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date: 23 August 2019

Abstract and Keywords

The initial quarter of the thirteenth century witnessed a proliferation of Mongol influence over Iran, followed by a drastic martial rule. However, beginning as a violent military conquest, the incursion unfurled into an era of cultural and economic florescence. Defined variedly as “bolt from the blue,” “storm from the east,” the Mongol blitzkrieg etched a permanent fear in the collective psyche of the region and commanded substantial awe among the conquered. The Mongol strength chiefly drew from tribal consolidation, on the basis of achieving wealth, in plenty. Although the Mongols themselves were themselves not in a large number, their supremo, Chinggis Khan, incorporated various Turkic tribes and continually added conquered armies to the Mongol forces. The Turco-Mongol invasion was favored by the Islamic world, factions of which were even incorporated in the Mongol ranks. The violent invasion of Khwarazam, the first invasion of a Muslim state, was complemented with substantial, manifold infighting within that state.

Keywords: Chinggis Khan, Khwarazam, martial rule, Turkic tribe, Turco-Mongol invasion, Mongols, Iran

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