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date: 24 February 2020

(p. 755) Index

(p. 755) Index

Note: Page numbers followed by “f ”, “t”, and “n” refer to figures, tables and notes, respectively.

A
Abdou, Angie, 36
Abdul-Jabbar, Kareem, 707
absorption, as conscious state, 139
acceptance, in performance psychology, 26
acceptance and commitment therapy, 125
acculturation, 421–23
achievement goals
antisocial behavior and, 369
of master athletes, 502
moral behavior and, 368–69
prosocial behavior and, 369
achievement goal theory (AGT)
intrinsic goals in, 87
leadership and, 329
motivation and, 85
performing arts and, 87–88
achievement motivation, 28
action-focused coping, 185
active listening, 27
actor-partner independence model (APIM), 409, 412–13
actor effects in, 412
interpersonal processes in, 412
intrapersonal processes in, 412
partner effects in, 412
acting, emotional expression in, 103
adaptation to transitions model, 514
adaptive approaches to competition model, 160
adolescents. See also youth development; youth sport
in Canada, talent development for, 436
physical activity for, 661–62
sports expertise for, 436–37
talent development among, in U.S., 436
Adolescents Training and Learning to Avoid Steroids (ATLAS), 554–55
adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), 178
adults
imagery by, 222
physical activity for, 662–63, 669–71
affect
emotion compared to, 155
positive, 159
self-efficacy from, 275–76
affective cycle of injury rehabilitation model, 595
agents. See sports agents
age-related decline, in sports performance. See also older athletes
compensation explanation for, 496–98
cross-sectional trends for, 495–96, 495f
deliberate practice and, 501
for females, 494
future research directions for, 508–9
in golf, 497–98
longitudinal trends for, 495–96, 495f
mean age of peak performance and, 494
motivation and, across lifespan, 501–8
preserved differentiation account for, 499–500
psychomotor expertise for, 498
selective maintenance explanation for, 498–99
selective optimization with compensation principle for, 498
trends in, 494–96
aggression
age as influence on, 377
as antisocial behavior, 365
gender and, 376
hostile, 365
instrumental, 365
through modeling, 264
morality and, 365
scenario approach for, 366–67
in sport psychology, 8
agility, SPI and, 73–74
Alekseev, Antoli, 12
Ali, Muhammad, 63
Almost Perfect Scale-Revised (APS-R), 295
American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM), 239
American Heart Association (AHA), 239
American Physical Education Review, 5
American Psychological Association (APA), 27
Ethics Code for, 46–48
amotivation, 236
anabolic-androgenic steroids (AASs), 545
controlled studies for, 551t
institutional ban on, 546
medical consequences of, 550–52
psychiatric consequences of, 550–52
analytical intelligence, 64
ancillary APEDs, 553
Andersen, Mark, 393, 693
Anderson, W. G., 4
Angell, Frank, 6
anger, 33–34
anorexia nervosa (AN), 637
overexercise and, 625
anterior attentional system, 178
antisocial behavior
achievement goals and, 369
aggression as, 365
measures of, 366
research on, 380
Antonelli, Fernanando, 12
Antonelli, Ferruccio, 12
anxiety
attentional bias and, 177–78
attention and, 177
audiences as influence on, 98
cognitive function and, 177
in competitive sports, 174–77
coping strategies for, 98–99
critical factors for, 174
environmental factors for, 97–98
from expectations, 98
feelings of exposure and, 98
interpersonal factors for, 97–98
management of, 98–99
modeling as influence on, 258–59
multidimensional theory for, 99
music as therapy for, 99
neural mechanisms for, 178–80
from perfectionism, 90
in performing arts, 97–99
regulatory attentional control, 177–78
self-talk and, 202
state, 99
training with, 185–86
trait, 99
visuomotor control and, 180–82
Anxiety Sensitivity Index, 623
appearance and performance enhancing drugs (APEDs)
ancillary, 553
blood doping and, 546
body image disturbances and, 549–50
conceptual foundations of, 548–50
definition of, 545
factors for use of, 553–54
for fat burning, 552–53
history of, 546–47
illicit use of, 554
interventions for, 554–55
IOC guidelines for, 546, 556
legal use of, 554
medical consequences of, 550–52
nonsteroidal, 553
polypharmacy and, 548–49
psychiatric consequences of, 550–52
pyramiding and, 548
scope of, 547–48
stacking and, 548
for weight loss, 552–53
applied sport psychology, 25–26
in feminist sport psychology, 396
future practices for, 41–42
MST in, 26
nontraditional forms of, 396
perfectionism and, 300–301
PST in, 26
traditional forms of, 396
Arab Americans, 421
women in sports for, 425
Armstrong, Lance, 63, 627
artists. See performing artists
association, in pain management, 625
Association for Applied Sport Psychology (AASP), 16–17, 51–52
certification program for, 17, 51
ethnicity and performance guidelines under, 431
Association for Sport Psychology in Germany, 12
Association for the Advancement of Physical Education, 4
Atherton, Mike, 127
Athlete Burnout Questionnaire (ABQ), 565
Athletes Targeting Health Exercise and Nutrition Alternatives (ATHENA), 555, 652
athletic identity, 517
athletics, sports compared to, 336
attachment theory
goal-corrected partnerships and, 410
internal working models in, 409
peer relationships and, 409–10
secure attachments in, 409
attention
anterior system, 178
anxiety and, 177
appropriateness of focus, 121
attentional control theory, 144n10
bias in, 177–78
brain function and, 178
capacity theory for, 120
concentration and, 118–19
as concentration of mental activity, 118
definitions of, 118–19, 144n2
distraction and, 145n17
emotional regulation and, 163
emotions as influence on, 159
external focus of, 120
filter theory for, 119–20
internal focus of, 120
multidimensional nature of, 118
performance and, 121–23
performance psychology and, 34
PFC and, 178
posterior system, 178
processes for, 118
regulatory attentional control, 177–78
selective, 118–19
self-talk and, 201
spotlight metaphor for, 120–21
unconscious factors for, 121
voluntary, 178
attentional bias, 177–78
attentional control theory (ACT), 144n10
central executive functions in, 179
emotions and, 159
inhibition in, 179–80
QE and, 182–83
self-talk and, 201
shifting in, 179–80
stimulus-driven attentional control systems in, 179
top-down control systems in, 179
attention training, somatics and, 589–90
attunement, supervision and, 729–30
audiences
anxiety and, as influence on, 98
engagement of, 35
interaction, 35
performance psychology and, 35, 103
performing arts influenced by, 82
auditory imagery, 218
Australia, sport psychology in, 10
autocratic coaching behaviors, 316
automaticity, 98, 144n7
Automatic Self-Talk Questionnaire for Sport (ASTQS), 194
autonomy
as basic psychological need, 237
in CET, 234
in SDT, 241
autonomy orientation, 237
autonomy-supportive leadership, 329, 334–35, 338
SDT and, 334
in youth development, 455
awareness. See consciousness
B
Balague, Gloria, 13, 15
ballet, career length for, 38
Bandura, Albert, 665
Barber, Heather, 393
Barnard, Frederick, 250
basic needs support, motivation and, 88
basic psychological needs theory, 236–37, 242–44
autonomy in, 237
competence in, 237
motivation in, 242
relatedness in, 237
basketball
moral disengagement in, 371
self-modeling in, 256
Bauman, Jim, 17
behavioral choice theory, 667
behavior epidemiology, framework for, 660–61
behavior setting theory, 441
Belichick, Bill, 328
Bend It Like Beckham, (p. 757) 425
Bergstrom, J. A., 5
Between a Rock and a Hard Place (Ralston), 630–31
Beyond Boredom and Anxiety (Csikszentmihalyi), 629
binge eating disorders (BEDs), 637–38
bioecological perspective, 485–86
direct effects in, 485
exosystems in, 485
indirect effects in, 485
microsystems in, 485
bioinformational theory, 164
imagery and, 227
biopsychosocial model of challenge and threat, 160
biopsychosocial model of injury rehabilitation, 595
Bird, Evelyn, 14
birth order, 484
birthplace bias, 441
blended families, 489–90
Bliese, Paul, 608
blindsight, 134
blood doping, 546
bodily kinesthetic intelligence, 64
the body
dualistic approach to, 586–88
embodiment and, 588
tension and, 585
theoretical overview of, 583
body image
APEDs and, 549–50
BMI and, 91
during childhood development, 636
for dancers, 91
definition of, 389
EDs and, societal pressures and, 646
for ideal feminine body, 389
MD and, 639–40
social physique anxiety and, 389
women's sport and, 389–90
body mass index (BMI), 91
Bolt, Usain, 63
The Bone Cage (Abdou), 36
Bonica, John, 621
Boring, E. G., 25
Bouet, Michel, 12
boundary issues, ethics codes and, 55–59
BIRG and, 57
conflicts of interest and, 59
NSBCs, 57–58
slippery slope for, 57
Boviner, Sherry Lyn, 14
Bowlby, John, 400, 405
Bowman, Bob, 127
Bowman, Scotty, 328
boxing, sport psychology for, 9
brain function
ACTH, 178
attention and, 178
CRF, 178
HPA axis, 178
imagery and, 219
neural mechanisms in, 178–80
SAM axis in, 160
Brandfonbrener, Alice, 82
Bredemeier, Brenda, 395
Brief Fear of Negative Evaluation Scale, 623
British Society of Sports Psychology, 12
Brown, Charlie, 742–45, 747–49, 751–52
Brown, David, 16
Brown, Paul, 8
Bryan, W. L., 5
bulimia nervosa (BN), 637
overexercise and, 625
Bull, Deborah, 121–22
Bündchen, Giselle, 424
burnout
antecedents of, 570–71
avoidance strategies, 568–71
characteristics of, 567–68
in coaches, 570–71
cognitive-affective model of, 571–72
consequences of, 568–70
definition of, 563–65
depression and, 566
disengagement and, 576
energetic processes for, 577
engagement and, 562–64
fatigue and, 565–66
future research applications for, 577–78
JDR model for, 576–77
job-person congruity and, 575
job person fit and, 575
from job stress, 566
manifestations of, 567
measurement of, 563–65
metaphors for, 569
motivational processes for, 577
negative training stress response model for, 572
from overtraining, 566–67
PEE and, 564
perfectionism and, 301
from performance, 37
recognition of, 563–65
reduction strategies for, 574–77
removal strategies for, 574–77
SDT and, 573–74
self-report measures for, 565
SET and, 571
sport commitment model for, 573
sport devaluation and, 564
stress-recovery perspective for, 572–73
unidimensional identity development and external control model for, 573
business, as performance domain
coaching in, 39
competition in, 32
cooperation in, 313
group cohesion in, 318–19
leadership in, 317
morality in, 378
performance coaches for, 695f
as research focus, 25
role relationships in, 314–15
team building strategies in, 320–21
teams in, 310
teamwork in, 311
Butt, Dorcas Susan, 15
C
Cagigal, Jose-Maria, 12
Canada
sport psychology in, 13
talent development in, for adolescents, 436
Canadian Psychological Association (CPA), 49
Canadian Society for Psychomotor Learning and Sports Psychology, 12
capacity theory, for attention, 120
career completion, 37–38. See also retirement
career transitions, 437
adaptation to transitions model for, 514
assistance for, 519–21
athletic identity and, 517
conceptual frameworks for, 514–15
counseling strategies for, 519
early developmental factors and, 517–18
enhancement strategies for, 519
environmental factors for, 514–15
ethical considerations for, 521
exploratory behavior engagement and, 517
healthy, 515–18
individual reactions to, 518–19
LDI model for, 515, 519
Olympic self-image and, 518
organizational support for, 518
planning for, 517
psychological foreclosure and, 520
psychological reactions to, 518–19
resources for, 517–18
self-awareness and, 519–20
situational foreclosure and, 520
social support for, 517–18
sport-specific factors for, 515
in stage models of grief and loss, 514
support strategies for, 519
theoretical frameworks for, 514–15
whole person approach to, 515, 520–21
caring climates, 456
Caring Climate Scale, 352
Carlile, Forbes, 10
Carlile, Ursula, 10
Carroll, Pete, 14
Casals, Pablo, 38
catastrophe model, 176
catastrophic injury, 602–3
catastrophizing, (p. 758) 619
Cattell, James, 6
causality orientations theory (COT), 237
in sports settings, 246n1
certification programs, AASP, 17
challenge states, 160, 161f
Challenging Athletes Minds for Personal Success (CHAMPS), 18
championships, 494
change blindness, 143
childhood development
body image during, 636
perfectionism during, 301–3
children. See also youth development; youth sport
imagery by, 222
physical activity for, 661–62, 668–69
self-talk with, 205
sports expertise for, 436–37
choking
competitive sports anxiety and, 174–75
definition of, 174
distraction theories for, 175
emotional role in, 154
self-focus theories for, 174–75
in theory of reinvestment, 138
chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS), 566
chronic pain, 627
Clarke, Darren, 40
classification systems
categorical models of, 528–29
dimensional models of, 528–29
in DSM-IV, 529
MCS-SP, 529–34
Client-Centered Therapy (Rogers), 406
clinical psychologists, 27
closed-door racism, 424
clutch performances, 175–77
definition of, 175
Coach-Athlete Relationship-Questionnaire (CART-Q), 403
coach-athlete relationships
CART-Q, 403
closeness in, 403
co-orientation in, 403
coaches. See also performance coaches
attitudes of, 348–49
burnout in, 570–71
CBQ, 196
coach-athlete relationships, 403–4
EDs and, 643–44
education for, 353–56
efficacy beliefs of, 282, 349
female, 349–51, 387
injury and, 608
leadership behaviors for, 316
meditational model of leadership for, 329
moral behavior among, 372–74
moral behavior of, through ratings, 367–68
opinions of, 348–49
performance, 685
personal philosophies of, 355–56
self-talk by, 204
sports psychologists and, 681–83
thoughts of, 348–49
youth development influenced by, 454–56
coaching.
active listening in, 27
autocratic behaviors, 316
burnout from, 570–71
capabilities necessary for, 358
cognitive-meditational coaching leadership model, 345–46
contemporary journals on, 343–44
as context-specific, 347, 355
definitions of, 344
democratic behaviors, 316
development of, as science, 344–45
early literature on, 343
education for, 353–56
effective behaviors for, 347–48
for elite athletes, 348
empathy in, 27
executive, 39
expertise in, 354
future directions in, 358–60
GROW model, 356
through hard leadership, 336
knowledge in, 358
for life skills, 351–53
negative experiences during, 352
performance psychology and, 27–28
personal experiences with, 353–54
personal philosophy as influence on, 355–56
personal qualities for, 358
positive feedback in, 316
psychology of, 344, 357–58
quantitative methods for, 345
as reflection in action, 355
as reflection on action, 355
reframing in, 27
research on, 347, 357–58
as retrospective reflection on action, 355
SDT and, 346
self-reflection in, 356
self-talk in, 204
social support in, 316
through soft leadership, 336
for special populations, 349–51
techniques in, 27
theories for, 345–47
training and instruction in, 316
women, 349–51
Coaching Behavior Assessment System (CBAS), 330
Coaching Behavior Questionnaire (CBQ), 196, 331–32
Coaching Feedback Questionnaire (CFQ), 330–31, 331f
Coakley, Jay, 353
cocktail party phenomenon, 119
cognitive-affective model, 571–72
cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), 26
performance psychology and, 35
in sport psychology, 28
cognitive evaluation theory (CET), 234–35
autonomy in, 234
competence in, 234, 244–45
cognitive function
anxiety and, 177
emotions and, 159
negative emotions and, 159
Cognitive Interference Test, 194
cognitive-meditational coaching leadership model, 345–46
cognitive-motivational-relational theory (CMRT), 155–57
central tenets of, 157
core relational themes in, 156t
primary appraisal in, 156
secondary appraisal in, 156
cognitive self-modeling, 275
cohesion. See group cohesion
Coleman, Michelle, 18
collaboration, with teammates, 73
collaborative learning. See dyads, learning in
collective self-efficacy, 284–86
contexts for, 285
group cohesion and, 288
limitations of, 286
predictive effects of, 285
transferable nature of, 285
Collins, Jim, 745
communication
cultural, 427
of performance strategies, 427–28
compensation explanation, 496–98
competence
as basic psychological need, 237
in CET, 234, 244–45
ethical codes and, 51–53
moral behavior through, 372–73
pressure and, 35–36
in SDT, 244–45
competition
adaptive approaches model, (p. 759) 160
biopsychosocial model of challenge and threat, 160
in business, 32
ego orientation and, 32
goal orientation and, 32
in high-risk domains, 32
performance psychology and, 31–33
siblings as, 484–85
tanking against, 32
task orientation and, 32
competitive self-efficacy, 278
competitive sports anxiety, 174–77
catastrophe model for, 176
choking and, 174–75
during clutch performances, 175–77
directional perspectives on, 175
ego and, 174
perceived control in, 176
PET for, 176
primary appraisals in, 176
QE and, 182–83
secondary appraisals in, 176
self-focus theories and, 174–75
three-dimensional conceptualization of, 176
transactional perspective on, 176
worry as part of, 176
complex families, 83
Comprehensive Soldier Fitness (CSF), 33
concentration
ACT and, 125
attention and, 118–19
automatic monitoring systems for, 123
on controllable factors, 125
definition of, 118
as deliberate, 123–24
distraction and, 145n17
focus as part of, 125
future research on, 128
hyperaccessibility and, 123
loss of, by performers, 122–23
mental practice in, 127
mindfulness training for, 125
one thought principle in, 124
outward focus in, 125
performance goal specification with, 125–26
pre-performance routines for, 126–27
principles of, 123–25, 124f
self-talk and, 124, 202
simulation training for, 127–28
techniques for, 125–28
trigger words for, 127
visualization in, 127
concussion, 600–602
confidence-based imagery, 226
confidentiality
disclosure standards, 54–55
ethical codes for, 53–55
for sports psychologists, 678
conflict management
by performance coaches, 697f
by sport psychologists, 685–86
congruence hypothesis, 332–33
conscientiousness, 96
emotional regulation and, 165
conscious awareness, learning and, 135–39
consciousness
absorption and, 139
academic evolution of, 131
analytic processes, 133
attention and, 136
control and, limitations of, 136–37
early views on, 132
as evolutionary adaptation, 140
flow and, 139, 145n19
for Freud, 132
fringe of, 132
global workplace theory and, 133
hypothesis testing for, 136
implicit learning and, 140–41
instance theory and, 137
intuitive processes and, 133
for James, 131–32
marginal perceptions of, 142–43
mind-body problem and, 132
optimum performance and, 139–40
phenomenal, 144n3
processing information and, 132–33
states of, 133–35
stream of, 132
suppression of, 139
theory of reinvestment and, 137–39, 145n14
thought suppression and, 135
unconscious awareness compared to, 134–35
working memory and, 132–33
conscious processing hypothesis, 137
constrained action hypothesis, 145n15
consultation
client attitudes toward, 40–41
in performance psychology, 27–28, 38–41
for performing artists, 39
in sport psychology, 38–41
contextual intelligence, 30, 64
knowing your environment and, 72
continuous tracking, 140
control
perceived, 176
regulatory attentional, 177–78
controlled orientation, 237
controlling behaviors, in youth development, 455
control process theory, 201–2
cooperation, in teamwork
in business, 313
in military, 313–14
in sports, 312–13
coping models, 254–55
coping self-efficacy, 278
coping strategies
action-focused, 185
for anxiety, 98–99
automaticity as, 98, 144n7
emotional regulation compared to, 161–62
emotion-focused, 162
for injury, 92
modeling in, 254–55
overlearning as, 98
problem-focused, 162
self-efficacy as, 257
in theory of reinvestment, 137
corticotrophin-releasing factor (CRF), 178
Coubertin, Pierre de, 5
counseling
client variables in, 540–41
counselor variables in, 540
cultural variables in, 541–42
evidence-based approach to, 535–39
intervention targets in, 536–37
MAC approach to, 537
for Pdy, 537–38
for performers in distress, 535–39
for PI, 538
psychologists, 27
for PT, 538–39
for PTSD, 537
setting variables for, 539–40
counterfactual thinking, 167
countertransference, 413n2
creative intelligence, 64
creativity
ego strength and, 101
mental illness and, 101
performing art psychology and, 101
types of, 101
crew resource management (CRM), 322
Csikszentmihalyi, M., 629
Cullen, Florence Patricia, 14
cultural communication, (p. 760) 427–28
in counseling, 541–42
cultural intelligence, 65
culture
acculturation and, 421–23
for Arab Americans, 421
counseling influenced by, 541–42
definition of, 419
emotional regulation influenced by, 165
enculturation and, 421–23
generational status and, 422
immigration as influence on, 422
institutional, 88–89
performance psychology influenced by, 31
in U.S., 420
worldview influenced by, 423
culture, performance and
AASP guidelines for, 431
challenges to, 423–24
communication strategies, 427–28
crossing over and, 423–24
as exchange, 428–29
gender as influence on, 425–26
historical issues with, 421
integrated approaches to, 427–31, 430f
leadership cultivation with, 429–30
for Muslim cultures, 425
race logic and, 424
racism and, 424–25
self-awareness of, 420–23
selling out and, 423–24, 429
sensitive stereotyping of, 419
SES and, 419, 423, 426–27
social isolation and, 419
targeted mentoring and, 429
tokenism and, 423–24, 429
within-group variability of, 419
xenophobia and, 424–25
Cumbee, Frances, 14
D
Daly, John, 62, 78
dancers
AGT and, 85
basic needs support for, 88
BMI and, 91
culture of tolerance among, for pain, 92
disordered eating among, 91
EDs among, 639
homonegativism towards, 392
imagery for, in performing arts psychology, 93–95, 225
injury and, 92–93
pain management among, 620
pain management for, 92–93
passion in, 85
peer relationships among, 407
SDT and, 85–86
Davis, Shani, 424
Day, Phyllis, 14
debilitative and facilitative competitive state anxiety model, 160
Deci, Edward, 234
decision-making models. See also professional judgment and decision-making
ethics in, 49–51
for multiple relationships, 56
Decision Specific Reinvestment Scale, 145n16
DeFrantz, Anita, 387
deliberate play
expertise from, 477
investment years of, 339
sampling years for, 339
specializing years of, 339
sport and, 336
transition to deliberate practice, 338–39
in youth sport, 439
deliberate practice
deliberate play transition to, 338–39
expertise and, 437–38, 477
for older athletes, 501
within performing arts, 82–85
in talent development, 437–38, 477–78
in youth sport, 439
De Lima, Vanderlei, 122
democratic coaching behaviors, 316
depression
burnout and, 566
motivation and, 159
Depression Anxiety and Stress Scale, 623
Descartes, Rene, 131
Deutsch, Morton, 312
developmental lifespan model, for talent development, 479
developmental model of sport participation (DMSP), 435–36, 438–39
postulates for, 438t
recreational outcomes in, 444
stages of, 442–44
talent development and, 479
Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV), 529
dihydrotesterone (DHT), 545
dinitrophenol (DNP), 552
disengagement, 576
disordered eating. See also body image; body mass index
cultural influences on, 91
among dancers, 91
future research on, 91–92
prevalence rates for, 90–91
Disposable Heroes, 627
dissociation, in pain management, 625
distraction, 145n17
theories, 175
distress, 528–29
counseling for performers with, 535–39
DNP. See dinitrophenol
Dorfman, Harvey, 40
dorsal lateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), 178
Drogba, Didier, 603
dropouts, from sport, 443
Duda, Joan, 15
dyadic friendships, 401
dyads, learning in, 256–57
IOR and, 256
E
early specialization, in sports, 440
for elite athletes, 443
eating disorder not otherwise specified (EDNOS), 637–38
eating disorders (EDs)
AN, 625, 637
BN, 625, 637
body dissatisfaction and, 647–48
coaches as influence on, 643–44
by competitive level of sport, 643
among dancers, 639
dietary restraints and, 648
EDNOS, 637–38
education about, 651
among elite athletes, 638–39
female athlete triad and, 639
future research applications for, 649–50
identification of, 653–54
integrated training environment and, as intervention, 652
internalization of body ideal and, 647
interventions for, 650–54
for male athletes, 643–44
modeled behaviors as influence on, 648–49
moderators of, 649
negative affect and, 648
parents as influence on, 643–44
peer influences on, 643–44
performance environment and, 640–44
Petrie and Greenleaf model for, 645–46
prevention programming for, 652–53
risk factors for, 635
societal pressures and, for body image, 646
sociocultural approach to, 635, 644–50
sport environment and, 640–44
sport-specific pressures and, 646–47
sport type and, 642–43
subclinical, 638
treatment strategies for, 653–54
ecological theory, 483
education
for coaching, 353–56
modeling applications for, 261
perfectionism in, 296–97
physical activity interventions, 668–69
self-talk in, 206
for sport psychologists, 689
egalitarian sports, 336–38
elite compared to, 338
ego orientation
competition and, 32
competitive sports anxiety and, 174
for moral behavior, 368–69
perfectionism and, 31
(p. 761) electroencephalography (EEG), 144n8
elite athletes. See also older athletes
coaching for, 348
early specialization for, 443
EDs among, 638–39
expertise for, 443
personality for, 96
self-confidence for, 100
self-esteem for, 100
elite sports, 336–38
egalitarian compared to, 338
Els, Ernie, 277
Emmons, Matthew, 118
emotions. See also emotional regulation
affect compared to, 155
anger, 33–34
attentional control theory and, 159
attention influenced by, 159
in biopsychosocial model of challenge and threat, 160
cardiovascular responses to, 160
choking and, 154
CMRT and, 155–57, 156t
cognitive functioning and, 159
core relational themes for, 156t
debilitative and facilitative competitive state anxiety model, 160
definitions of, 155–56
emotional expression compared to, 103
in groups, 157–58
during high performance, 75
IZOF and, 158
mental health models for, 158
mirror neurons and, 157–58
mood compared to, 155
motivation and, 159
perceptions of, 160
performance and, 33–34, 158–60
in PETTLEP model, 221
positive, 159, 161, 461
regulation of, 33
in resonance performance model, 34
self-efficacy from, 276
social purpose of, 168
in sports environments, 154
TCTSA and, 160
threat states and, 160
youth development influenced by, 461–62
emotional contagion, 157
emotional expression, 102–3
for actors, 103
emotional fitness, 33
emotional intelligence (EI), 33–34, 65
shaping one's environment and, 73
SPI and, 78
Emotional Intelligence (Goleman), 33
emotional regulation
attention deployment in, 163
in bioinformational theory, 164
cognitive change and, 163–65
conscientiousness and, 165
coping strategies compared to, 161–62
costs of, 166–67
counterfactual thinking and, 167
cultural differences in, 165
ethnicity as influence on, 165
future research applications for, 168
goal setting with, 163
imagery and, 164
models for, 162–63
modifications in, 163
physiological effects of, 166
process model for, 162f
reappraisal in, 164–65
relaxation techniques for, 164
response modulation in, 165, 168
self-control and, 166–67
self-esteem and, 165
self-talk and, 163–64
in sports, 154
working memory and, 165
emotion-focused coping, 162
empathy, in coaching, 27
emulation, 252
enculturation, 421–23
engagement, burnout and, 562–64
entertainment sports, 336–37
environmental knowledge, 73–74
Espenschade, Anna, 9, 14
Essais de psychologie sportive (Coubertin), 5
estimations of the other person's self-efficacy (EOSE), 288
ethics, codes of
acculturation model for, 49
in APA, 46–48
boundary issues and, 55–59
competency standards in, 51–53
for confidentiality, 53–55
decision-making models, 49–51
definitions of, 48
for informed consent, 53–55
main features of, 59–60
multiple relationships and, 55–59
in performance psychology, 39
privacy issues in, 55
PST and, 47
for psychological services delivery, 55
for psychologists, 48
risk management in, 49
in sport psychology, 39
for steroid use, 555–56
in training, 51–53
values and, 49
ethnicity
acculturation and, 421–23
for Arab Americans, 421
definition of, 419
emotional regulation influenced by, 165
enculturation and, 421–23
generational status and, 422
immigration as influence on, 422
performance psychology influenced by, 31
in U.S., 420
worldview influenced by, 423
ethnicity, performance and
AASP guidelines for, 431
challenges to, 423–24
communication strategies, 427–28
crossing over and, 423–24
as cultural exchange, 428–29
definition of, 419
gender as influence on, 425–26
historical issues with, 421
integrated approaches to, 427–31, 430f
leadership cultivation with, 429–30
for Muslim cultures, 425
race logic and, 424
racism and, 424–25
self-awareness of, 420–23
selling out and, 423–24, 429
sensitive stereotyping of, 419
SES and, 419, 423, 426–27
social isolation and, 419
targeted mentoring and, 429
tokenism and, 423–24, 429
within-group variability of, 419
xenophobia and, 424–25
ethnic sports, 428
European Federation of Sport Psychology, 12, 15
excellence, as focus, in performance psychology, 30–31
executive coaching, 39
exercise dependence, 640
exosystems, 485
expectations
anxiety from, 98
mental skills with, 31
of self, in performance psychology, 31
expertise, in sports. See also talent development
for adolescents, 436–37
career transitions and, 437
for children, 436–37
in coaching, 354
from deliberate play, 477
deliberate practice and, 437–38, 477
developmental models for, 437–39
DMSP and, 435–36, 438–39, 438f
early specialization and, 440
for elite athletes, 443
performance coaches and, 702–3
performance psychology and, 37
personal development and, 443–44
psychomotor, 498
sampling approach to, (p. 762) 440–41
expert modeling, 254
explicit monitoring hypothesis, 175
extended focus, 34
extraversion, 96
extrinsic motivation, 235–36
external regulation in, 236
introjected regulation in, 236
moral behavior and, 369
F
fair play, 378
attitudes for, 373
Fair Play for Kids program, 459
family, as influence. See also parents, as influence; siblings
on asset development, 489
bioecological perspective on, 485–86
blended, 489–90
complex, 83
differentiation for, 83
integration for, 83
motivation from, 88–89
in performance psychology, 37
on physical activity, 669
as social support, 488–89
stage parents, 83
on talent development, 83–84, 485–87
fatal injury, 602–3
fat burning drugs, 552–53
female use of, 552
fatigue
CFS, 566
psychological, 565
Faul, Bill, 10
Favre, Brett, 63, 493
Fazio, Rob, 18
fear of failure, 370
Fear of Pain Questionnaire III, 623
Federer, Roger, 63
feedback
in coaching, 316
SDT and, 241
from self-talk, 199
in youth development, 455
feedforward, 255
Feltz, Deborah, 15–16
female athlete triad, 639
female coaches, 349–51, 387. See also women
communication styles of, 350
lesbian stereotypes of, 391–92
females. See women
feminism, 385–86
herstory as term, 386–87, 397n1
praxis in, 386
sport psychology under, 394–97
feminist sport psychology, 394–97
applied sport psychology and, 396
career experiences in, 395–97
Ferrante, Alfred, 16
Ferrer-Hombravella, Jose, 12
figure-skating, self-modeling for, 255
filter theory, for attention, 119–20
cocktail party phenomenon and, 119
first-person perspective (1PP), 215–16
The First Tee program, 450, 452–53, 459
Fitt's Law, 218
Fitz, G. W., 4
flow state, 14
flow theory
consciousness and, 139, 145n19
high performance delivery and, 77
optimal performance and, 711–12
in performing arts, 89
PFC involvement and, 145n21
in sport psychology, 28
focus
in concentration, 125
extended, 34
self-focus theories, 174–75
French Society of Sports Psychology, 12
Freud, Sigmund, 132, 400
transference for, 411
Freudenberger, Herbert, 563
friendships
components of, 401
dyadic, 401
nonreciprocal, 402
reciprocal, 402
in youth development, 452–53
Fritz, Harry, 12
Frost, Reuben, 12
Frost Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale (FMPS), 295–96
Fullerton, Hugh, 8
functional commitment, 504
Functions of Observational Learning Questionnaire (FOLQ), 259–60
Functions of Self-Talk Questionnaire (FSTQ), 193, 202
G
Gallwey, Timothy, 30
game reasoning, 458–59
games, 494
gamesmanship, 138
games with rules, 439
gate control theory, 621
Gates, Bill, 64, 328
Gay Games, 392–93
gender. See also males; women; women's sport
aggression by, 376
definition of, 384
ethnicity and, performance influenced by, 425–26
ideology, 384–85
master athletes and, 503
modeling by, 260
moral behavior and, 376
perfectionism by, 302
physical activity by, social roles for, 388
self-esteem by, 100
socialization, 385
sports and, 387–94
gender identity, 384
gender similarities hypothesis, 302
gender socialization, 385
generational status, 422
Germany
Olympic Games in, 603
sport psychology in, 7–8
Geron, Emma, 12, 14–15
Gibson, James, 585
Gibson, Kirk, 708–9
Giesecke, Minnie, 14
Giges, Burt, 9
Gill, Diane, 15, 394–95
girls
gender equity in sports and, 388
participation in team sports by, 386
under Title IX legislation, 349, 386–88
as tomboys, 388
Girls on the Run program, 450, 464
global self-esteem, 460
global workplace theory, 133
goal contents theory (GCT), 237, 242–43
goal-corrected partnerships, 410
goal orientation
competition and, 32
intrinsic, 87
goal setting
with emotional regulation, 163
intrinsic, 87
self-talk and, 199
in shaping one's environment, 72
in sport psychology, 28
in team building strategies, 320
Goleman, Daniel, 33
golf
age-related decline in skills, 497–98
QE training for, 183–85
Gomez, Scott, 423
Good to Great (Collins), 745
Gould, Dan, 13, 744–45
Gower, David, 136, 138
Graf, Steffi, 62
Graves, B.C., 8
Green, Barry, 30
Gregory, Sean, 601
Grenville, Kate, 136
Gretzky, Wayne, 62, 78
grief and loss. See stage model of grief and loss
Griffith, Coleman, 7–9, 11, 25–26
group cohesion
in business, 318–19
collective self-efficacy and, 288
in military, 319
in sports, 318
teamwork and, (p. 763) 318–19
GROW model, for coaching, 356
Gulick, Luther, 4
gymnastics
modeling for, 260
self-modeling for, 255
H
habituation, 585
Hall, G. Stanley, 6
Hall, Ruth, 395
Handbook of Applied Psychology, 11
hanging out, 52
Hanna, Thomas, 584
Hantuchova, Daniela, 127
hard leadership, 336
Harlow, Harry, 400
harmonious passion, 86, 370–71, 504
Harris, Dorothy, 13–15
Hayes, Martin, 121
Hays, Kate, 46
head injury, 600–602
healthy perfectionism, 295
healthy weight management (HWM), 652
hegemonic femininity, 389
hegemonic masculinity, 392
Henderson, Robert, 8
Henry, Franklin, 9
hero worship, 57
herstory, as feminist term, 386–87, 397n1
Heyman, Steve, 16
high performance, delivery of
adjustments within, 76–77
control of environment during, 76
emotional states during, 75
evaluations of, 77–78
flow and, 77
improvement assessment after, 77–78
measurement criteria for, 77–78
mental toughness and, 76
opportunity assessment with, 76
planning in, 74–77
preparation in, 74–77
under pressure, 76
purposefulness in, 74–75
success definitions for, 74
trusting oneself with, 76
what-if scenarios and, 75
Hillary, Edmund, 273
hockey
self-modeling in, 256
team building strategies in, 319–20
Holmes, Joseph, 8
Holyfield, Evander, 364
homonegativism, in sport, 390–94
inclusive environments and, 392–93
lesbian stereotypes, 387, 390
against LGBT populations, 390
in male sports contexts, 392
social identity theory and, 392–93
in women's sport, 390–92
homophobia, 390
hooks, bell, 385
hostile aggression, 365
Hubbard, Alfred W., 11, 14
human factor psychology, 11
human growth hormone (hGH), 546–47
humility, 74
hydrocodone, 626
hyperaccessibility, 123
hyperalgesia, 619
hypnosis, in sport psychology, 9–10
hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, 178
I
ideal body
for males, 636
for women, 389, 636
identified regulation, 236
identity
athletic, 517
gender, 384
sexual, 384
identity foreclosure, 539
athletic identity and, 517
illness, from performing, 37–38
imagery
ability, 222–24, 227–28
by adults, 222
alternative outcomes of, 224–25
antecedents, 227
applied model of, 225–26, 225–26f
auditory, 218
bioinformational theory and, 227
through brain imaging techniques, 216
brain reorganization and, 219
by children, 222
confidence-based, 226
controllability of, 222
for dancers, 93–95, 225
definitions of, 214–17
emotional regulation and, 164
Fitt's Law and, 218
functional equivalence and, 217–18
function of, 213
improvement methods for, 229
internal visual, 215–16
interventions, 219–28
key characteristics of, 214–17, 214t
kinesthetic modality of, 216
mental, 275
meta-imagery, 223
metaphorical, 95
motor, 217
motor learning and, 213
for musicians, 93–95
observational learning and, 95
olfactory, 218
in performing arts psychology, 93–95
personal meaning in, 226–27
perspective of, 215–216
PETTLEP model of, 94, 220–22, 220t
physical evidence of, 228–29
physical performance influenced by, 218–19
plasticity and, 218
as pre-performance preparation, 94
self-report measures for, 229
with self-talk, 199
SIQ, 94
skill-based, 226
teacher's influence on, 94–95
as top-down knowledge-driven process, 215
triggers for, 217
triple-code model of, 226–27
visual, 218
vividness of, 222
imaginal experiences, 276
immersive virtual environment technology, 265–66
immigration, 422
impersonal orientation, 237
implicit learning
consciousness and, 140–41
continuous tracking and, 140
motor learning in, 141–42
Imus, Don, 424
independence fostering, 483
individual zones of optimal functioning (IZOF), 158, 714–715
industrial-organizational psychology, 27, 29
information acquisition, for SPI, 68–69
informed consent
disclosure standards, 54–55
ethical codes for, 53–55
multiple relationships and, 56
Ingram, Anne, 14
inherent self-talk, 204, 207
inhibition, in ACT, 179–80
inhibition of return (IOR), 256
injury
affective cycle of rehabilitation model, 595
biopsychosocial model of, 595
burnout and, from performance, 37
catastrophic, 602–3
chronic pain and, 627
coaches’ response to, 608
concussion, 600–602
coping strategies for, 92
in culture of risk, 604–5
fatal, 602–3
future research applications for, 605–7
to head, 600–602
integrated model of psychological response to sport injury and rehabilitation, 595–96
interventions for, 607–9
management, 609
mind-body link with, (p. 764) 606
multidisciplinary service delivery for, 609–10
musculoskeletal, 596–600
normalization of, 604
performance psychology and, 603–4
in performing arts, 37–38, 92–93
physicians’ treatment of, 608
psychologists and, 608–9
psychophysiological model of injury risk, 594
research literature for, 593–94
retirement as result of, 516–17
in return to sport model, 596
service delivery for, 609
sport ethic and, 604
in sport psychology, 25
with sports medicine therapists, 608
in stage model of grief and loss, 594–95
stress-injury model, 594
innate talent theory, 478
inspiration, in performing arts psychology, 101–2
instance theory, 137
institutional cultures, motivation through, 88–89
instrumental aggression, 365
instrumental competencies, 528
integrated model of psychological response to sport injury and rehabilitation, 595–96
integrated regulation, 236
intelligence. See also superior performance intelligence
analytical, 64
bodily kinesthetic, 64
contextual, 30, 64, 72
creative, 64
cultural, 65
EI, 33–34, 65, 73, 78
interpersonal, 64
intrapersonal, 64
linguistic, 64
logical, 64
multiple, 64–65
musical, 64
naturalistic, 64
organizational, 65
personal, 65
physical, 65
social, 65
spatial, 64
in sport psychology, as measure, 8
triarchic model, 64
types of, 64–67
internal visual imagery, 215–16
International Bureau of Sport Pedagogy, 8
International Coaching Federation, 39
International Congress of the Psychology and Physiology of Sport, 5
International Olympic Committee (IOC), 546, 556
International Society for Mental Training and Excellence, 16
International Society of Sport Psychology (ISSP), 12, 15
interpersonal intelligence, 64
interpersonal leadership, 455–56
interventions
in anxiety management, 98–99
for APED use, 554–55
for EDs, 650–54
efficacy-based, 286–87
imagery, 219–28
for injury, 607–9
for moral behavior, 377–78
for physical activity, 667–72
for self-talk, 197–200, 208
in team building strategies, 322, 322f
in youth development, 460–61
intrapersonal intelligence, 64
intra-team rivalry, 338
intrinsic goals, 87
intrinsic motivation, 234
moral behavior and, 369
introjected regulation, 236
introversion, 96
investment years, 339
Isner, John, 128
Israeli Society for Sport Psychology and Sociology, 15
It's Not about the Bike (Armstrong), 627
J
Jacobson, Edmund, 9
Jaeger, Andrea, 62, 78
James, LeBron, 424
James, William, 4, 6, 131–32, 135, 180, 184
Japan, sport psychology in, 7–8, 10
Jastrow, Joseph, 6
Jennings, Gabriel, 707
Jennings, Jason, 256
Jia Zhambo, 118
job demand-resources (JDR) model, 576–77
job-person congruity, 575
job person fit, 575
job stress, burnout from, 566
Johanson, Albert, 8
Johnson, Earvin “Magic,” 63
Johnson, Michael, 63, 78
Jones, Graham, 28–29
Jordan, Michael, 62, 309
Jordan, Payton, 10
Judd, Charles, 6
K
Kasper, Gran Franco, 387
kinesiology
for performance psychology, early training in, 47
for sport psychology, early training in, 47
kinesthesia, 216
Kinsey, Alfred, 400
Klein, Melanie, 400
knowing your environment
contextual intelligence and, 72
controllable elements, 71–72
uncontrollable elements, 72
knowing yourself, 67–68
koczi (coaching), 344
Korobkhov, Gabriel, 10
Krane, Vikki, 393, 395
Kubler-Ross, Elizabeth, 594
L
Laird, Donald, 8
Landers, Daniel, 15
Laver, Rod, 131
Lawther, John, 8, 12
Layman, Emma McCloy, 14
leadership
in business, 317
for coaches, 316
interpersonal, 455–56
LSS, 316, 333
in military, 317–18
multidimensional model for, (p. 765) 316–17, 316f
person-focused, 317
task-focused, 317
teamwork and, 316–18
transformational, 332
in youth development, 452–53
leadership, in sports, 316–17
AGT and, 329
autonomy-supportive, 329, 334–35, 338
behaviors in pursuit of excellence, 340f, 340t
CFQ for, 330–31, 331f
congruence hypothesis for, 332–33
definition of, 328
dimensions of, 333t
in ego-involving climates, 334
future directions for, 340–41
hard, 336
LSS, 316, 333
meditational model of, 329–32, 329f
models of motivation and, 335f
multidimensional model of, 332, 332f, 345–46
soft, 336
in task-involving climates, 334
types of, 335–39
Leadership Behavior Description Questionnaire, 328
Leadership Scale for Sports (LSS), 316
revisions to, 333
situational consideration behaviors in, 333
learning
conscious awareness and, 135–39
in dyads, 256–57
implicit, 140–41
motor, 141–42
observational, imagery and, 95
self-efficacy and, 278
for sport performance, 143–44
learning models, 254
learning self-efficacy, 278
lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) populations
coming out process for, 393
homonegativism against, 390
under NCAA policy, 393
sport psychology for, 393–94
lesbian, women's sport and, 387
lesbian stereotypes, women's sport and
as coaches, 391–92
homonegativism and, 387, 390
team climate and, 390
Levitt, Eugene, 16
Lewis, Carl, 63
liberal feminism, 385
life development intervention (LDI) model, 515, 519
life skills
CHAMPS and, 18
coaching for, 351–53
self-talk as part of, 206
linguistic intelligence, 64
listening. See active listening
Loeher, Jim, 13
logical intelligence, 64
Lombardi, Vince, 328
Lorenz, Konrad, 585
Lortie, Louis, 122
Loughran, Roger, 125
M
Mahut, Nicolas, 128
maladaptive perfectionism, 31
males
aggression among, 376
EDs among, 643–44
ethnicity and, performance influenced by, 425–26
hegemonic masculinity, 392
ideal body for, 636
internalization of body ideal for, 647
MD in, 640
modeling for, 260
moral behavior for, 376
perfectionism among, 302
self-esteem for, in performance psychology, 100
Maltz, Maxwell, 12
managerial grid approach, 320
marginal perceptions of consciousness
change blindness and, 143
for outcome feedback, 142–43
sport applications for, 143
subjective thresholds in, 142–43
Martin, Jeffrey, 18
Marxist feminism, 385
masculinity, hegemonic, 392
Maslow, Abraham, 12. See also self-actualization, theory of
master athletes, 494
achievement goals of, 502
gender as influence on, 503
relative age for, 503
self-determination of, 502–3
master's sport
functional commitment in, 504, 505t
obligatory commitment in, 504–6, 505t
social influences on, 507–8
social networks and, 507
mastery experiences, 275–76
mastery models, 254–55
Matsui, Mitsuo, 7–8
Matuszak, John, 626
May, Jerry, 13, 15, 40
McCallaugh, Penny, 15
McCann, Sean, 743–46, 750–52
McCloy, C. H., 11
McGill Pain Questionnaire (MPQ), 623
McGinley, Paul, 122
mediating variable framework model, 664–65, 664f
mediation, perfectionism and, 298
medicine. See also sports medicine
modeling applications with, 262
meditational model of leadership, 329–32, 329f
assessment for, 330
CFQ in, 330–31, 331t
coach behaviors in, 329
players’ perceptions in, 330
Meichenbaum, Donald, 528
memorization, 102
PETTLEP model and, 102
memory. See also working memory
overshadowing and, 145n13
mental health model, 158
mental illness, creativity and, 101
mental imagery, 275. See also cognitive self-modeling
mental practice, 127
mental skills training (MST), 26
mental toughness, 30, 64
high performance delivery and, 76
optimal performance and, 713–14
pressure and, 36
Mental Toughness 48 (MT48), 716
mentoring. See targeted mentoring
meta-imagery, 223
meta-perception theory, 288
metaphorical imagery, in sports, 95
method acting, 34
Michels, Rinus, 328
microsystems, 485
Miles, Walter, 8–9
military, sport and performance psychology for
in basic training, 33
cooperation in, 313–14
early applications of, 8–9
emotional fitness in, 33
group cohesion in, 319
leadership in, 317–18
OTAS and, 313
role relationships in, 315
team building strategies in, 321–22
teams in, 310–11
teamwork in, 309, 311
Mills, C. Wright, 584
mind-body problem, consciousness and, 132
mindfulness
in concentration, training for, 125
in performance psychology, 26
SPI and, 75
supervision and, 727–32
mindfulness-acceptance-commitment (MAC) approach, 537
mind-to-muscle relaxation, 164
Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI), 623
modeling, performance and
aggression through, 264
anxiety influenced by, 258–59
by athletes, 259–60
conceptual approaches to, 251–53
coping, 254–55
dyad learning, 256–57
educational applications for, 261
emulation and, 252
expert, 254
gender differences in, 260
for gymnasts, 260
health behavior applications for, 263–64
immersive virtual environment technology for, (p. 766) 265–66
learning, 254
mastery, 254–55
medical applications for, 262
model-observer similarity, 257–58, 266
motivation influenced by, 258
for music, 262
observation technology for, 264–66
for performing arts, 262
in physical activity domains, 253–57
point-light display in, 252
psychological behaviors influenced by, 257–59
research for, 260–64
self-efficacy and, 251, 257–58
self-modeling, 255–56, 275
self-regulation and, 252, 259
in sports domains, 253–57
for teachers, 261
theoretical approaches to, 251–53
verbal instructions compared, 253–54
video-based, 262–63, 265
virtual, 265–66
web-based, 262–63
momentary intentions, 120
Montana, Joe, 63
mood, emotion compared to, 155
moral behavior
achievement goals and, 368–69
age as influence on, 377
antecedents for, 368–72
attitudes for, 365
through character-building, 372–73
among coaches, 372–74
through coach ratings, 367–68
through competency, 372–73
by competitive level, 365
context characteristics for, 376–77
effectiveness of, 372–73
ego orientation for, 368–69
extrinsic motivation and, 369
through fair play attitudes, 373, 378
fear of failure and, 370
by gender, 376
individual differences, 458–59
intentional acts as part of, 366
interventions for, 377–78
intrinsic motivation and, 369
mechanisms for, 380
moral atmosphere for, 374
motivational climates for, 373–74
motivation types for, 369–71
negative consequences and, 364
through observation, 368
parental influences on, 374–75
passion and, 370–71
physical activity-based interventions and, 459
of referees, 375–76
through relational support, 373
scenario approach for, 366–67
SDT and, 369–70
self-regulatory efficacy and, 371–72
through self-reports, 366–67
social antecedents of, 372–76
social approval for, 375
social contextual factors for, 457–58
as social goals, 369
in sports, 366–68
sportspersonship orientations, 365
task orientation for, 368–69
among teammates, 372–74, 379
moral disengagement, 371
moral functioning, 365
moral identity, 371
morality, 378–79
aggressive behavior and, 365
broad views of, 365
future research directions for, 379–81
mechanisms for, 380
in performing arts, 379
social contextual factors for, 457–58
in workplace, 378
youth development and, 456–59
moral judgment, 365
moral reasoning, 365
Morgan, William, 16
motivation. See also flow theory; self-determination theory
achievement, 28
AGT and, 85
basic needs support and, 88
in basic psychological needs theory, 242
burnout and, 577
depression and, 159
emotional climate for, 88
emotions and, 159
extrinsic, 235–36, 369
through institutional cultures, 88–89
intrinsic, 234, 369
meta-theory of, 234
modeling as influence on, 258
moral behavior and, 369–71, 373–74
in older athletes, across lifespan, 501–8
parental influences on, 88–89, 374–75
passion and, 85–86
in performing arts, 85–89
quality of, 234
SDT and, 85–86
from self-talk, 202
for sport performance, 241–42
types of, in SDT, 235f
in youth development, 462–63
Motivation Orientation in Sport questionnaire, 258
motor imagery, 217
motor learning, 141–42
imagery and, 213
Movement Imagery Questionnaire-Revised (MIQ-R), 216
Movement Specific Reinvestment Scale, 138–39, 145n16
multidimensional anxiety theory, 99
Multidimensional Inventory of Perfectionism in Sports (MIPS), 295–96
multidimensional model of sport leadership, 332, 332f, 345–46
Multidimensional Pain Inventory (MPI), 623
Multidimensional Perfectionism Cognitions Inventory (MPCI), 295–96
Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale (MPS), 295–96
Multilevel Classification System for Sport psychology (MCS-SP), 529–34
PD in, 530–31
PI in, 532–33, 538
multiple intelligences, 64–65
multiple relationships, ethics codes and, 55–59
conflicts of interest and, 59
decision-making models for, 56
informed consent and, 56
objectivity assessment in, 56
peer consultation for, 57
risk management and, 56–57
standards for, 58–59
Munich Olympics, 603
Murphy, Shane, 15–16
muscle dysmorphia (MD), 639–40
gender differences in, 640
muscle guarding, 623
muscle-to-mind relaxation, 164
musculoskeletal injury, 596–600
antecedents for, 596–97
rehabilitation phase for, 598–600
return to sport transition after, 600
music
modeling applications with, 262
as therapy, 99
musical intelligence, 64
musicians
AGT and, 85
imagery for, in performing arts psychology, 93–95
passion for, 85
perfectionism within, 90, 297–298
SDT and, 85–86
Muslim cultures, women's sports in, (p. 767) 425
N
Nadal, Rafael, 126
Naismith, James, 4
National Collegiate Athletics Association (NCAA), 52
LGBT policy, 393
national governing bodies (NGBs), 16
naturalistic intelligence, 64
Navratilova, Martina, 62, 78
negative acute pain, 619
negative emotions
cognitive functioning and, 159
threat states and, 161
youth development and, 461
negative self-talk, 192, 194–95
negative training pain, 619
negative training stress response model, 572
negative warning pain, 619
nested agendas, 703f
neuroticism, 96
The New Psychology (Scripture), 4
Nideffer, Robert, 13, 29, 34
Niiler, Herbert, 7
9/11, 603
nocebo response, 628
nonreciprocal friendships, 402
non-sexual boundary crossings (NSBCs), 57–58
purposeful, 57
nonsteroidal APEDs, 553
North American Society for the Psychology of Sport and Physical Activity (NASPSPA), 12
O
obligatory commitment, 504–6, 505t
Observational Assessment for Teamwork in Surgery (OTAS), 313
observational learning, 251–53
imagery and, 95
neurophysiological perspective for, 252–53
obsessive passion, 86, 370, 504
O'Gara, Ronan, 123–24
Ogilvie, Bruce, 9, 15
Oglesby, Carole, 15, 394
older adults, physical activity for, 663–64, 663t, 671
older athletes. See also master athletes
compensation explanation for, 496–98
deliberate practice for, 501
motivation for, across lifespan, 501–8
passion model for, 503–4
preserved differentiation account for, 499–500
psychomotor expertise for, 498
selective maintenance explanation for, 498–99
selective optimization with compensation principle for, 498
skills retention mechanisms for, 496–500
olfactory imagery, 218
Olsen, Morgan, 11
Olympic Games
IOC, 546
in Munich, Germany, 603
sport psychology in, 26
sports psychology and, 15–16
Olympic self-image, 518
On Death and Dying (Kubler-Ross), 594
one thought principle, in concentration, 124
openness to experience, 96
optimal performance. See also peak performance, as concept
characteristics of, 713
definition of, 708–12, 708f
flow and, 711–12
future research directions for, 720–22
ideal performance states and, 714–15
ideal state for, 716
IZOF and, 714–15
mental toughness and, 713–14
peak experience and, 708–9
psychological preparation for, 716–20, 717f
psychological profile for, 712–16
optimization, 498
selective, 517
optimum performance, consciousness and, 139–40
organismic integration theory, 235–36
extrinsic motivation in, 235–36
organizational intelligence, 65
organizational psychology, 206
organizational support, 518
Orlick, Terry, 17
other-efficacy, 283
Otto, Jim, 605, 627
Oudejans, Raul, 185
overexercise, 625
overidentification, with client, 57
overlearning, 98
over-recruitment, 585–86
overshadowing, 145n13
overtraining, burnout from, 566–67
overuse, from performance, 37
oxycodone, 626
P
Pace, Edward A., 6
pain
assessment of, 622–23
as barrier to rehabilitation, 624–25
biology of, 621–22
biopsychology of, 621–22
chronic, 627
gate control theory for, 621
muscle guarding and, 623
negative acute, 619
negative training, 619
negative warning, 619
through observation, 622–23
from overexercise, 625
from performance extremes, 627
positive training, 619
psychological factors for, 622
psychological interventions for, 623–26
psychological testing for, 623
scale measures for, 623
scientific principles of, 621–23
self-report measures for, 622
telephone line theory of, 621
tolerance of, 628–31
Pain and Negative Affect Scale, 623
Pain Anxiety Symptom Scale, 623
Pain Catastrophizing Scale, 623
pain management
association in, 625
catastrophizing in, 619
coping strategies for, 619–20
among dancers, 620
dissociation in, 625
for fatigue, 619
hyperalgesia and, 619
mental training for, 624
in pain sport matrix, 625–26
in performing arts, 92–93
psychological interventions for, 623–26
psychological perspectives on, 626–27
sport ethic and, 620
pain sport matrix, 625–26
pain tolerance, 628–31
through absorption in work, 629
through altered consciousness, 629–30
duration of, 630
goal focus of, 629
nocebo response, 628
placebo analgesia response, 628
in survival contexts, 630–31
Paralympic movement, 607
parents, as influence
on EDs, 643–44
on moral behavior, 374–75
on motivation, 88–89
stage parents, 83
on talent development, 480–83, 488–89
on youth development, 453–54
parental motivational climate, 374–75
parental relationships, in sport, 404–6
belief systems as influence on, 405
demographic factors for, 404
parent-child attachment in, 405–6
in performance contexts, (p. 768) 406
research on, 404–6
role modeling hypothesis in, 404
parent-child attachment, 405–6
parenting styles, 488–89
passion
for dancers, 85
harmonious, 86, 370–71, 504
moral behavior and, 370–71
motivation and, 85–86
for musicians, 85
obsessive, 86, 370, 504
in older athletes, 503–4
SDT and, 86
Paynter, Richard, 9
peak experience, 708–9
peak performance, as concept, 14, 710–11. See also optimum performance
flow state in, 14
mean age of, 494
training interventions for, 47
peer acceptance, 452–53
peer modeling. See also dyads, learning in
for youth development, 451–52
peer relationships, in sport, 401–3
dyadic friendships and, 401
EDs and, 643–44
in performance contexts, 402–3
research for, 401
youth development influenced by, 451–52
peer tutoring. See dyads, learning in
Pele, 62
perceived control, 176
perceptual control theory (PCT), 280
perfectionism. See also disordered eating
in academic performance, 296–97
adaptive, 31, 301
anxiety from, 90
applied psychology implications, 300–301
in aptitude tests, 297–98
Big Five trait dimensions, 95–96
burnout and, 301
during childhood development, 301–3
concerns for, 294–95
as domain-specific, 303
ego orientation and, 31
future research applications for, 301–3
gender differences with, 302
healthy, 295
in laboratory tasks, 297–98
maladaptive, 31
measurement methodology for, 295–96
mediation and, 298
multidimensional models of, 295f
in music competitions, 297–98
within musicians, 90
origins of, 90
parental influence on, 302
in performance psychology, 31, 296–300
within performing arts, 89–90
as personality disposition, 294
in sports, 298–300
strivings for, 294–95
unhealthy, 295
Performance Classification Questionnaire (PCQ), 536
performance coaches
in business context, 695f
client perspectives on, 697–98
conflict management by, 697f
evidence testing for, 698–99
expertise development by, 702–3
goals of, 694–95
knowledge base for, 693–96
knowledge transfer for, 696–97
nested agendas for, 703f
PJDM and, 701–2
professionalism of, 699–701
sport psychologist compared to, 685
performance development (PD), 530–31
performance dysfunction (Pdy), 531–32
counseling for, 537–38
performance impairment (PI), 532–33
counseling for, 538
performance perfection, 31. See also high performance, delivery of; optimum performance
performance psychology. See also coaching; ethics; high performance, delivery of; modeling, performance and; performing arts, performance psychology in; self-confidence, performance psychology and; self-esteem, performance psychology and
from 1890 to 1920, 4–6
from 1920–1940, 6–9
from 1940–1965, 9–12
from 1965–1980, 12–15
from 1980–1989, 15–17
from 1990 to present, 17–18
acceptance in, 26
applied sport psychology and, 25–26
attention and, 34, 121–23
audience as influence in, 35, 82, 103
CBT strategies and, 35
common features of, 24–25
competition and, 31–33
confidentiality in, 53–55
consultation in, 27–28, 38–41
credibility in, 41
cultural influences on, 31
definition of, 24–25
emotions and, 33–34, 158–60
ethics in, 39
ethnicity as influence on, 31
excellence as focus in, 30–31
expectations of self, 31
expertise development and, 37
extended focus in, 34
family as influence in, 37
generalists in, 39
high standards-setting in, 30–31
hypnosis in, 9–10
informed consent in, 53–55
injury and, 603–4
journals for, 18
kinesiology training in, 47
mental components of, 25
military applications for, 8–9
mindfulness in, 26
as new psychology, 4
peak performance concepts, 14
perfectionism in, 31, 296–300
positive psychology in, 26
pressure in, 35–36
privacy issues in, 55
process as focus in, 25
psychotherapy systems and, 25–27
roles in, 39–40
roots of, 25–28
self-efficacy and, 274–75
self-talk and, 196–200
somatic practices in, 590
specialists in, 39
sport psychology as influence on, 28–29
temporal dimensions of, 25, 34–35
training and, 38–39
performance termination (PT), 533–34
counseling for, 538–39
performing, as performance domain. See also dancers; musicians; talent; talent development
burnout from, 37
career completion and, 37–38
challenges to, 37–38
consequences of, 36–37
contextual intelligence for, 30
development of, 37–38
emotions in, 33–34, 158–60
illness from, 37–38
injury from, 37–38, 92–93
method acting in, 34
overuse in, 37
recovery from, 38
as research focus, 25
performing arts, performance psychology in, 104f. See also dancers; musicians; talent development
AGT and, 87–88
anxiety and, 97–99
audiences as influence on, 35, 82, 103
creativity and, 101
deliberate practice in, 82–85
disordered eating and, 90–92
emotional expression in, (p. 769) 102–3
expertise in, 82–85
flow and, 89
imagery in, 93–95
injury and, 37–38, 92–93
inspiration and, 101–2
memorization in, 102
modeling applications for, 262
morality in, 379
motivation in, 85–89
pain and, 92–93
perfectionism and, 89–90
personality and, 95–97
presence, 89
psychological skills for, 93–95
purpose of, 81–82
SDT and, 85–87
self-confidence in, 99–100
self-esteem in, 99–100
sports compared to, 81–82
talent in, 82–85
performing artists. See also talent; talent development
concentration loss for, 122–23
consultation for, 39
counseling for, 535–39
mental toughness for, 30
resilience for, 30
sport psychology for, 29–30
personality
for elite athletes, 96
measurement approaches to, 96–97
perfectionism and, 294
performing arts and, 95–97
in sport psychology, as measure, 8
personal vision, 68–69
in shaping one's environment, 72
person-focused leadership, 317
Peterson, Kirsten, 741–42, 745–47, 749–51
Petrie and Greenleaf model, for EDs, 645–46
Phelps, Michael, 62, 127
phenomenal consciousness, 144n3
Phillipe, Jean, 5
Physical, Environment, Task, Timing, Learning, Emotion, and Perspective (PETTLEP) model
emotions in, 221
for imagery, 94, 220–22, 220t
memorization and, 102
Physical Activities Guidelines for Americans, 464, 466
physical activity
for adolescents, 661–62
for adults, 662–63, 669–71
behavioral choice theory for, 667
behavioral theories for, 665–67
for children, 661–62, 668–69
community interventions for, 669
correlates of, 661–64
family interventions for, 669
gender roles for, 388
health benefits of, 464
intervention guidelines, 667–72
mediating variable framework model for, 664–65, 664f
modeling domains for, 253–57
moral behavior and, 459
for older adults, 663–64, 663t, 671
psychological theories for, 665–67
school-based interventions for, 668–69
sedentary behavior change, 672
social cognitive theory for, 665
theory of planned behavior and, 662, 665–66, 671f
TTM for, 666–67, 666t
physical and emotional exhaustion (PEE), 564
physical education, 238
physical intelligence, 65
physicians, 608
pituitary-adreno-medullary (PAC) axis, 160
placebo analgesia response, 628
planned behavior. See theory of planned behavior
Plato, 191
playing, sports compared to, 338
point-light display, 252
police psychology, 29
political somatics, 584
polypharmacy, 548–49
Portal, Dewitt, 9
positive affect, 159
positive emotions
cognitive functioning and, 159
threat responses and, 161
youth development and, 461
positive ethics, 49
positive psychology, 26, 33
positive self-review, 255
positive self-talk, 192, 194–95
positive training pain, 619
positive youth development, 449
posterior attentional system, 178
posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), 537
powerlifting, 642
PowerPlay program, 453
praxis, in feminism, 386
pre-event routines, 126–27
prefrontal cortex (PFC)
attention and, 178
DLPFC, 178
flow theory and, 145n21
pre-performance routines, 35
for concentration, 126–27
superstitions in, 126–27
presence, 89
supervision and, 728–29, 731
preserved differentiation account, 499–500
pressure
competence and, 35–36
high performance delivery under, 76
mental toughness and, 36
in performance psychology, 35–36
resilience and, 36
self-efficacy and, 36
Price, Claude E., 5
primary appraisals
in CMRT, 156
in competitive sports anxiety, 176
priming, 143
Principles of Psychology (James, W.), 4
privacy, ethical codes for, 55
problem-focused coping, 162
problem-solving self-efficacy, 278
processing efficiency theory (PET), 176
self-talk and, 201–2
professional judgment and decision-making (PJDM), 701–2
progressive relaxation, 9
propinquity, 425
Prosocial and Antisocial Behavior in Sport Scale, 367
prosocial behavior, 365–66
achievement goals and, 369
measures of, 366
psychodynamic theory, 406–7
psychological characteristics for developing excellence (PCDEs), 478–79, 486–87
Psychological First Aid, 603
psychological foreclosure, 520
Psychological Performance Inventory (PPI), 716
Psychological Readiness to Return to Sport Scale (I-PPRS), 600
psychological skills training (PST)
in applied sport psychology, 26
ethics and, 47
for supervision, 727
psychologists
ethics codes for, 48
injury and, 608–9
multiple relationships and, ethics codes for, 58–59
psychology. See also applied sport psychology; performance psychology; sport psychology
of coaching, 344, 357–58
human factor, 11
of human performance, 527–28
industrial-organizational, 27, 29
military applications of, (p. 770) 8–9
organizational, 206
police, 29
positive, 26
sport psychology influenced by, 28
sports applications for, 6–9
for women's sport, 388–89
Psychology of Coaching (Griffith), 7
Psychology of Sport: The Behavior Motivation, Personality, and Performance of Athletes (Butt), 15
psychomotor expertise, 498
psychomotor testing, in sport psychology, 8
psychotherapy
CBT, 26
performance psychology and, 25–27
solution-focused techniques in, 26
public safety applications, of sport psychology, 29. See also police psychology
Puni, A. C., 9–10
pyramiding, 548
Q
quiet eye (QE), 181–85
ACT and, 182–83
action-focused coping and, 185
competitive sports anxiety and, 182–85
mechanisms for, 184
research support for, 184–85
training for, 183–85
R
race logic, 424
racism
closed-door, 424
propinquity and, 425
stacking and, 424–25
Radcliffe, Paula, 127
radical feminism, 385
Radvanovsky, Sondra, 38
Raiport, Gregory, 13
Ralston, Aron, 630–31
Ravizza, Ken, 13
reciprocal determinism, 665
reciprocal friendships, 402
reciprocal social relationships, 486
recovery
from performance, 38
in sport psychology, 25
Reddy, Camiolo, 602
referees, moral behavior of, 375–76
reflection in action, 355
reflection on action, 355
reframing, 27
Regis, John, 214
regulatory attentional control, 177–78
Reilly, Ray, 13
Re-Injury Anxiety Inventory (RIA), 600
reinvestment. See theory of reinvestment
Reinvestment Scale, 145n16
relatedness
as basic psychological need, 237
in SDT, 245
relation-inferred self-efficacy (RISE), 284
relationships
APIM for, 409, 412–13
attachment theory and, 409–10
countertransference in, 413n2
among dancers, 407
future research on, 407–11
internal working models for, 409
interpersonal, in team-building, 320
multiple, ethics codes and, 55–59
parental, in sport, 404–6
among peers, in sport, 401–3
reciprocal social, 486
role, 314–15
secure attachment in, 409
social, in youth development, 451–56
sport psychologist-athlete, 406–7
relationship building, with SPI, 74
relative age effect, 441
relaxation
for emotional regulation, 164
mind-to-muscle, 164
muscle-to-mind, 164
progressive, 9
with self-talk, 199
resilience
for performing artists, 30
pressure and, 36
self-efficacy and, 275
resonance performance model, 34
supervision and, 730–32
resonance theory, 34
retirement. See also career transitions
external factors for, 516
injury as reason for, 516–17
voluntary, 516
retrospective reflection on action, 355
return to sport model, 596
rhythmic stereotypes, 439
risk management
in ethical decision-making models, 49
multiple relationships and, 56–57
Rodionov, Albert, 12
Rodriguez, Alex, 63
Roethlisberger, Ben, 605
Rogers, Carl, 406
role experimentation, 517
role modeling hypothesis, 404
role relationships
in business, 314–15
in military, 315
teamwork and, 314–15
Rotella, Bob, 13, 40
rough and tumble play, 439
Rousseau, Paul, 5
Rudik, P. A., 7–8
Rushell, Brent, 13
Russia, sport psychology in, 7–8, 10, 13
Ruth, Babe, 8, 63, 309
Ryan, Richard, 234
S
Sage, G. H., 18
sampling years, 339
Sanders, Doug, 122
Scanlan, Tara, 15
schema systems, 181
Schulte, Robert Werner, 7
Schumacher, Michael, 63
Schwank, Walter, 12
Scott, Walter Dill, 6
Scripture, E. W., 4–6, 18
Seashore, Carl, 6
secondary appraisals, in CMRT, 156
The Secret River (Grenville), 136
secure attachments, 409
sedentary behavior change, 672
selective attention, 118–19
selective maintenance explanation, 498–99
selective optimization with compensation principle, 498
talent development and, 517
Seles, Monica, 40
the self, expectations of, 31
self-actualization, theory of, 12
self-belief, with SPI, 69
self-confidence, performance psychology and
for elite athletes, 100
in performing arts, 99–100
self-talk and, 202
Self-Consciousness Scale, 145n16
self-control, 166–67
self-determination index (SDI), 238
self-determination theory (SDT), 85–87
amotivation and, 236
applications for, 243
autonomy support in, 241
autonomy-supportive leadership and, 334
basic psychological needs theory and, 236–37, 242–44
for burnout, 573–74
CET in, 234–35
coaching and, 346
competence in, 244–45
component theories of, 234–37
cooperation and, 241–42
COT in, 237
in dance, 85–86
development of, 234
feedback and, 241
future directions for, 245–46
GCT and, 237, 242–43
intrinsic motivation in, (p. 771) 234
master athletes and, 502–3
moral behavior and, 369–70
motivation and, 85–86, 235f
in music, 85–86
organismic integration theory and, 235–36
passion and, 86
in PE contexts, 238
relatedness in, 245
SDI in, 238
sport performance and, 237–43
youth development and, 463
self-efficacy
from affective states, 275–76
for coaches, 282, 349
cognitive self-modeling and, 275
collective, 284–86
competitive, 278
coping, 278
as coping strategy, 257
diverse forms of, 277–79
from emotional state, 276
empirical evidence of, 274–75
EOSE, 288
explanatory mechanisms for, 274–75
future applications for, 287–88
generality in, 273–74
from imaginal experiences, 276
for interpersonal tasks, 281–83
interventions for, 286–87
learning, 278
levels of, 273
limitations of, 279–81
from mastery experiences, 275–76
meta-perception theory and, 288
modeling and, 251, 257–58
other-efficacy, 283
PCT and, 280
personal agency within, 280
personal performance and, 274–75
from physiological condition, 276
pressure and, 36
problem-solving, 278
from psychological states, 275
referents in, 283–84
research applications for, 286–87
resilience and, 275
RISE, 284
for role performance, 283
sources of, 274f, 275–77
spirals and, 277
strength of, 273
in task-involving climates, 277
for teachers, 281–82
as theory, 264
from verbal persuasion, 275–76
from vicarious influences, 275
self-esteem, performance psychology and, 99–100
for elite athletes, 100
emotional regulation and, 165
by gender, 100
global, 460
in performing arts, 99–100
self-focus theories, 174–75
explicit monitoring hypothesis, 175
theory of reinvestment as, 175
self-image. See Olympic self-image
self-modeling, 255–56
in basketball, 256
cognitive, 275
feedforward and, 255
in figure skating, 255
in gymnastics, 255
in hockey, 256
performance benefits, 255–56
positive self-review, 255
in volleyball, 255
in weight lifting, 256
self-perceptions, in youth development, 460–61
self-presentational efficacy, 279
self-reflection, in coaching, 356
self-regulation
with modeling, 259
in social cognitive theory, 252
self-regulatory efficacy, 278–79, 371–372
moral behavior and, 371–72
self-talk, 124, 127
ACT and, 201
antecedents of, 195–96
anxiety control with, 202
attention and, 201
characteristics of, 198
with children, 205
by coaches, 204
concentration from, 202
control process theory and, 201–2
debilitative effects of, 192
definitions of, 192
description of, 194–95
in educational contexts, 206
emotional regulation and, 163–64
experimental evidence for, 203–4
experimental studies for, 197–200
facilitative effects of, 192
features of, 194–95
feedback from, 199
field studies for, 196–97
functions of, 200–204
future applications for, 207–8
goal setting and, 199
imagery with, 199
inherent, 204, 207
as instructional, 192
interventions for, 197–200, 208
in life-skills development, 206
long-term implications for, 204–6
matching hypotheses for, 198
measurement of, in literature, 193–94
mechanisms of, 200–204
mental skills packages for, 199
as mental strategy, 192, 207–8
methodological approaches to, 193
motivation from, 202
negative, 192, 194–95
in organizational psychology, 206
paradigms for, 192–93
performance and, 196–200
personal factors for, 195
PET and, 201–2
positive, 192, 194–95
relaxation techniques with, 199
research designs for, 199
research questions for, 192–93
situational factors for, 195–96
socio-environmental factors for, 196
in theory of reinvestment, 138
Self-Talk and Gestures Rating Scale (STAGRS), 194
Self-Talk Questionnaire (S-TQ), 193
Self-Talk Use Questionnaire (STUQ), 193
Seligman, Martin, 26, 33, 687. See also positive psychology
selling out, 423–24, 429
sensitive stereotyping, 419
serial reaction time task (SRTT), 144n6
sex, definition of, 384
sexual identity, 384
sexual orientation, 384
Shanky, Bill, 173
shaping one's environment, 72–73
collaboration and, 73
EI and, 73
goal-setting in, 72
personal vision in, 72
team creation in, 72–73
shifting, in ACT, 179–80
siblings
birth order and, 484
competition and rivalry among, 484–85
in ecological theory of, 483
as stressor, 484
talent development influenced by, 483–85
Silva, John, 16
simulation training, for concentration, 127–28
situational foreclosure, 520
situation selection, 163
skill-based imagery, 226
skill-building activities, in youth development, 450
Slaughter, Mary Hoke, 14
Smith, A. L., 451
Smith, M. D., 457
Smith, Ron, 13
Sobers, Garry, 124
soccer moms, (p. 772) 83
social cognitive theory, 264–65
for physical activity, 665
self-regulation in, 252
social environment, talent development and, 84–85
social exchange theory (SET), 571
social goals, 369
social identity theory, 392–93
social intelligence, 65
socialist feminism, 385
social networks, 466
master's sport and, 507
social physique anxiety, 389
social support
for career transitions, 517–18
in coaching, 316
density in, 517–18
family as influence on, 488–89
in youth development, 451
Society for Industrial-Organizational Psychology (SIOP), 29
socioeconomic status (SES), 419, 423, 426–27
soft leadership, 336
somatics, 581–84. See also the body
attention training and, 589–90
blending in, 589
centering in, 588
entering in, 588
extending in, 589
facing in, 588
in performance enhancement practices, 589–90
performance psychology interventions and, 590
political, 584
sitting in, 589–90
standing practices, 590
visual thinking in, 587
in whole body approach, 587–88
Sorenstam, Annika, 63
spatial intelligence, 64
specializing years, 339
Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, 623
spirals, self-efficacy and, 277
sports. See also competitive sports anxiety; expertise, in sports; leadership, in sports; pain sport matrix; women's sport
athletics compared to, 336
change blindness and, 143
coach-athlete relationships in, 403–4
cooperation in, 312–13
COT in, 246n1
deliberate play and, 336
early specialization in, 440
EDs by, 642–43
egalitarian, 336–38
elite, 336–38
emotional regulation in, 154
entertainment, 336–37
ethnic, 428
female herstory in, 386–87
gender and, 387–94
group cohesion in, 318
homonegativism in, 390–94
learning primers for, 143–44
marginal perceptions of consciousness and, applications for, 143
masters, 504–7
metaphorical imagery in, 95
modeling in, 253–57
moral behavior in, 366–68
moral disengagement in, 371
moral identity in, 371
parental relationships in, 404–6
peer relationships in, 401–3
perfectionism in, 298–300
performance environments for, variability of, 154
performing arts compared to, 81–82
playing compared to, 338
siblings as competition, 484–85
soccer moms, 83
team building strategies in, 320
teams in, 310
teamwork in, 311
Title IX legislation for, 349, 386–88
sport attraction, 573
Sport Behavior Inventory, 367
sport commitment model, 573
sport devaluation, 564
sport entrapment, 573
sport ethic, 604
pain management and, 620
sport evangelist myth, 353
Sport Friendship Quality Scale (SFQS), 401
Sport Imagery Questionnaire (SIQ), 94, 260
Sport Mental Toughness Questionnaire (SMTQ), 716
Sport Motivational Climate Scale, 352
Sport Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale (Sport-MPS), 295–96
sport performance
assessment methods for, 239–43
autonomy support in, 241
cooperation in, 241–42
motivation promotion for, 241–42
objective measures of, 240
research for, 239–43
SDT and, 237–39
The Sport Psychologist, 394–95
sport psychologist-athlete relationships, 406–7
for females, 407
psychodynamic theory for, 406–7
sport psychologists
athlete relationships with, 406–7
coaches and, 681–83
collegial support for, 688
confidentiality for, 678
conflict management for, 685–86
consultation structure for, 677–78, 688–89
continuing education for, 689
educational training for, 677
effectiveness strategies for, 687–89
failure of, 686–87
isolation of, 685
journaling for, 687
management for, 679–81
organization for, 679–81
as part of high-performance team, 678–84
performance coach compared to, 685
role definition for, 685–86
self-awareness for, 687
sports agents and, 18
success of, 686–87
support staff for, 679–81
technology for, 689
sport psychology. See also applied sport psychology; elite athletes; ethics
from 1890 to 1920, 4–6
from 1920–1940, 6–9
from 1940–1965, 9–12
from 1965–1980, 12–15
from 1980–1989, 15–17
from 1990 to present, 17–18
achievement motivation in, 28
aggression measures within, 8
applied, 41–42
in Australia, 10
for boxing, 9
in Canada, 13
CBT in, 28
common features of, 24–25
confidentiality in, 53–55
consultation in, 38–41
credibility in, 41
definitions of, 24–25
early experiments in, 4
feminist, 394–97
flow theory in, 28
generalists in, 39
in Germany, 7–8
goal setting in, 28
graduate programs for, 13–14
hypnosis in, 9–10
informed consent in, 53–55
injury in, 25
intelligence measures in, 8
in Japan, 7–8, 10
kinesiology training for, 47
in laboratories, 6–9
for LGBT populations, 393–94
literature about, 11, 16
mainstream psychology as influence on, 28
mental components of, 25
military applications for, 8–9
as new psychology, 4
under NGBs, 16
in Olympic Games, (p. 773) 26
performance psychology influenced by, 28–29
for performing artists, 29–30
personality measures in, 8
privacy issues in, 55
process as focus in, 25
psychomotor testing in, 8
public safety applications for, 29
recovery in, 25
roles in, 39–40
in Russia, 7–8, 10, 13
specialists in, 39
in Sweden, 14
temporal dimensions of, 25
training and, 38–39
in training process, 14, 17
transference in, 411–12
in U.S., 7–8, 11
youth development and, 449–50
Sport Psychology in Practice (Andersen), 47, 393
sports agents, sports psychologists and, 18
sports education, graduate programs for, 13–14
sports medicine, 11
therapists, 608
sportspersonship orientations, 365
spotlight metaphor, for attention, 120–21
criticisms of, 121
stacking, 424–25
APEDs and, 548
stage model of grief and loss, 514
for career transitions, 514
injury rehabilitation and, 594–95
stage parents, 83
Stagg, Amos Alonzo, 4
Stagner, Ross, 8
Staley, Seward, 11
standards-setting. See also expectations
mental skills in, 31
in performance psychology, 30–31
state anxiety, 99
Stengel, Casey, 328
steroid use, 555–56
modern media influences on, 556
Sterrett, Jack, 8
stimulus-driven attentional control systems, 179
stream of consciousness, 132
stress, siblings as source of, 484
stress-injury model, 594
stress-recovery perspective, for burnout, 572–73
stretching yourself, 68–69
success
celebration of, 71
high performance delivery and, 74
Suinn, Richard, 13, 15–16
Sullivan, Harry, 400
Summitt, Pat, 328
superior performance intelligence (SPI)
agility and, 73–74
data analysis of, 66
EI and, 78
environmental knowledge, as dimension of, 73–74
facets of, 65–67
foundations for, 63–64
framework for, 67t
future applications for, 78–79
high performance delivery and, as dimension of, 74–78
humility and, 74
information acquisition for, 68–69
interviews for, 66
knowing your environment, as dimension of, 71–72
knowing yourself, as dimension of, 67–68
mindfulness and, 75
personal vision and, 68–69
relationship building with, 74
sampling participants for, 66
self-belief with, 69
shaping one's environment, as dimension of, 72–73
stretching yourself in, 68–69
study findings for, 66–67
sustaining yourself, as dimension of, 69–71
superstitions, 126–27
criteria for, 127
supervision
attunement and, 729–30
definition of, 725–26
future research on, 735–36
history of, 726–27
intake sessions for, 732–35
meta-supervision and, 731
mindfulness and, 727–32
models of, 727
presence and, 728–29, 731
PST model for, 727
resonance and, 730–32
sustaining yourself
celebrating successes while, 71
failure recovery, 70–71
life balance with, 70
perspective in, 69–70
switching off, 71
Sweden, sport psychology in, 14
switching on/off, 124, 126
in sustaining yourself, 71
sympathetic-adreno-medullary (SAM) axis, 160
systems psychology, 27, 678–79
T
taekwondo
moral disengagement with, 371
weight restrictions with, 642
talent
definition of, 477
as multidimensional construct, 83
in performing arts, 82–85
in sports, 82–85
teachers as influence on, 83
talent development
athletic identity and, 517
bioecological perspective on, 485–86
birth order as influence on, 484
in Canada, among adolescents, 436
career transitions and, 437
by creative type, 84
deliberate practice in, 437–38, 477–78
developmental lifespan model for, 479
developmental models for, 437–39
developmental roles in, 481–82
DMSP and, 479
during early years, 480–81
family as influence on, 83–84, 485–87
family support in, 83–84
independence fostering in, 483
initiation roles in, 480–81
innate talent theory and, 478
investment roles in, 482–83
during later years, 482–83
mastery roles in, 482–83
during middle years, 481–82
models for, 477–80
parental role in, 480–83
parental styles as influence on, 488–89
process of, 435
pyramid approach to, 436
reciprocal social relationships in, 486
role experimentation and, 517
sampling roles in, 480–81
selective optimization and, 517
siblings as influence on, 483–85
social environment and, 84–85
specializing roles in, 481–82
stage parents and, 83
teachers as influence on, 83
in U.S., among adolescents, 436
tanking, 32
targeted mentoring, 429
task-focused leadership, 317
task orientation
competition and, 32
for moral behavior, 368–69
teachers
imagery development by, 94–95
modeling applications for, 261
self-efficacy for, 281–82
talent development influenced by, 83
Teaching Personal and Social Responsibility Model, 450, 453
teams. See also teamwork
in business, (p. 774) 310
collective self-efficacy for, 284–86
in military, 310–11
moral behavior within, 372–74, 379
in sports, 310
team building strategies, 323f
in business, 320–21
CRM in, 322
group goal setting, 320
in hockey, 319–20
individual role involvement in, 320
interpersonal relationships in, 320
intervention development in, 322, 322f
managerial grid approach to, 320
in military, 321–22
in sports, 320
Team Up For Youth, 350
teamwork
action processes for, 319
in business, 311
cooperation in, 312–14
correlates of, 312–14, 312f
definitions of, 310–11
framework for, 311–12
group cohesion and, 318–19
interpersonal processes for, 319
as intuitive value, 309
leadership and, 316–18, 316f
locomotion and, 311–12
maintenance and, 311–12
in military, 309, 311
role relationships and, 314–15
in sports, 311
team building strategies for, 319–22, 323f
transition processes for, 319
telephone line theory, of pain, 621
Test of Performance Strategies (TOPS), 193
theory of challenge and threat states in athletes (TCTSA), 160
theory of planned behavior, 596
physical activity and, 662, 665–66, 671f
theory of reinvestment, 137–39
choking in, 138
conscious processing hypothesis in, 137
development of, 145n14
gamesmanship in, 138
Movement Specific Reinvestment Scale, 138–39
problem-focused coping strategies in, 137
process goals in, 138
as self-focus theory, 175
self-talk in, 138
theory of self-actualization. See self-actualization, theory of
third-person perspective (3PP), 215–16
Thornhill, William, 136
Thought Occurrence Questionnaire for Sport (TOQS), 193–94
threat states, 160–61, 161f
Tissie, Phillipe, 5
Title IX legislation, 349, 386–88
criticism of, 387
Tog, 406–7
tokenism, 423–24, 429
tomboys, 388
top-down control systems, in ACT, 179
Torre, Joe, 328
Torres, Dana, 493
Tracy, David F., 9, 11
training
with anxiety, 185–86
with coaching, 316
ethical codes for, 51–53
peak performance, 47
performance psychology and, 38–39
sport psychology and, 38–39
sport psychology in, 14
standards for, development of, 17
trait anxiety, 99
transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), 144n6
transference, 411–12
transformational leadership, 332
transtheoretical model (TTM), 666–67, 666t
triarchic model of intelligence, 64
trigger words, 127. See also self-talk
triple-code model of imagery, 226–27
Triplett, Norman, 4–5, 18
Tyson, Mike, 364
U
unconscious awareness
blindsight and, 134
consciousness compared to, 134–35
unconscious-thought effect, 134
unconsciousness, global workplace theory and, 133
unconscious-thought effect, 134
Unestahl, Lars-Eric, 14, 17
unhealthy perfectionism, 295
unidimensional identity development and external control model, for burnout, 573
Unitas, Johnny, 605, 627
United States (U.S.)
culture in, 420
ethnicity in, 420
sport psychology in, 7–8, 11
talent development in, for adolescents, 436
Title IX legislation in, 349
U.S. Olympics Committee (USOC), 13. See also Olympic Games
sport psychology and, 15–16
V
values, 49
Vanek, Mirsoluv, 12
verbal persuasion, self-efficacy from, 275–76
video-based modeling, 262–63, 265
virtual modeling, 265–66
virtues, 49
visual imagery, 218
visualization, 127
visuomotor control, 180–82
QE in, 181–82
schema systems for, 181
Vividness of Movement Imagery Questionnaire-2 (VMIQ-2), 215
volleyball, self-modeling for, 255
voluntary attention, 178
voluntary retirement, 516
vulnerability, personal, 103
W
Waitley, Denis, 15
Walton, Sam, 328
Warner, Pop, 8
Watching Dance project, 103
Watson, Tom, 493
web-based modeling, 262–63
coaching applications with, 265
weight lifting, 256
Weiss, Maureen, 15
Weiss, W. M., 454
Welch, Jack, 328
Wenz, Betty, 13, 15
what-if scenarios, 75
Whitmore, John, 356
whole body approach, 587–88
whole person approach, to career transitions, 515, 520–21
Williams, Jean, 15
Williams, Serena, 127, 423
Williams, Tom, 364
Williams, Venus, 423
Winter, Bud, 9
Witmer, Lightner, 6
Wolfe, Harry Kirke, 6
women. See also feminism
age-related decline for, in sports performance, 494
aggression among, 376
coaching of, 349–51
EDs among, 643–44
ethnicity and, performance influenced by, 425–26
female athlete triad, 639
hegemonic femininity, 389
ideal body for, 389, 636
internalization of body ideal for, 647
MD in, 640
modeling for, (p. 775) 260
moral behavior for, 376
perfectionism among, 302
self-esteem for, in performance psychology, 100
in sport psychologist-athlete relationships, 407
Title IX legislation for, 349, 386–88
Women and Sports from Myth to Reality (Oglesby), 394
women's sport
body image and, 389–90
female coaches and, 349–51, 387
feminist sport psy