during migration from Africa to southeast Asia. The rise of early states in the region commenced during the last lithic era (ca. 4000 to 3200 ,,bce). Study of the Bronze Age merits appraising two critical cultural strains: the Proto-Elamite; the Yanik sphere. Halfway during this era, the Iranian Plateau experienced a short florescence of urbanism—regions like Hissar, Yahya, and Jiroft were connected to Central Asia, via commercial networks. The intermediate between the Bronze and Iron Ages was marked by the settlement of Indo-Europeans, the progenitors of the Iranian tongue.

Keywords: Iran, broken topography, sociocultural diversity, migration, florescence, urbanism, commercial networks, Indo-Europeans

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