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date: 17 February 2020

(p. 457) Index

(p. 457) Index

3D films, 306
3 Ring Circus (1955), 193
8 mm film, 253
16mm Cine Film, 266
16mm reverse positive film, 275–76
20th Century Fox, 69, 191, 203
24 Hours (1982), 420
35mm film Positive Film (type 150), 265, 266, 270, 277, 278
35mm Mitchell camera, 227
35mm negative film, 276
The 47 Ronin (1941–1942), 313
Abacus and Sword (Bushi no kakeibo, 2010), 306, 307
“A Bird in a Cage” (Kago no Tori, 1924), 300–301
Academy Awards (Japan), 312
Academy Awards Best Foreign Language Film, 325
Acheson, Dean, 232
“An Act of Mercy” (Fujisawa), 315
Actress (Joyu, 1947), 329
adaptation as transcultural mimesis
domestic film production in Japan, 108–10, 109f, 120n31
modernity and Japaneseness, 110–13, 121nn40, 50, 127
overview, 4, 101–4, 118nn3, 7
Ozu Yasujiro emulation of Hollywood, 104–7, 119n20, 120n23, 120n29
vernacular modernism, 4, 113–15, 122nn56, 58, 127
Adobe Premiere (1992), 256
Adorno, 80, 113, 115
advertising/promotion
critics quotations in, 69, 77n37
literary modernism and, 126
pamphlets/flyers, 69, 104, 119n16
by U.S. studios in Japan post-occupation, 192–93, 194f, 195–99
videos and websites, 435, 437n42
aesthetics
Buddhism and, 23
film criticism and, 39, 66, 67, 71, 114
historical Japanese, 43
Japanese film style, 31, 376
politicization of, 127–28, 145
Shibui, 40
Zen and, 40
Africa, 30
African-Americans and cinema, 173
Agency for Cultural Affairs, 254
Age of the cloud and the “Cool Revolution” (Kuraudo Jidai to “Kuru Kakumei”, 2010), 446
Agfa, 269, 278
Ajia mondai chosakai (Asian Affairs Research Society), 234
Akatsuki no Bakuon (1936), 279
Akira (1982), 443
Akira Suehiro, 150n60
Akiyama Kuniharu, 389, 390, 391, 394, 394f, 397, 398
Akiyama Tamako, 256, 257f
Akutagawa Ryunosuke, 215
Alberghetti, Anna Maria, 199
Albright, Donald, 404
Alcock, Rutherford, 374–75
Alfred Hitchcock Presents, 202
All in a Night’s Work (1961), 196
All Quiet on the Western Front (Seibu sensen ijo nashi, Remarque, 1930), 102–3
Almendros, Nestor, 251
Alter, Nora L., 137
Althusserian-Brechtian critique of mystificatory illusionism, 49
Altman, Rick, 7, 288–89, 290
amateur filmmaking, 139
The Ambassadors (Holbein), 424–26, 425f
American cinema See United States
American Cultural Center, 404
(p. 458) The American Film Institute Catalog 1893–1910, 156
An American Tragedy (Dreiser), 196
amnesia, 25, 27–29
Amsterdam International Documentary Film Festival, 245
Anderson, Joseph L., 176, 229, 234
Anderson, Robin, 255f
Andrew, Dudley, 246, 248
anime, 54, 326
See also media mix
ANPO protests of 1960, 116
anthropomorphism, 390, 410n20
anti-Japanese sentiment, 155
Aoki Hyosai, 157
Aoki Tsuruko, 5, 152, 153, 154, 155, 156–57, 158, 159, 159f, 160, 160f, 161–66, 165f, 168
apparatus and intermedia See intermedial practices of cinema
Appointment with Danger (1951), 196, 197
Arakawa drainage canal, 141–42
Aristotelian logic, 449
Aristotle, 31
artful nonsense (bungei nansensu), 102–3
The Art of the Cinema (Timoshenko), 138, 139, 140
Arts in Society (Kamarck), 398
Asahi News, 278
Asahi newspaper, 65
Asahi newsreels, 277, 278
Asahi Photo Industry, 270, 272, 276
Asahi Shimbun, 274, 277–78
Asai Eiichi, 379
Asakusa, 141–42
Asakusa Opera, 296, 300
Asama Yoshitaka, 315
Asaoka Nobuo, 112
ASEAN (Association of Southeast Asian Nations), 238
Ashida Keinosuke, 380
Ashley, Robert, 402, 402f, 404
Asia
Asianist ideology, 212–13
education for cinema, 236, 243n60
film festivals and, 247–51, 248f, 261nn5, 7
Hong Kong films, 6, 209–22, 223nn8, 10, 16, 18, 224n32
See also East Asia; Specific countries
Asia Foundation, 231, 232n32
Asian Film Festival (AFF)
FPA beginnings, 229–32, 241nn20, 27, 242nn32, 33
new regional order and the, 232–34, 242n44, 243n52
1950s to present, 234–39
overview, 6, 226–29, 240nn12, 248–49
Asianism
national aggression and, 6
pan-Asianism, 211
Ri Koran and, 223n10
Western imperialism and, 213–14
Asian Pictures, 237
Asia-Pacific Film Festival See Asian Film Festival (AFF)
Asia Press, 231
Asia Symposium, 255
Association for Viewing Documentary Film, 365, 371, 379
Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN), 238
Astro Boy (Tetsuwan Atomu), 439f, 441
audiences
creating meaning from a film, 61
distracted mode of reception (Sato), 146
minshu (“the people”), 3, 79–93, 94n5, 95nn23, 38, 96nn5960, 97nn64, 66
nonexistent things and, 101
sound and, 407
spectatorship, 2, 3, 61, 62, 63, 72, 75, 87, 93, 289
Aum Shinrikyo, 27
Austin, John, 433
Au Ting-Ping, Tony, 215
avant-garde and documentary relationship, 387–91, 390f, 410nn14, 16, 19–20, 411nn2125
avant-garde art in the U.S., 404
The Awakening of Japan (Okakura), 375
Azuma Hiroki, 445, 448–49, 452, 453
Back Door (Hou men, 1959), 235
Back to the Future (1985), 420
The Bad Sleep Well (1960), 370f
Balabrat, Ricardo, 235–36
A Ball at the Anjo House (1947), 330
“The Bamboo Sword” (Fujisawa), 315
Bancroft, George, 112, 113
“The Bandit Prince” (vaudeville act), 162
band music, 7, 289, 290–91, 293–94, 295–96, 302
Banishment (Kingire tsuiho, 1930), 112
Barker, Reginald, 153
The Barker (1928), 107
Barnouw, Erik, 256
Barthes, Roland, 318
(p. 459) Basara–The Princess Goh (1992), 311, 318
The Base of Popular Recreation (Gonda), 88
Battle Flag (Senki), 139
Battleship Potemkin (1925), 139, 140
Battles without Honor or Humanity series (1970s), 313
Baudrillard, Jean, 442
Baudry, Jean Louis, 7
Bauman, Zygmunt, 443
Beautiful Duckling (Yang yarenjia, 1965), 238
beauty contests, 331
Beckett, Samuel, 388, 405
The Beckoning Flame (1916), 158
The Bellboy (1960), 201–2
Ben-Hur: A Tale of the Christ (1925), 182–84
Benjamin, Walter, 101, 113, 115, 117, 127–28, 145, 442
benshi silent film sound and, 289
Berlin, Irving, 197
Berlin International Film Festival, 231, 245, 247, 313, 325
Berlin: Symphony of a Big City (1927), 131, 134–37
Berman, Marshall, 442
Bernardi, Joanne, 164
Betamax, 253
Betty Boop cartoons, 111
Between Calm and Passion (Reisei to jonetsu no aida, 2001), 214
Beverly Hills Cop (1984), 203
B films, 195, 196
Biao, Yuen, 215
Bicycle in Dream See Ginrin (Matsumoto)
Bicycle Manufacturing Association, 366
Bijutsu techo, 398, 404
Biosphere II, 431, 432
Birthday (Suzuki), 417
blackface in Japanese Cinema, 103, 103f
Blade Runner (1982), 216
Blood Will Tell (Haitanghong, 1955), 212
Blumenberg, Hans, 438, 442
Board for Research into Education Popularized for the General Public, 82, 86
the body as protrayed in films, 29–30, 31
body/street art, 396
The Book of Tea (Okakura), 375
Bordwell, David, 3, 39, 41, 47–49, 52, 53, 59n40, 105, 376–77
Borges, Jorge Luis, 432
Borzage, Frank, 105, 106, 158, 227
Branded (Rakuin, 1950), 193, 194f
Branded to Kill (Koroshi no rakuin, 1967), 350, 357
Breakfast at Tiffany’s (1961), 200
broadside ballads, 294
Brooks, Peter, 155, 156
Buddhism, 23, 27, 40–41, 42, 43, 157–58, 211
Bumming in Beijingthe Last Dreamers (1990), 256
Bungei shunju, 139
bunraku, 42, 44
Burch, Noël, 3, 39, 40, 43–47, 49, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56n3, 57nn11, 14, 58n24, 59nn4041, 65, 105
Busan (Pusan) International Film Festival, 239, 250, 251
Cabinet Information Bureau, 284, 285
Cacciari, Massimo, 446
Café Lumirè (2003), 310
Cage, John, 400
Cahiers du Cinéma, 41, 75, 247
Camera–Toy/Weapon (Sasa), 139
Campaign for Improving Life (Seikatsu kaizen undo), 85
Campaign for Lifestyle Improvement the Home Ministry, 83
Camphor Monopoly Law, 267
Candide (Voltaire), 445
Cannes International Film Festival, 227, 230, 239, 245, 259, 306
capitalism
Asia and, 211
intermedia and, 384
in Japan, 85
late capitalism, 121n50
modernism and, 117, 127–28, 145
nineteenth century and, 233
popular culture and, 79, 89
social education and, 82
Capone Returns (Capone saigen, 1932), 112
Captain Tsubasa (Captain Majid), 451, 452
Carmen Comes Home (Karumen kokyo ni kaeru, 1951), 7–8, 337–45, 338f, 339f, 340f, 341f, 342f, 343f, 344f, 345f, 351, 356–57, 356f
Carmen Falls in Love (Karumen junjo su, 1952), 7–8, 337, 345–50, 347f, 348f, 349f, 351, 353, 357, 361nn3536, 39–40, 362n41
(p. 460) Carmen From Kawachi (Kawachi Karumen, 1966), 350–56, 351f, 352f, 353f, 354f, 362nn42, 48
Case Closed: The Phantom of Baker Street (2002), 326
Castells, Manuel, 443
Cathay, 211
The Cat Returns: Ghiblies Episode 2 (2002), 326
Cazdyn, Eric, ix, 2, 13–32
Celan, Paul, 387
Celluloid Control Company, 283
censorship
Film Law of 1939, 90, 91, 328, 378
in Korea, 180–83, 181f
occupation era Japan, 191, 328, 336
Soviet montage and, 140, 150n60
“Tokyo March”, 132
The Wrath of the Gods, 161
Centennial Exhibition of 1876, 155
Central Intelligence Agency (CIA), 242n32, 249
Central Motion Picture Exchange (CMPE), 191, 229
Cervantes, Miguel de, 432
Chakrabarty, Dipesh, 247
Chan, Jackie, 212
Chan, Jordan, 215
Chan, Kelly, 214, 215
Chang Kuo-sin, 231, 236, 237
Chaplin, Charles Spencer (Charlie), 105, 107, 193
The Cheat (1915), 158, 161
Chen, Edison, 214
Chia Li, 238
Chiao Hsiung-ping (Peggy), 250, 252, 252f
Chiba Nobuo, 105
children, 86, 103
China
Hong Kong films, 6, 209–22, 223nn8, 10, 16, 18, 224n32
horizontal writing in, 323
People’s Republic of, 233, 237, 249, 256
prostitutes in, 335
Chinese revolution, 233
Chin Ping Mei (1955), 212
Chisui Takigawa, 416
Chocolate Girl (Chokore-to ga-ru, 1932), 112
Choi Byeong-Ryong, 179
Christianity in Madame Butterfly, 156, 157–58
Christ of Nanjing (1995), 215, 224n32
Chua Lam, 212, 223
Chuo Koron, 163
CIA (Central Intelligence Agency), 242n32, 249
CIE Eiga rinri kanri iinkai or Eirin (Film Ethics Regulation Control Committee), 328, 329, 336
Cinema, Memory, Modernity (Kilbourn), 364
cinema studies/criticism
as an academic discipline in Japan, 112
film companies and, 69
historical overview, 3, 61–62, 75–76, 76n1
horizontality, 108
ideological, 67–69, 77nn31, 34
Japanese cinema, 1–9, 13–27, 16f, 17f, 18f, 19f, 20f, 21f, 22f, 127
post 1950, 69–72, 77n37
Proletarian School, 126, 137, 139, 146
Pure Film Movement and the impressionist paradigm, 62–66, 77n20
radical nature of, 13
technological determinism, 7
vernacular modernism, 4, 113–15, 122nn56, 58, 127
Cio-Cio-San, 154, 155, 156, 158, 159, 161, 163, 165, 167
Circle of Life (Meguru, 2006), 371
The City of Lost Souls (Hyoryu-gai, 2000), 214, 219, 221
Civil Information and Education Section (CIE), 328, 329, 336
Clarke, Paul, 249
classical music boom, 123n62
A Class to Remember series (Gakko, 1993–2000), 308–9, 314
Clift, Montgomery, 196
climate metaphors, 441–42
Clonebough, G. Butler, 166
Clooney, Rosemary, 199
CMPC, 238
CMPE (Central Motion Picture Exchange), 191, 229
Cochrane, Tom, 190
Code Geass (2006), 444
Cold War, 6, 228, 404
Colombo Plan, 233, 236
colonial film spectatorship See Korean colonial film spectatorship
colonial project, Japanese, 27
Columbus, Chris, 326
(p. 461) Communism, 83, 128, 131, 231, 233
Comolli, Jean Louis, 7
Compson, Betty, 112
“The Concept of National Cinema” (Higson), 184
Conflagration (Enjo, 1958), 311
Confucianism, 211
Connelly, Bob, 255f
Conrad, Joseph, 17
Constitution of the Empire of Japan (1889), 82
Continental films, 122n61
Cook, Ryan, 73
Cool Britannia slogan, 442
Cool Conduct (Lethen), 442
Cool Japan slogan, 442, 451, 452
copyright and media mix, 445–46
corporatization of Japan, 29
Coutinho, Eduardo, 254
cowboy movies, 116–17
Crane, Susan A., 363
Crazy Love (Okabe), 396
Creative Commons, 446
crisis time in Japan, 107, 120n23
Cronenberg, David, 422
Crosby, Bing, 197
CROSS TALK, 8, 394, 396–407, 397, 399f, 401f, 402f, 403f, 405f, 406f, 412n42, 413nn43, 49, 414n52
The Crowd (1928), 131
The Crucified Lovers (Chikamatsu monogatari, 1954), 310, 311
Csikszentmihalyi, Mihaly, 443
CTI (CROSS TALK Intermedia) See CROSS TALK
Cuckoo (Hototogisu, 1922), 167
Cumings, Bruce, 232
Cure (1997), 27–28
Curtis, Tony, 196
Daiei Kyoto, 310–11, 314
Daiei studio
AFF and, 228, 229
bankruptcy of, 203, 239
Eastman color film use by, 227
foreign sales by, 230–31
Hong Kong and, 235
relationship with Hong Kong, 236
Shaw Brothers and, 212
Vista Vision camera use by, 202
Dai Nippon Celluloid (Daicel), 267, 269, 270, 271, 273–74, 275, 276, 278, 279, 283, 284
Dai Nippon Motion Picture Association, 272–73, 274, 277, 278
Daishokan Theater, 179
Daito, 273
Dai-to-a kyoeiken (Greater East Asian Co-Prosperity Sphere), 228
Danseongsa Theater, 182, 183
A Daughter of the Samurai (Sugimoto), 317
Davis, Betty, 330
Davis, Darrell, 145, 255
Dawkins, Richard, 428
The dawn of the Manchu-Mongolian empire (Manmo Teikoku no reimei, 1931), 130
Day, Doris, 199
Days of Youth (Wakaki hi, 1929), 105, 107
Dead or Alive 2: Tobosha (2000), 214
Dead or Alive: Final (2002), 215, 216
Death of a Samurai (jidaigeki Hara-Kiri, 2011), 306
Degawa Mitsuo, 310
Deleuze, Gilles, 31
DeMille, Cecil B., 158, 166, 198, 203
democracy
concert music and, 295
cultural imperialism and, 184
film industry and, 231
middle class and, 294–95, 298
postwar (WW II) Japan, 113, 186, 191, 233, 327–30, 331, 332, 336, 349, 351, 355, 379, 380
representative, 26
Taisho, 3, 80, 81, 85, 90–91
Denis, Claire, 29
Deocampo, Nick, 252, 252f, 253
Derrida, Jacques, 424, 428, 429, 433
Descartes, René, 445
descriptive music (keiyo ongaku), 296–97
Desertion at Dawn (Akatsuki no Dasso, 1950), 337
Detective Conan series, 447
“Detective Story” (1951), 197
Devil in the Flesh (Nikutai no akuma, Tamura), 334
Diary of a Prostitute (Shunpuden, 1950), 337
digital multimedia technology, 6–7, 260–61
(p. 462) Dinteville, Jean de, 425f
Dissanayake, Wimal, 249
Docks of New York (1928), 111–12
documentary films
Amsterdam International Documentary Film Festival, 245
Association for Viewing Documentary Film, 365, 371, 379
avant-garde and documentary relationship, 387–91, 390f, 410nn14, 16, 19–20, 411nn2125
Nyon International Documentary Film Festival, 245
People’s Republic of China filmaking, 256
Philippines filmmaking in, 256
South Korea filmmaking in, 256
Taiwan filmmaking, 256
Yamagata International Documentary Film Festival, 245, 248–50, 248f, 252f, 255f, 257f, 261
Dogase Masato, 375–76
dojin media, 440, 446
Don Quixote (Cervantes), 432
Doraemon, 452
Douchet, Jean, 254
Douglas, Kirk, 197
Dower, John W., 8, 232, 328, 331, 333, 334, 364
The Dragnet (1928), 112
Dragnet (hijosen) series, 112
Dragnet Girl (Hijosen no onna, 1933), 112
The Dragon Painter (1919), 158–59, 159f
Dream Works Pictures, 416, 417, 434, 435
Dreiser, Theodore, 196
Duan Jinchuan, 256, 257, 257f
Dulles, John Foster, 232
Dupont film products, 269
Durbin, Deanna, 116
dystopian films, 27
Early Summer (Bakushu, 1951), 376
The Earth (1930), 140
earthquakes, 104, 108, 112, 141–42, 297, 445, 453
East Asia
capitalist modernization of, 117
cinema studies, 13
Hong Kong films, 6, 209–22, 223nn8, 10, 16, 18, 224n32
Japanese cinematic practices and, 176
material conditions and filmmaking, 115
Eastman color film, 227, 230
Eastman Kodak, 265, 269, 270, 272, 274, 278, 386, 409n7
East-West Center, 249–50
ECAFE (Economic Commission of Asia and the Far East), 231, 232
Eda Fushiki, 293–94
Edo (Tokyo), 126, 317
educational cinema, 378–79, 380
education and movie audiences, 3, 79–93, 94n5, 95nn23, 38, 96nn5960, 97nn64, 66
Education Ministry, 86, 89, 92, 93
Egan Dramatic School, 157
Egawa Saburo, 403, 404, 406f
Ehata Kiju, 80, 82
Eiga Banso Kyokushu (Shinfoni), 298
Eiga chisihi, 132
Eiga geijutsu to kattingu (Film art and cutting) (Iwasaki), 138
Eiga Haikyo Shaho, 285
Eiga hihyo (Film Criticism), 73
Eiga Hyoron (Cinema Criticism), 371
Eiga hyoron (Film Criticism), 70, 75, 371
Eiga kantoku to eiga kyakuhon ron (Study on film direction and screenwriting) (Pudovkin), 140, 150n61
Eiga no tomo, 65
Eiga rinri kanri iinkai or Eirin (Film Ethics Regulation Control Committee), 328, 329, 336
Eisenhower, Dwight, D, 199, 404
Eisenstein, Sergei, 24, 139–40, 140
Eizo Kyoto, 310–11, 312, 314
Ekberg, Anita, 201
Electronic Mechanical Orchestra No. 1 (Akiyama), 394–96, 394f
Emerging Photography Movement, 274
end and opening credits, 323–24
The End of St. Petersburg (1927), 140
An Enemy of the People (Minshu no teki, 1946), 329
England, celluloid making in, 265, 269
environment and intermedia See intermedial practices of cinema
ero-guro genre, 39, 332
Europe
(p. 463) art cinema, 376–77
film festivals and, 230, 246–51, 248f, 261nn5, 7
film style, 43
film style vs. Japanese film style, 38
impressionist critics and, 67
Japanese film exports to, 230
Japan’s efforts at equal status with, 161
Japan’s power and, 83
market share in Japan, 214
rationalism in, 125
Everybody’s Crazy (Zenbu s eishin ijo ari, 1929), 103
Exhibition and Exhibition Sites Regulation, (Korea, 1922), 181
Expo’ 70, 399f, 404
The Extended Phenotype (Dawkins), 428
Fairbanks, Douglas, 193
Fanck, Arnold, 198
fan clubs, 188, 194, 206n42
Far Eastern Survey, 232
Far East Film News, 231
fascism, 127–28, 145, 146
Federation of Economic Organizations, 366
Federation of Motion Picture Producer’s Association (FPA), 6, 227, 231, 240nn12
female singers, 301
female stars
Chinese, 215
Madame Butterfly in Hollywood, 155–60, 159f, 160f
Madame Butterfly in Japan, 161–68, 165f, 166f
overview, 152–55
Fighting Elegy (Kenka elergy, 1966), 350
film editing, haiku and, 24
Film Ethics Regulation Control Committee (CIE), 328, 329, 336
film festivals
Europe, 230, 246–51, 248f, 261nn5, 7
the West and, 230, 246–51, 248f, 261nn5, 7
See also international film festival circuit; Specific festivals
film industry, 189, 190, 191, 203, 204, 309, 435
Filmkunst und Filmshnitt (Timoshenko), 138
Film Law of 1939, 90, 91, 328, 378
Film Quarterly, 42
film style of Japanese cinema
competing theories of the, 39–56, 57nn5, 11, 58n24, 59nn3841, 47
heightened stylization in the, 3, 33–39, 34f38f
shinpa-style, 164, 167
theory of Japaneseness nihonjinron, 3, 39, 41
Film Technique and Film Acting (Pudovkin), 140
Final Cut Pro (1999), 256
finger boxes, 395, 395f, 396
FIPRESCI Prize, 257
First Nations filmmaking, 254
First Steps Ashore (Joriku daiippo, 1932), 111, 112
Fitzmaurice, George, 107
Flaherty, Monica, 103
Flaherty Film Festival, 246
Flashbacks in Film (Turim), 364
Fleischer Brothers, 111
Flow (Csikszentmihalyi), 443
Folklore Study (Yanagita), 375
Footloose (1984), 203
Ford, John, 248f
Forsaken (Horoki, 1954), 226
Foucault, Michel, 318
“Fourth Dimension” (Fukuro), 140
FPA (Federation of Motion Picture Producer’s Association), 6, 227, 231, 240nn12
France, celluloid manufacturing in, 269t
Frankfurter Zeitung, 137
Frankfurt School, 113–14, 115
Frankfurt’s Nippon Connection, 259, 260
Free Asia Association, 231
Freedom and People’s Rights Movement, 167
Freedom School (Jiyu Gakko, 1951), 337
Frege, Gottlob, 449
Friday the 13th (1980), 420
From Space to Environment exhibition (1966), 8, 391–97, 392f, 395f, 411nn2627
Fu, Poshek, 227
Fujii Hiroaki, 312
Fujiki, Hideaki, ix, 3, 79–97, 154, 167–68
Fuji Negative Film (type 100), 279
Fujin Koron, 161
Fujioka Asako, 255
Fuji Photo Film Co., Ltd, 265–66, 271, 272, 273, 276, 278, 279, 281, 284–85
Fuji Positive Film (type 150), 265, 266, 270, 277, 278
Fujisawa Shuhei, 315–16, 316–17, 322, 326
Fuji Sound Recording Film (type 250), 281
Fuji Studio, 275
Fukasaku Kinji, 313
Fukasawa Hiroshi, 312, 315
(p. 464) Fukkatsu (1914), 300
Fukuro Ippei, 139, 140
Futaba Juzaburo, 65
Futari Shizuka (1917), 164
Fuwa Suketoshi, 91, 92, 284
Gable, Clark, 199
gangster films, 112, 114, 195, 220–21
Garcia, Roger, 250
The Garden of Women (Onna no sono, 1954), 226, 349
Garmes, Lee, 197
Gate of Flesh (1965), 350, 351, 354–55, 357
Gate of Flesh (Tamura), 334, 335, 336, 337, 350
Gate of Hell (1953), 310
Gate of Hell (Jigokumon, 1953), 226–27
Geijutsuza, 300
General Principles of Drastic Change for Japan (Kita), 82
Genette, Gerard, 418, 423
geomorphic metaphors, 444–45
geopolitics, twentieth-century Japan, 4, 101, 106, 107, 113
Germany, 269t, 450
Gerow, Aaron, ix, 3, 45, 61–78, 109, 110, 111, 182, 230, 255
Gershwin, George, 199
Gevaert, 269, 270
Ghost in the Shell (Kokaku kidotai, 1995), 216, 217
Gideon’s Day (1958), 248f
Gilbert, Lewis, 313
Gilbert, William S., 155
Ginrin (Matsumoto), 365, 366, 384–87, 385f, 388, 407, 414n16
Ginza, 142
Ginza Can Can Girl (Ginza Kankan Musume, 1949), 338
Going My Way (1944), 191
Gokenin Zankuro (1995–2002), 311
Golden Demon (Konjiki yasha, 1954), 226, 227
Golden Harvest, 212
Gombrich, E. H., 47, 51
Gonda Yasunosuke, 68, 77n34, 79–80, 87, 88–89, 92
Gone with the Wind (1939), 116
Gonzalez, Myrtle, 167
goodwill films (shinzen eiga), 210
Gordon, Andrew, 130
Gosha Hideo, 311
Gosho Heinosuke, 54
Grand Guignol, 39
The Grass-Cutters (Kusa wo karu musume, 1954), 226
Great Depression and Paramount, 190
Greater East Asia Co-prosperity films, 92
Greater East Asian film (Daitoa-eiga), 211
The Green Mountains (Aoi sanmyaku, 1949), 329, 330, 351, 355
Griffith, D. W., 29, 138, 147n13, 179
Group Ongaku, 402
Guangchang (1994), 257
Guattari, Felix, 318
Gulf + Western, 203
Gundam I (1981), 452
Gwangmudae Theater, 179
Gyeonggi Province (Korea), 180, 181
Gyeongseong High Entertainment Theater, 179
Habermas, Jürgen, 84
Hacking, Ian, 363
Hagiwara Kyoshiro, 126
Ha! Ha! Ha! (Betti no warae warae, 1934), 111
haiku, 321
haiku and film editing, 24
Hanada Kiyoteru, 71
Hanayagi Harumi, 5, 152
Handycam, 253
Hankyu Umeda Station, 194f
Hansen, Miriam Bratu, 4, 113–14, 127, 153
Hao Zhiqiang, 256, 257
Harakiri (Seppuku, 1962), 306
Hara Setsuko, 330
Hardboiled Wonderland (Murakami), 453
Harootunian, Harry, 364
Harry Potter and the Chamber of Secrets (2002), 326
Harry Potter and the Sorcerer’s Stone (2002), 326
Haryu Ichiro, 396
Hasegawa Kazuo (Hayashi Chojiro), 112
Hasegawa Nyozekan, 87
Hase Seishu (Bando Toshihito), 220, 221
Hasumi Shigehiko, 3, 73, 73–74
Hatano Fukutaro, 296
Hatano Saburo, 192
Hatano Tetsuro, 64, 66, 72, 72–73
Hata Toyokichi, 139
Hawaii, 176
(p. 465) Hawai’i International Film Festival, 249–50, 251, 258, 259
Hayakawa, Sessue, 152, 158, 160f, 161–63
Hayashi, Tadahiko, 337
Hayashi Chojiro (Hasegawa Kazuo), 112
Hayes, Alexander (Yukio Hayakawa), 162, 163
Hays, Will H., 191
Hazumi Tsuneo, 69, 197
healthy realism genre, 238
Heart of Darkness (Conrad), 17
The Heart of Youth, Puppy Love (1919), 166
Heat Summer Theater (Kageo-za, 1981), 350
Hegel, Georg, 389
Heidegger, Martin, 442
Hello Kitty, 452, 453
A Hen in the Wind (1948), 336
Hepburn, Audrey, 195, 200, 202
Heyworth, Rita, 342
Hi8, 256
The Hidden Blade (2004), 322, 325, 326
Hideko Takamine, 330
Hidenori Okada, x–xi, 7, 265–87
Higashiyama, Chieko, 347
High Entertainment Theater, 172, 179
Higson, Andrew, 184
“Higurashi When They Cry” (Higurashi no Naku Koro ni, 2002), 440–41, 454nn34, 6, 8, 9
Hijikata Tatsumi, 403
Hikone Castle, 320
Hirano, Kyoko, 328, 337
Hirayama Hideyuki, 306, 326
Hirayama Shiho, 300
Hiromeya publicity agency, 291
Hiroshi, Abe, 215
Hiroshi, Unno, 126
Hiroshi (Vital), 28
Hiroshi Kitamura, 229
Hiroshi Shimizu, 51f
Hiroshi Takahashi, 420
Hisamatsu Seiji, 226
Hitchcock, Alfred, 193, 195, 200, 201f, 202
Ho Chiu-Yee, Josie, 215
Holbein, Hans, 424–26, 425f
Holden, William, 193, 195
Holkheimer, 80
Hollywood
African-Americans and, 173
Asian film and, 211
Asian stars in, 5, 152–55, 168
cutting and editing, 138
film festivals and, 246
films in Korea, 177, 184, 186
film style vs. Japanese film style, 38, 43, 45
franchises, 421
impressionist critics and, 67
Japanese cinema’s position in relation to, 176–77
Japanese films vs., 28–29
Madame Butterfly in, 5, 153, 155–60
national film industries and, 435
opening and ending credits, 323
Ringu and, 416, 434–35
storyboards, 322
transparent style of, 68
Home Ministry, 86, 141, 283–84
Home Town (1930), 137
Honda Ishiro, 230
Hong, Henry Gong, 238
Hong Kong films/film industry, 6, 209–22, 223nn8, 10, 16, 18, 224n32, 235, 238
Hong Kong International Film Festival, 239, 250, 251, 254, 258
Hong Kong Night Club (Hon Kon dai yasokai: Tatchi & Magi, 1997), 209, 210, 214, 219
Honma Hisao, 87
Hoop-la (1933), 107
Horoyoi Jinsei (1933), 274
horror films, 28–29
Hoshi no Koe, 453
Hosoda Tamiki, 104
Hosokawa, Shuhei, ix, 7, 288–304
Houchi Shimbun, 273
Hou Hsiao-Hsien, 310, 318
Houseguest and a Mother (Sarangbang Sonnimgwa Eomeoni, 1961), 237–38
Hsing Lee, 238
Hui, Andy, 217
Huyssen, Andreas, 127
hwaldongyeonghwa byeonsa See Korean colonial film spectatorship
I Am Furious Yellow… (1991), 253, 256
Ichikawa Kon, 311
Ichikawa Raizo, 310
Ichi the Killer (Koroshiya ichi, 2001), 214–16, 219
Ichiyanagi Toshi, 391, 395f, 396, 400
(p. 466) “Icon on the Source of White Noise” (Yuasa), 405, 406–7
The Ideal of the East (Okakura), 375
Igarashi, 333, 334
Iijima Tadashi, 73, 132
Ikeda Gishin, 167
Ikeda Toshio, 67, 68
Ikeda Yoshinobu, 300
Ikenami Shotaro, 315
Ikenohata, 142
Ikeru Shikabane (Tolstoy), 300
Imada Kentarô, 292
Imaifuku Ryûta, 446
Imamura Shohei, 29
Imamura Taihei, 68, 129, 130
imperialism, 176, 184, 211, 213–14
Imperial Rescript on Education (1890), 82
impressionism, 62–66, 77n20
Inagaki Hiroshi, 296
Ince, Thomas H., 153, 157, 163
India, 213, 214, 230
Indonesia, 231, 233, 234–35, 238
Industrial Revolution, 374
The Influence of Foreign Film on Japanese Films (Yamamoto), 102
Information Dissemination Section, 328
infrastructure, 383–84, 391
Innocence (Inosensu, 2004), 216–17
Inoue Umetsugu, 212
In Spring (1929), 140
intermedial practices of cinema
avant-garde and documentary relationship, 387–91, 390f, 410nn14, 16, 19–20, 411nn2125
from environment to apparatus, 398–400, 399f, 412nn39, 42, 413nn43, 46
multi-projection and totality, 400–406, 401f, 402f, 403f, 405f, 406f, 413nn4951, 414nn52, 57
overview, 8, 383–87, 385f, 386f, 409nn1, 4, 7–8
politics of apparatus, 406–9, 414nn63, 66, 68, 415n70
from space to environment, 391–97, 392f, 394f, 395f, 411n27, 412nn28, 30, 33, 35
International Exhibition in London (1862), 375
International Film Almanac (Showa 9, 1934), 276, 277
international film festival circuit
Asian-Western interaction, 246–51, 260–61, 261nn5, 7
overview, 6–7, 245–47, 261n2
short circuit/Yamagata, 251–61, 252f, 256f, 257f, 262n8
See also film festivals; Specific festivals
International Film Festival Rotterdam, 250, 259
International Short Film Festival Oberhausen, 260
Internet, nudity on the, 28
Internet and digital media and filmmaking, 6–7, 260–61
Internet film distribution rights, 308
Inukai Tsuyosh, 120n23
Ireton, Glenn, 231
Ise Toshio, 192
Ishida Tamizo, 45
Ishihara, Shintarao, 336
Ishihara, Yujiro, 354
Ishii, Teruo, 33, 38
Ishii Iwao, 310
Ishii Kaori, 371
Ishiko Junzo, 408
Ishizaki Koichiro, 398, 400
Ismail, Usmar, 234, 237
Isoda Koichi, 141, 142
Isozaki Arata, 384, 388, 396, 445
Isozaki-Tono, 405f, 445
The Issue of National Recreation (Gonda), 89
The Issue of Popular Recreation (Gonda), 89
Italian Film Week in Spain, 260
Ito Daisuke, 139
Ito Go, 453
Ivens, Joris, 254, 365
Iwai Shunji, 217
Iwamoto Kenji, 62, 105, 124–25
“I Wanna Get Down” (Captain Funk), 24
Iwasaki Akira, 66, 67, 68, 69, 134, 138, 139, 168, 333
Izbicki, Joanne, 332, 333
J.O. Talkie Studio, 273
Japanese Association for International Promotion of the Moving Image (UNIJAPAN), 254
Japanese Cinema (Richie), 40, 41
(p. 467) Japanese Cinema and Modernism, 1920–1930 (Nihon eiga to modanizumu, 1920–1930) (Iwamoto), 124–25
The Japanese Film (Anderson & Richie), 176
Japanese Girls at the Harbor (1933), 50–51f, 53
Japanese Imperial Army, 233
Japanese Mingei Art Museum (Nihon Mingei Bijutsukan), 374
Japanese Movies (Richie), 40, 41
Japaneseness, 3, 39, 41, 110–13, 121nn40, 50
Japanese New Wave, 52, 71
Japanese sound system, 107, 120n26
Japanese theater, 24–25
Japan Foundation, 451, 452
JASRAC, 446
JDRIII fund, 404
Jenkins, Henry, 441
Jeong Han-Seol, 180
JETRO, 384, 386
Jewish Community Library (Los Angeles), 198
J-Horror See Ringu (J-Horror)
jidaigeki films (period dramas set in the Edo Period), 229, 297–300, 358n6
jidaigeki films (Twilight Samurai)
camera tracks, 322–24
cast of Twilight Samurai, 318
changes to Japanese people over time, 319
current status of, 306–7
Daiei Kyoto and Eizo Kyoto, 310–11
film festivals and Twilight Samurai, 325
film industry geography, 309
Kyoto Eiga Juku, 311–13
Kyoto setting for, 309–10, 320–21
overview, 7
plot of Twilight Samurai, 314–15
premiere and box office, 324
production committee system, 307–8
publicity, 324–25
script for Twilight Samurai, 315–16, 316–18
shooting schedule and aesthetics, 321–22
studio system tradition, 314
Toei Kyoto Studio, 313–14
Twilight Samurai as an ofuna-cho, 316
wigs and makeup, 319–20
Yamada Yoji and Ofuna Studio, 308–9
Jikken kobo (Experimental Workshop), 384
JOBK (radio station), 129
Jost, Jon, 251
Junjo no Miyako (1933), 274, 286n16
Jun Murakami, 279
juvenile delinquency, 103
Kabei: Our Mother (2008), 310
kabuki
cinema and, 103–4, 119n12
film style and, 40, 42, 44
makeup, 166, 166f
onnagata, 153, 154, 164
Pure Film Movement and, 63, 164
sound effects, 292–93
Kabukiza Theater, Tokyo, 291
Kadokawa Holdings, 446
Kadokawa Tsuguhiko, 446
Kaeriyama Norimasa, 62, 63, 64
Kaganovich, Lazar, 233
Kagawa Kyoko, 370f
Kagawa Shizue, 300
Kagemusha (1980), 319
Kaizo, 82
Kakura Film, 270
Kamarck, Edward, 398
Kamata, 111
Kamei Fumio, 24, 254
Kaneko Fuminori, 306
Kano Ryoichi, 379
Kansai Electric Power Company, 366
Kant, Immanuel, 428, 445
Kanto earthquake of 1923, 60n48, 104, 108, 112, 141–42, 297, 445
Kanto Film Society, 108
Kanze Hideo, 371, 373f
Karatani Kôjin, 445
Karisome no Kuchibeni (1934), 278, 279
Kasutori (cheap, poor-quality alcohol) culture, 332
Kato Kazuro, 405
Katori Shingo, 209, 219
katsudoeiga benshi See Korean colonial film spectatorship
Katsudo Gaho, 164, 167
Katsudo Kurabu, 162
Katsudo Shahin Zasshi, 164
Katsudoshashinkai (Moving Picture World), 62
Katsu Shintaro, 215, 310
Katusha’s Song (Kachûsha no Uta), 300
Kawabata Yasunari, 126, 142
Kawachi, Tamio, 352
Kawahara Setsuko, 132
Kawai Kinema, 278
Kawakami Otojiro, 157
(p. 468) Kawakita Kashiko, 116, 248f, 249, 250, 259
Kawakita Memorial Film Institute, 249
Kawakita Nagamasa, 249
Kawase Naomi, 258
Kawashima, uzo, 355
Kawazura Ryuzo, 229, 284
Kaye, Danny, 193, 197
Keene, Donald, 40, 55
keiko eiga (tendency films), 139
keiko films, 67
Keisuke Kinoshita, 7
Kenji Mizoguchi, 329
Kennan, George, 232
Kid Commotion (Kodakara sodo, 1935), 103
Kidlat Tahimik, 252, 252f, 253, 256
Kido Shiro, 104, 107, 120n26
Kieslowski, Krzystof, 254
Kikan fi rumu (Quarterly of Film), 73
Kikuchi Kan, 104, 129, 130, 302
Kilbourn, Russell J. A., 363, 364, 376–77
Kim, Dong Hoon, ix, 5, 172–87
Kim Deok-Gyeong, 179
Kim Dong-bin, 417, 423
Kim Dong-won, 256
Kim Duk-Gyeong, 178
Kim Duk-Ryong, 179
Kim Kwan-soo, 231
Kimura, Takechiyo, 236, 237
Kimura, Takeo, 351
Kimura Chieo, 132, 137, 138, 141
Kimura Takeo, 312
Kinema, 273
Kinema junpo (Movie Times), 17, 63–64, 65, 69, 70, 114, 138, 158, 302
Kinema Record, 63, 64, 65, 164, 296
Kineya Rokuzaemon, 291
King, Geoff, 197
King, Rodney, 21
The Kingdom and the Beauty (Jiangshan meiren, 1958), 212
King Kong (Wasei Kingu Kongu, 1933), 103
Kingsley, Sidney, 197
Kingu (King), 85, 129, 130, 302
Kinnea Shuk-Ting Yau, 108
Kinoshita, Chika, ix, 4–5, 124–51
Kinoshita Keisuke, 226, 275, 329, 330
AFF submission, 226
Oriental Photo School and, 275
woman’s body in postwar Japan cinema, 329, 330, 337, 339, 342, 345, 347, 349, 350, 351, 352, 353, 354, 355, 357
Kinugasa Keinosuke, 41, 227
Kinugasa Teinosuke, 310
Kinuyo Tanaka, 330
Kishida Kazumi, 310
Kishi Matsuo, 112
Kishi Nobusuke, 234
Kishitani Goro, 209, 219
Kitada Akihiro, 146
Kitagawa Fuyuhiko, 65–66, 134–36
Kita Ikki, 82
Kitamura, Hiroshi, x, 5, 188–208
Kitamura Komatsu, 112
Kitano Takeshi, 310
Kitchen (Wo ai chu fang, 1997), 215, 224n32
Kitchin (Yoshimoto), 215
Kobata Kazue, 318
Kobayashi, Toshiko, 337
Kobayashi Akira, 116, 203
Kobayashi Issa, 24
Kobayashi Masaki, 306
Kobayashi Nenji, 313
Kobe earthquake of 1995, 445, 453
Kodak See Eastman Kodak
Kodama Kenji, 326
Kodansha, 130
Kogarashi Monjiro (1972), 311
Koichi Iwabuchi, 214
Koizumi Junichiro, 324–25
Kokkatsu studio, 108
Komada Koyo, 291, 292
Komaki Toshiharu, 193
Komatsu Hiroshi, 110
Komori Kazuko, 75
Kong Su-Chang, 252, 252f
Konishiroku (Konica Corporation), 266, 271, 272, 276
“Konparu March” (Hatano), 296
Kool Killer (Baudrillard), 442
Kopple, Barbara, 254
Korea, 214, 228, 234, 235, 237, 238, 256, 366
Korean Asianist ideology, 213
Korean colonial film spectatorship
byeonsa/benshi and national cinema, 184–86
byeonsa/benshi and the formation of, 174–84, 175f, 181f, 185f, 186f
overview, 5, 172–74
Korean War, 366
Koshien baseball stadium, 193
Kotani Soichi (Henry), 166
Koyasu Nobukuni, 210
Kozaburo Yoshimura, 330
(p. 469) Kracauer, Siegfried, 79–80, 84, 137, 442
Kramer, Robert, 251, 254
Kudo Eiichi, 314
Kuginuki Jizo, 371, 374f
Kume Masao, 104
kung fu films, 212
Kuo, Dylan, 215
Kurahara Korehito, 139
Kurishima Sumiko, 154, 165–68, 166f
KuroDalaiJee (Kuroda Raiji), 396
Kurosawa Akira, 41, 70, 229, 248f, 309–10, 317, 319, 329, 330, 337, 366, 370f
Kurosawa Kiyoshi, 2, 27, 29, 30, 31, 49
Kurotsuchi Mitsuo, 326
Kuze Hiroshi, 326
kyogen, 24
Kyoto Eiga Juku, 311–13
Labor and Imperial Democracy in Prewar Japan (Gordon), 130
labor problems and education, 83, 84
La Dame aux camellias (1988), 315
Ladd, Alan, 196
The Lady Shogun and Her Men (Ooku, 2010), 306–7
Lai-Choi, Nam, 215
Lamorisse, Albert, 365
Landsberg, Alison, 364
The Last Chushingura (Saigo no chushingura, 2010), 306
The Last Samurai (2003), 314
Late Spring (Banshun, 1949), 330, 355, 376
laughter, 15–27, 16f, 18f, 20f, 22f
law and media mix, 449–50
Law of Edification, 90
Leach, Bernard, 374
Le Bon, Gustave, 84
Lebran-Movietec, 234
Lee, Bruce, 212
Lee, Laila, 166
Lee, Sam, 215
Lee, Sangjoon, x, 6, 226–44
Lee Chan-Sam, Sam, 215
Lee Chi-Ngai, 220
Leibniz, Gottfried Wilhelm, 445
Leon, Manuel de, 231
Les Journés Cinématographiques de Carthage, 260
Lethen, Helmuth, 442
Leung Ka-Fai, Tony, 215
Lewis, Diane Wei, x, 306–26
Lewis, Jerry, 193, 200, 201–2
Li Cheuk-to, 250
Lightening Robbery (Inazuma Gôtô, 1899), 292
lighting, 4, 5, 164–65, 165f, 166, 166f, 167, 301, 311–12
Li Han-hsiang, 228
“The Limiting Imagination of National Cinema” (Higson), 184
Lisbon earthquake of 1755, 444
literature
adaptations and sequels, 8, 102, 104, 117, 315
Asama Yoshitaka and, 315
the body in, 333, 334, 335–36
criticism, 67, 70
modernism, 126, 145
modern literature in Europe, 364
montage and, 138
“the people” in, 85
Tokyo in, 126
women in, 7
Liu, Lucy, 152
A Living Doll (Ikeru ningyo, 1929), 139
Lloyd, Frank, 107
Lloyd, Harold, 105
Lo, Kwai Cheung, x, 6, 209–25
Lokanathan, P. S., 232
Loke Wan-tho, 229, 238, 243n64
Long Fang, 243n64
Loop (Rupu, Suzuki), 417, 432
looped worlds and media mix, 440–41, 454nn34, 6, 8, 9
Loridan, Marceline, 251
Los Angeles Examiner, 157
Los Angeles Times, 162
The Lost Weekend (1945), 191
Love and Honor (2006), 322, 325
Love of Actress Sumako (Joyu sumako no koi, 1947), 329
Lubitsch, Ernst, 105
Lumières’ cinématographe, 290
Lunn, Eugene, 138
Lu Xun, 213
LVN Pictures, 231, 234
MacArthur, Douglas, 188, 191
MacDonald, Margaret I., 158
Mace, Fred, 153, 157
MacLaine, Shirley, 193, 196
Madame Butterfly
in Hollywood, 5, 153, 155–60
in Japan, 161–68, 165f, 166f
(p. 470) Madame White Snake (Byaku fujin no yoren, 1956), 235
MAD movies, 446
Mahan, Alfred T., 155
makeup, 166, 166f, 314, 319–20
Makino, 351
Makoto, Ogino, 215
Makoto Shinkai, 453
Malaya, 236
Malaysia, 226, 235, 237, 238
Malik, Djamaludin, 234, 237
Manchu-Mongolian empire, 130
Manchuria, 335
manga, 54
See also media mix
Manop Udomdej, 252, 252f
Manovich, Lev, 441
The Man with a Movie Camera (aka This Is Russia, 1929), 140
Marchand, Roland, 198
Margaret Mead Film Festival, 245
Marker, Chris, 27
Maro Akaji (Sekiji), 405
Martin, Dean, 201
Marx, Karl, 410n20, 442
Marxism
A-list order and make-up, 246
falling rate of profit, 121n50
Gonda Yasunosuke and, 79, 89
Marxist film criticism, 67–69, 77nn31, 34, 134, 139, 150n60, 168, 407, 410n20
masses and how they should be seen, 411n23
Matsumoto’s work, 370, 391
Mizoguchi’s work, 142, 149n50
Monday, 27
montage and, 131, 139, 149n50
neo-Marxist theory, 454n6
Ohara Institute for Social Issues and, 88
Masahiro Makino, 335
“the masses” (die Masse) and movie audiences, 79, 80, 84
Masumura, Yasuzo, 336
materiality of Japanese cinema
Matrix (1999), 221
Matsuda Kazuo, 310
Matsuda Masao, 71, 73
Matsui Junko, 105
Matsui Sumako, 300
Matsumoto Toshio
intermedia and, 8, 384–91, 385f, 390f, 393, 397, 400–402, 401f, 405, 406–7, 408–9, 410n16
Kikan firumu and, 73
New Wave and, 71
Mavo’s collage, 138
Ma Wai-Ho, Joe, 215
Maya, Borneo, 354–55
McCray, Porter, 404
McLuhan, Marshall, 393, 413
media mix
climate and liquid metaphors, 441–44
copyright, 445–46
identity and possibility, 447–49
identity/liquidity, 444–45
looped worlds and, 440–41, 454nn34, 6, 8, 9
overview, 9, 438–39, 453–54, 456n39
politics/culture, 451–53, 451f, 452f
Meiji candy company, 112
Meiji era, 125
Meiji Restoration, 45
The Melancholy of Suzumiya Haruhi series, 446, 447–49, 448f, 453
Melchior, Lauritz, 199
melodrama, 155, 156
memory and cinema Nishijin
Matsumoto and Nishijin, 365–74, 367f, 368f, 369f, 370f, 371f, 372f, 373f, 374f
overview, 8, 363–65, 380–81, 381nn10, 13, 16
recalled memory of cultural nationalism, 374–80, 377f, 378f
metaphors, 438, 441–45
METI (Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry), 239, 254
Metori Nobuo, 192, 193, 194, 195, 196, 201, 202, 203
Metropolitan Museum of Art, 198
MGM, 193
middle class, individualism and democracy concerns, 294–95
middle class film, 110–11, 121n40
Miike Takashi, 28, 29, 30, 31, 214, 215, 219, 221, 306, 314, 326
The Mikado (1885), 155
Mika Ko, 221
Mikami Hiroshi, 215
Mikhail Kaufman, 140
Miller, J. Hillis, 416
Milliken, Carl E., 191
Minami Hiroshi, 125
Mine Junichi, 310
Mingei movement, 374, 375
Minh-ha, Trinh T., 254
(p. 471) Ministry of Commerce and Industry, 270, 271
Ministry of Communications (Teishinsho), 132
Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry (METI), 239, 254
Ministry of Education, “the people” (minshu) and the, 3, 79, 80, 81–93, 95n38, 97n66
Minoru Kuribayashi, 279
Minoru Takada, 279
Minowa Masaru, 326
die minshu (“the people”) and audiences, 3, 79–93, 94n5, 95nn23, 38, 96nn5960, 97nn64, 66
Misora Hibari, 116
Misumi Kenji, 310
Mitchell camera, 227
Mito Komon series, 313
Mitsubishi, 267
Mitsuhiro Yoshimoto, 75
Mitsui, 267
Mitsui Products Company, 270
Mitsuo Miura, 278
Miura Tamaki, 163
Miyadai Shinji, 440
Miyagawa Kazuo, 311, 312
Miyao, Daisuke, x, 1–9, 152–71, 265–87
Miyazawa Rie, 318
Miyoshi Akira, 365–66
Mizoguchi Kenji
awards, 310
film style of, 41, 42, 45, 47, 49
47 Ronin, 146
Shochiku Uzumasa Studio and, 313
success of, 366
Tokyo March, 4, 124, 129, 130, 132, 139, 140, 141, 142, 303
Ugetsu, 310, 323
Victory of Women, 330
Women of the Night, 337
Yokihi/Princess Yang Kwei-fei, 212, 235
Mizukubo Sumiko, 113
Mizuno Haruo, 69
Mizuno Miki, 215
Mobile Suit Gundam (Kidô Senshi Gundam, 1978), 441
modern boys (modan boi), 190
modernism (modanizumu)
advertising and, 126
capitalism and, 117, 127–28, 145
Facism and, 127–28, 145, 146
interwar years overview, 4–5, 124–28, 145–46, 147n13, 151n75
Japanese vs. Western, 8, 364–65
modernity and Japaneseness, 110–13, 121nn40, 50
postwar (WW II) Japan, 375–80, 381, 381n16
Soviet Union, 5, 138–41, 150n60
Tokyo March phenomena, 4–5, 128–38, 135f, 136f, 141–42, 147nn14, 17, 20, 148n36
vernacular modernism, 4, 113–15, 122nn56, 58, 127
Western film, 4, 113–15, 122nn56, 58, 127
modernity, European vs. Chinese, 213
Mohan Gakufu Shuppan, 299
Molasky, Michael S., 333
Molloy (Beckett), 388
Momose Yoshiyuki, 326
Monday (2005), 2, 15–27, 16f, 17f, 18f, 19f, 20f, 21f, 22f, 31
Monopoly Bureau, 267, 276, 284
Monroe, Marilyn, 200
montage, changes of formalism and, 67–68
“Montage and Japanese Culture” (Fukuro), 140
Moon Children (1991), 256
Mori Iwao, 69
Mori Kazuo, 310
Morisaki Azuma, 254
Morita, 267
Morita Fujio, 312
Morita Yoshimitsu, 306
The Morning of the Osone Family (Osone-ke no ashita, 1946), 329, 330
“Morning Sun” Shines (Asahi wa kagayaku, 1929), 142, 143f, 144f, 145f
Mother (1926), 140
Motion Picture Export Association (MPEA), 188, 191
Motion Picture Producers and Distributors of America (MPPDA), 191
Motion Picture Producer’s Association (MPPA), 227, 235
Motion Picture Raw Film Control Counsel, 285
Motion Pictures and Edification (Yamane), 86–87
The Mountain (1956), 198
Mount Fuji, 386
Movie, 41
Movie Times (Kinema junpo), 17, 63–64, 65, 69, 70, 114, 138, 158, 302
Moving Picture Film Censorship Regulation (Korea, 1926), 181–82, 181f
Moving Picture World (Katsudoshashinkai), 62
Moving Picture World (MPW), 153, 156, 158
(p. 472) MP & GI (Motion Picture & General Investment) Studio, 212, 238
MPEA (Motion Picture Export Association), 188, 191
MPPA (Motion Picture Producer’s Association), 227, 235
MPPDA (Motion Picture Producers and Distributors of America), 191
Mr. Smith Goes to Tokyo (Kyoko), 328
Muchaku Seikyo, 380
Mukojima, 110
Murakami Haruki, 453
Murata Minoru, 42, 112
Murayama Tomoyoshi, 138
Musashino Shuho (of Musashinokan in Shinjuku, Tokyo), 297
music
concert music, 294–97
early silent movie, 291–93
jidaigeki films (set in Edo Period), 297–300
musical accompaniment ideals in 1910, 293–94
popular song and film, 300–303
Mutual Film Corporation, 152
Myer, Karl, 137
My Love Has Been Burning (Waga koi wa moenu, 1949), 329
My Love with Stars (Ai yo hoshi to tomoni, 1947), 330
My Neighbor, Miss Yae (Tonari no Yae-chan, 1934), 111
mystificatory illusionism, 49
Naganuma Mutsuo, 310, 312, 321, 322, 323
Nagata Masaichi, 6, 226–27, 228, 229, 230–31, 234, 235, 239, 245, 279
Nagoya train station, 193
Naito Akira, 312
Nakae Isamu, 214
Nakagawa Nobuo, 226
Nakagawa Shigehiro, 312
Nakagawa Yukio, 323
Nakahara Yusuke, 408
Nakahira Takuma, 399
Nakajima Shinpei, 128
Nakamura Kasen, 152
Nakamura Seiko, 87
Nakamura Tsutomu, 312
Nakano Jiro, 296
Nakaoka Gengon, 311, 312
Nakasone Yasuhiro, 440
Nakata, Hideo See Ringu (J-Horror)
Nakata Shunzo, 80, 82, 87
Nakayama Shinpei, 130
Nanbu Keinosuke, 69, 195
Nan guo dian ying (Southern Screen), 227
Nankin no Kirisuto (Akutagawa), 215
Naruse Mikio, 41, 45, 47, 54, 112, 226
National Film Center, 386
National Film Center (Tokyo), 365
National Film Control Committee, 270
nationalism
audiences and, 85
CIE’s censorship and, 328
economic, 233
film industry and, 237
recalled memory of cultural, 365, 374–80, 377f, 378f
shame, 111
Tokyo March phenomena, 130
transnationalism, 101–2
nationalist slogans, 442, 451, 452
nationalist symbols, 451f, 452f
National Lecture Series for Local Administrators and Educators of Film (Zenkoku kyoiku eiga jimu tanto kyouikusha koshukai), 88
Natsume Soseki, 375
negative dialectic, 113
Neighbor’s Wife and Mine (Madamu to nyobo, 1931), 107
Neill, R. William, 166
Nemuri Kyoshiro series (1963–1969), 310
Neon Genesis Evangelion (1995), 444
New Asian Currents, 258, 260
New Film Regulations of 1942, 90
New German Cinema, 260
New Left, 29, 67
New School (sinpa) groups, 177
New Taiwan Cinema, 249, 250
New York Clipper, 157
New York Motion Picture Company (NYMPC), 153, 158
Nickelodeon pianists, 297
Nihon eiga sangyo shinkokai (Society for the Promotion of Japanese Film Industry), 229
Nihon University College of Art (Tokyo), 365
(p. 473) Nikkan Kogyo Shimbun, 270
Nikkatsu studio, 108, 110, 113, 130, 132, 229, 239, 273, 279, 300, 301, 354
Nikkatsu Uzumasa studio, 112
Nikko temples, 40
Nippona Artista Proleta Federacio (NAPF, or All Japan Federation of Proletarian Arts), 139
Nippon Celluloid Jinzo Kenshi, 267
Nippon Connection, 259, 260
Nippon modern, 48, 110
Nippon Puroretaria Eiga Domei (Proletarian Film League of Japan), 139
Nippon Television, 309
Nippon Times, 230
Nishida Kitaro, 375
Nishijin, The Song of Stone (Ishi no uta, 1963), 366, 387, 389–91, 390f, 407
Nishioka Yoshinobu, 311, 313
Nitchitsu Kayaku, 276
Noble, Ruth, 162
Nobusuke Kishi, 271
Nogami Teruyo, 310
Nogawa, Yumiko, 350
Noh, 24, 42, 44, 371, 373f
noise, white, 402, 405, 407, 408
Nora, Pierre, 363
No Regrets for My Youth (Waga seishun ni kuinashi, 1946), 329, 330, 351
Norisugi Kaju, 80, 82, 83, 85
Nornes, Abé Mark, x, 1, 6, 71, 245–62
North American film festival circuit, 249
North Korea, 237
Nyon International Documentary Film Festival, 245
The Oath of O Tsuru San (1913), 153
Oba Mie, 232
Obayashi Soshi, 87
Oberhausen Manifesto, 260
Odewonza Weekly (of Odewonza, in Yokohama), 297
Office of the Governor General (Department of Documentation and Publication, Toshoka), 182
Ofuna studio, 107, 309, 314
Ogawa Shinsuke, 251, 252, 252f, 253, 257
Ogawa Toru, 3, 70–71, 74
Ogi Masahiro, 69
Ogonkan Theater, 179
Oguchi Tadashi, 164
Oguma Eiji, 222
Ogura Shigeru, 103
Ohara Institute for Social Issues, 88
Okabe Michio, 396
Oka Joji, 112, 113
Okakura Tenshin, 375
Okamoto Kenichi, 311, 312
Okamura Akira, 114
Okuyama Junosuke, 8, 394, 396–97, 405, 406, 406f, 408
The Old and the New (1929), 140
O Mimi San (1914), 153
One Piece (2000s), 444
Ongaku Shohosha, 300
onnagata, 153, 164
opening and end credits, 323–24
Orgies of Edo (Zankoku ijo gyakuai monogatari: Genroku onna keizu, 1969), 33–39, 34f, 35f, 36f, 37f, 38f, 55–56
Oriental Exclusion Act of 1924, 110
orientalism
Chinese culture as represented in Japanese cinema, 214, 215, 220
feminine depiction, 154, 156, 158, 168
Oriental Photo Industrial Co. Ltd., 271–72, 273–76, 286n11
Oriental Photo School, 275
Osaka Expo (1970), 384, 387
Oscar winners, 196, 227, 229
Oshii Mamoru, 216
Oshima Nagisa, 29, 71, 309, 311
Osugi Sakae, 75, 87
Otani Takejiro, 226
Otomo Katsuhiro, 443
Otsuka Eiji, 441, 451, 453
Oyama Ikuo, 87
Oyster Girl (Ke nu, 1964), 238
Ozu Yasujiro
adaptation of Hollywood films by, 4, 104–7, 106f, 112, 114, 119n20, 120n23, 120n29
A Hen in the Wind, 336
Café Lumirè and, 310
directorial style, 29
film style, 41, 42, 45, 47, 49, 54, 55, 376, 384
Late Spring, 330
season films, 321–22
Shochiku Ofuna Studio and, 309
Tokyo Story, 347
(p. 474) P.C.L. (Toho Company), 274, 275, 278
pain in film, 371, 371f, 372f, 373f, 374f
Panafricain du cinéma et de la Télévision de Ougadougou, 260
Pan Am, 404
Paramount, 69
Paramount (newsletter), 194–95
Paramount’s business campaign in Japan
hegemonic influence, 202–4
overview, 5–6, 188–90, 204n3
post-occupation, 191–202, 194f, 201f, 207n73
prewar through occupation, 190–91
Paramount “Tomo no kai” (Meeting of Friends), 194–95
Park Chung Hee, 237
Parker, Eleanor, 197
Park Seung-Pil, 179
Passing Fancy (Dekigokoro, 1933), 106
Pathé, 265
Pathé Baby 9.5 mm film projector, 139
Pathé film products, 269
Patwardhan, Anand, 255f
Paulson, Jeannette, 249
Peacock King (Kujaku o, 1989), 215
Peking Man (Pekin genjin, 1997), 214
People on Sunday (Menschen am Sonntag) (1930), 131
People’s Films, 116
People’s Republic of China (PRC), 233, 237, 249, 256
See also China
People’s Rights movement, 112
Pepsi, 404
“Petition for Regulation of Motion Pictures, The” (Society for Imperial Education), 86
Philippines, 226, 228, 231, 233, 234, 235–36, 237, 256
phonography and silent films, 301–2
Photo Chemical Laboratory (P.C.L.), 273
photography in Japan, 274–75
Photo Times, 274
Picture-Play Magazine, 160f
“Pierre Menard, Author of the Quixote” (Borge), 432
Ping (1968), 405
Ping Pong (2002), 215, 220
Piper, William, 191
Pistol Opera (2001), 356, 357
A Place in the Sun (1951), 196–97
politics
of apparatus, 406–9, 414nn63, 66, 68, 415n70
manga and anime, 451–52, 451f, 452f
political montage, 140–41, 149n50
politicization of aesthetics, 127, 146
tendency films, 139
twentieth-century Japan geopolitics, 4, 101, 106, 107, 113
urban masses and, 64
Ponge, Francis, 387, 389
Poppy (Gubijinso, 1921), 166, 166f
popular culture/mass culture
cinema’s close ties with, 112
modernism and, 127
recreation, education and movie audiences, 3, 79–93, 94n5, 95nn23, 38, 96nn5960, 97nn64, 66, 189
popular literature and Japanese cinema, 104
pornographic films, soft-core (Roman Porno), 239
Post-Earthquake Tokyo Recovery Plan (Teito fukko keikaku, 1925), 141–42
posters, 105–6, 106f
postmodernity, 121n40, 119, 121n50, 126, 445
postwar/occupied Japan
advertising/promotion by U.S. studios, 192–93, 194f, 195–99
censorship, 191, 328, 336
democracy and, 113, 186, 191, 233, 327–30, 331, 332, 336, 349, 351, 355, 379, 380
film criticism during, 69–72, 77n37
Japanese vs. U.S. studios, 202–4
Paramount’s business campaign during, 191–202, 194f, 201f, 207n73
poverty and education, 83
Practical Research on Social Education (Ehata), 82
The Practice of Social Education (Norisugi), 82
praxis, 31–32
Premier Pictures, 234, 235
press sheets (puresu shiito), 193
(p. 475) The Princess Goh (Basara, 1992), 311, 318
Princess Yang Kwei-fei (Yokihi, 1955), 235
Production Code Administration, 192
“Projection for Icon” (Matsumoto), 401–2, 401f, 408
Prokino, 139
Proletarian School, 126, 137, 139, 146
promotion See advertising/promotion
propaganda
Asian filmmakers and, 253
in China, 257
in Japan, 70, 88, 93, 146, 328, 379
Nazi Germany, 378
United States, 404
propaganda (Kitada), film as, 146
propaganda films, 209, 223n8
prostitutes and streetwalkers, 334, 335, 337, 350, 355, 357
Provoke, 399, 408
Psycho (1960), 189, 201f
Puccini, Giacomo, 155, 157
Pudovkin, Vsevolod, 130, 139, 140
Pure Film Movement, 62–66, 77n20, 108, 110, 163–64, 230
Pusan (Busan) International Film Festival, 239, 250, 251
Quarterly of Film (Kikan fi rumu), 73
Radiance of Life (Sei no kagayaki, 1918), 5, 152
Radon (Sora no Daikaiju Radon, 1956), 230
Raiders of the Lost Ark (1981), 420
Raine, Michael, xi, 4, 101–23
Rainer, Yvonne, 254
Rashomon (1950), 70, 229, 230, 245, 310, 311, 376
rationalism, 125
raw film industry (nitrate film production)
battle over celluloid, 275–77, 277t
domestic Japanese products quality and use, 271–74, 277–79
history of celluloid in Japan, 266–70, 268t, 269t
nitrate film as national policy, 270–71, 271t
Oriental as visionary, 274–75, 286n11
overview, 7, 265–66
war years, 280–85, 280–81t, 282–83t, 285t
Rayns, Tony, 250, 259
realism
cinematic, 317
film criticism and, 68
healthy realism films, 238
Japanese film style and, 41–43, 54–55
photographic, 156
postwar Japan, 375–80
socialist, 68
Rear Window (1954), 189, 200
Record of a White Long Line (Shiroi nagai sen no kiroku, 1960), 366
Reel Life, 152
Reflections on Forty Years of Film Manufacturing (Fuji Photo Film), 277
Reis, Michelle, 214, 219
Remarque, Erich Maria, 102
Research Board on Popular Recreations (Minshu goraku chosa iinkai), 87–88
Resurrection, (Tolstoy), 300
Reynolds, Karen, 398
Reynolds, Roger, 394, 394f, 398, 405f
Rhapsody in Blue (1945), 199
Richie, Donald, 3, 39, 40–43, 53–54, 176, 229, 234, 249, 250, 259
Ricoeur, Paul, 363
Ri Koran, 116, 152, 209–10, 211, 212, 223nn8, 10
Rikyu (1989), 311
Ringu (J-Horror)
Hollywood and, 416–17, 434–35
overview, 8, 416–18
parasites, 429–34, 429f, 430f
paratexts, 418–24, 419f, 420f, 421f
parergons, 424–29, 425f, 436n21
riots and education, 83, 84
Ritsumeikan University, 313
Road to Rio (1947), 191
Robert and Frances Flaherty Grand Prize, 258
Robinson Crusoe (1954), 292
Rojas, Carlos, xi, 8, 416–37
Rokumeikan’s ball, 294
Rokuosha, 266, 270
Roman Holiday (1953), 189, 200, 202
Roman Law, 449–50
Roman Porno, 239
Ronin (1941–1942), 146
Rosen, Philip, 445–46
Ross, Sara, 162
Rostow, W. W., 233
Rush Hour 3 (2007), 314
(p. 476) Russo-Japanese War, newsreels, 292
Rustling a Bride (1919), 166
Ruttmann, Walter, 131, 134, 137
Ryo Iwase, 270
Ryuzo Kawazura, 283
Sadami, Suzuki, 126
Sadayakko, 157
Saga of the Phoenix (Kujaku o: Ashura densetsu, 1990), 215
Saijo Yaso, 128, 129, 130, 131, 132, 142
Saito, 445, 453
Saito, Ayako, xi, 7, 265–87, 327–62
Saito Tatsuo, 105
Saito Tomohiko, 310
Saito Torajiro, 102, 103, 103f
Sakae Haruki, 269, 271, 279
Sakai Celluloid, 267
Sakura 16mm Cine Film, 266
Sakurajima volcano eruption, 157
Sampaguita, 234
samurai films See jidaigeki films (Twilight Samurai); Specific films
The Samurai I Loved (Semishigure, 2005), 326
Samurai Vendetta (Hakuoki, 1959), 311
Sanada Hiroyuki, 313, 314, 318
San Francisco Peace Treaty, 233
Sanggye-dong Olympics (1988), 256
Sanshiro (Natsume), 375
Sas, Miryam, xi, 8, 383–415
Sasa Genju, 139
Sasaki Norio, 140
Sasaoka Tadayoshi, 380
Sasho Shozaburo, 203
Sasori (2008), 215
Sato Junya, 214
Sato Makoto, 255f, 257f
Sato Tadao, 70, 112, 114, 371
Sato Takumi, 146
Satow, Ernest, 389
Saturday Night Fever (1977), 203
Saunders, Jackie, 164–65, 165f
Sawaragi Noi, 440
SCAP (Supreme Command for the Allied Powers), 188, 191
Scarface (1932), 112
The Scarlet Gang of Asakusa (Kawabata), 126, 142
Schmitt, Carl, 444
School of Echoes (Muchaku), 380
Scott, Ridley, 216
Season of the Sun (Taiyo no kisetsu, Ishihara), 336
Season of Youth (Wakai kisetsu, 1962), 116
seasons and Japanese film, 321–22
Second Daishokan Theater, 179
The Secret Garden (1919), 166
Seidl, Ulrich, 255f
Seiji Lippit, 142
Seiter, William, 236
sekai-kei (world type), 453
Selve, Georges de, 425f
Sendo Kouta (Boatman Ditty), 300
Senki (Battle Flag), 139
Seo Sang-Ho, 172, 179, 184, 185f, 186f
serial rensageki, 152–53
Sessue Hayakawa, 152, 153, 158
Seventh Heaven (1927), 105
Seventy Years of Oriental Photo Industry (1970), 275
sexploitation, 39
Shadow Warriors series (1980–1985), 313
Shaka (1961), 202
Shakai kyoiku (Social Education), 82
Shakai to kyoka (Society and Edification), 82, 86, 88
Shanghai International Film Festival, 239
Shanghai melodramas (1930s), 114
Shaw, Run Run, 228, 238
Shaw Brothers, 211, 212, 223n16, 228, 234, 235, 238
She (Saishu), 453
Shiba Ryotaro, 315
Shibui, 40, 41
Shibuya, Minoru, 337
Shigeno Yukiyoshi, 65, 162
Shigeyoshi Suzuki, 278
Shima Koji, 226, 227, 338
Shimamura, 321
Shimamura Hogetsu, 87
Shimazu Yasujiro, 111, 112
Shimizu Akira, 69
Shimizu Chiyota, 70
Shimizu Hiroshi, 45, 47, 54
Shinema 69 (later Shinema 70 and Shinema 71), 73
Shinfoni Gakufu, 298
Shinjuku, 141, 142, 396
Shinko Kinema, 279
Shinoda Masahiro, 309
Shinohara Toru, 215
Shinriken-eiga, 378
Shin Sang-ok, 228
Shintoho, 203
Shin Toho, 226, 229
(p. 477) Shirai Yoshio, 69
Shishido Jo, 203, 357
Shiso no kagaku (Science of Thought) study group, 70
Shochiku Kamata studio, 110–11, 112, 116, 273, 275
Shochiku Kyoto studio, 308, 309–10, 311, 314
Shochiku’s foreign film chain (“SY” chain), 194
Shochiku studio
benshi, 180
A Class to Remember series, 309
Dai Nippon Motion Picture Association and, 273
film festival films, 226, 229, 239
first female actors, 168
Hong Kong films, 212
Kotani Soichi and, 166
New Wave directors, 309
New York office, 108
Ofuna studio, 107, 309, 314
Ozu Yasujiro, and, 105
popular songs in films by, 301
Seijun Suzuki and, 354
sound, use of, 107, 120n26
Suzuki Denmei and, 104
Tora-san series, 308
Twilight Samurai, 313
wartime restructuring, 284
Yamada Yoji and, 307
Shochiku theaters, 324
Shonai Eigamura (Shonai Movie Village), 326
Showa Japan, 289
Shura Hakko (1927), 299
“Significance and Value of Popular Arts, The” (Honma), 87
silent films, 107, 120n26
silent film sound
concert music, 294–97
early attempts at, 291–93
jidaigeki films (set in Edo Period), 297–300
kouta eiga (popular song and film), 300–303
musical accompaniment ideals in 1910, 293–94
overview, 7, 288–90, 303
Silent Film Sound (Altman), 288–89
Silverberg, Miriam, 129
Silver Wheels See Ginrin (Matsumoto)
Singapore, 235, 236, 237, 238
Singer, Ben, xii, 3, 33–66
singing cowboy genre, 116–17
Sino-Japanese War
raw film industry and the, 280–84, 280–81t, 282–83t
silent movie sound during the, 290
Skyscraper (Matenro, 1930), 112
Sleepless Town (Fuyajo, 1998), 220
social education See education and movie audiences
Social Education (Shakai kyoiku), 82
social education and movie audiences, 3, 82–93, 94n5, 95nn23, 38, 96nn5960, 97nn64, 66
socialism
audiences and education, 83–84, 85
capitalist exploitation and, 336
fascism and, 146
socialist realism, 68
twentieth century, 233
working class and, 130
Society and Edification (Shakai to kyoka), 82, 86, 88
Society for Imperial Education (Teikoku kyoiku), 86
Society for Praising Good Films, 108
soft-core pornographic films, 239
Sogetsu Art Center, 396, 400
Sokurov, Aleksandr, 255f
The Song of Stone (Ishi no uta, 1961), 366, 387, 389–91, 390f, 407
Sontag, Susan, 318
Sony, 404
Sony Handycam, 253
Sorekara (Natsume), 375
Sori (aka Masuri) Fumihiko, 215
Sorrows of the Forbidden City (Qinggong mishi, 1948), 212
Sotoji Kimura, 274
sound
everyday sounds, 87
exhibits/performances, 394–96, 394f, 401–2, 405, 405f, 406–7
Fuji Sound Recording Film, 281
Makino Talkie Studio, 313
in Nishijin, 377
in Song of Stone, 389–91
talkies, 278, 303
transition to talkies, 104, 107, 120n26, 129, 237
white noise, 402, 405, 407, 408
Sound of the Mountain (Yama no oto, 1954), 226
(p. 478) Sousa, John Philip, 296
Southeast Asia, 213
Southeast Asian Economic Mission, 234
Southeast Asian Film Festival See Asian Film Festival (AFF)
Southern Screen (Nan guo dian ying), 227
South Korea, 214, 228, 234, 235, 237, 238, 256, 366
South Korean Civil War, 233
South Korean Motion Picture Association, 231
Soviet Union, 5, 138–41, 150n60, 233
Space Battleship Yamato (Uchû Senkan Yamato, 1974), 441, 443f, 451f
Spanish cinema, 260
Special Guard (Hijo Keikai, 1929), 112
spectatorship, 2, 3, 61, 62, 63, 72, 75, 87, 93, 289
Speedy (1928), 105
Spielberg, Steven, 420
Spiral (Rasen, Suzuki), 417, 422, 426–27, 431–32, 436n21
The Square (1994), 257
The Stars Are Singing (1953), 199–200
Star Wars (1977), 420
Sternberg, Joseph von, 107, 111, 112
Stevens, George, 196
Stewart, Jacqueline, 173
Stewart, James, 193
Stony Point’s Movie Drome, 400
Storm over Asia (1928), 130, 140, 150n60
Story of a Prostitute (1965), 350, 355, 357
Story of a Prostitute (Tamura), 350
Story of Floating Weeds (Ukikusa monogatari, 1934), 106f, 107
Strategic Air Command (155), 193
Stray Dog (1949), 355
street/body art, 396
Strike (1925), 140
Studies on Japanese Modernism (Nihon modanizumu no kenkyu) (Minami), 125
Study Group for Social Education, 82
Study of Recreation, A (Nakata), 82
Study of Virtue (Nishida), 375
Suen, Pauline, 214, 219
Sugimoto Etsuko, 317
Sugita Shigemichi, 306
suicide, 19
Sukiyaki Western Django (2007), 326
Sullivan, Arthur, 155
Sumitomo Corporation, 309
sumo films, 292
Sundance Film Festival, 245
Sunset Boulevard (1950), 191
Super-8 video, 256
Suppé, Franz, 296
Supreme Command for the Allied Powers (SCAP), 188, 191
Sure Death series, 313
Sutoton Bushi (1924), 301–2
Suzuki, Seijun, 336, 350–57, 352f, 353f, 354f
Suzuki, Shigeyoshi, 278, 279
Suzuki Denmei, 104
Suzuki Jukichi, 139
Suzuki Koji, 8, 416, 417, 422, 426, 431, 433, 434, 435
Suzuki Sadahiro, 375
Suzuki Sadami, 126
Suzumiya Haruhi anime series, 440
Swallowtail Butterfly (Suwaroteiru, 1996), 217–19
Swickard, Charles, 158
Sword of Desperation (Hisshiken torisashi, 2010), 306, 326
Systems of Contemporary Japanese Film Thought (Gendai Nihon eigaron taikei) (Sadao), 69–72
Sze-Yu, Lau, 215
Taboo (Gohatto, 1999), 311, 312
Tachibana Takahiro, 63, 87, 88
Tachibana Teijiro, 164
Tadashi Imai, 329
Taikatsu studio, 108
Taisho “cinemaniacs”, 295
Taisho democracy, 3, 80, 90–91, 94n4
Taisho period, 289
Taiwan
benshi practice in, 176
camphor production in, 267
documentary filmmaking in, 256
film exports to Japan by, 214
film festivals and, 226, 228, 237
film industry in, 238
Japan’s economic ties with, 234
New Taiwan Cinema, 249
theater chains in, 235
Taiwanese camphor, 267
Takagi Koichi, 2, 15–25, 16f, 17f, 18f, 19f, 20f, 21f, 22f
Takahashi Yuji, 400
(p. 479) Takamine, Hideko, 337, 338, 339, 342, 345, 349, 350
Takekuma Kentaro, 445
Takemitsu Toru, 384, 385, 390
Takemura Tamio, 125
Takenouchi Yutaka, 215
Takeuchi Atsushi, 216
Takeuchi Yoshimi, 213
Taki Shinji, 116–17
The Tale of Chunhyang (Chunhyangjeon, 1935), 185
Tamura, Taijio, 334–35, 336, 337, 350, 351, 355
Tanaka, Kinuyo, 336, 355
Tanaka Hiroyuki (Sabu), 2, 15, 23, 24, 25, 27, 31
Tanaka Jun’ichiro, 300
Tanaka Masasumi, 105
Tanaka Min, 318
Tanaka Satoshi, 251
Tanaka Tetsunosuke, 112
Tanba Tetsuro, 313
Tange Kenzo, 399, 404
Taniguchi, Senkichi, 337
Tanizaki Jun’ichiro, 296
Taylor, Elizabeth, 196
TEAC, 404
Teacher’s Pet (1958), 199
Teddie Co, 252, 252f
Teikine studio, 108, 301
Teinosuke Kinugawa, 329
Teiso Mondo (1934), 278
television and film criticism, 69, 75
The Ten Commandments (1956), 198
tendency films (keiko eiga), 139
Tenrikyo, 279
Teo, Stephen, 250, 252, 252f, 255
Terada Shiro, 161
Terada Torahiko, 130
Terdiman, Richard, 364
Teshigahara Hiroshi, 311, 318
Tezuka Is Dead (Tezuka izu Deddo, Itô), 453
Tezuka Osamu, 441
Thailand, 176, 226, 227, 235, 238
“That Morning Thing” (Ashley), 402, 402f, 404
That Night’s Wife (1930), 114
Thelma and Louise (1991), 19
Thirteen Assassins (Jusannin no shikaku, 2010), 307, 313–14, 326
Thirty Years of Oriental Photo Industry (1950), 275
Tian Zhuangzhuang, 252, 253
Tiexi Qu, 258
Tie Xi Qu: West of the Tracks (2003), 258
Timoshenko, Semyon, 138, 139, 140
Titanic (1997), 203
Toei, 39, 56, 226, 229
Toei Kyoto Studio, 313–14, 314
Togawa Naoki, 62
Toho Block production companies, 273, 278
Toho Company (P.L.C.), wartime restructuring, 284
Toho Studios, 212, 226, 229, 235, 236, 314
Tokai kokyogaku (Metropolitan Symphony, 1929), 139
Tokatsu studio, 112
Toko Kon, 350
Tokugawa-era, 33
Tokyo Drifter (Tokyo nagaremono, 1966), 350
Tokyo in literature, 126
Tokyo International Film Festival, 239, 247, 254, 255
Tokyo March (Tokyo koshinkyoku) phenomena, 4–5, 128–38, 135f, 136f, 141–42, 147nn14, 17, 20, 148n36, 303
Tokyo Metropolitan Government, 254
Tokyo School of Art (Tokyo Bijutsu Gakko), 375
Tokyo Story (Tokyo monogatari 1953), 347, 370f, 376
Tokyo the Modern City (Unno), 126
To Live (Ikiru, 1952), 337
Tolstoy, Leo, 300
Tomita Yasuko, 215
Tono Yoshiaki, 8, 396, 399f, 408
Top Gun (1986), 203
Tora-san series (Otoko wa tsurai yo, 1969–1995), 239, 308, 315
Toronto International Film Festival, 245
Tosaka Jun, 85
totalitarianism, 80
Total Mobilization, 90
To the Distant Observer (Burch), 43
Towa, 69
Toyoda, Shiro, 41, 235
Toyo Kanpan, 269
Toyo Kikuchi, 274
Tracked (Usugesho, 1985), 311
Tracy, Spencer, 198
“Traditional Theater and the Film in Japan” (Richie), 42
Tragedy of Japan (Nihon no higeki, 1953), 349, 356
Transcritique (Karatani), 23
Träumelei (Schumann), 296
“Travel around the World” (1920), 294
Truman, Harry S., 232
“Trunk Theater”, 139
Tsai Ming-Liang, 29
Tsubouchi Shoyo, 87
Tsuburaya Eiji, 384
Tsuchihashi brothers, 107
Tsuchimoto Noriaki, 252, 252f
Tsuda Kozo, 167
Tsui Hark, 221
Tsukamoto Shinya, 28, 29, 30, 31
Tsukuba Expo, 239
Tsumura Hideo, 65
Tsurumi Shunsuke, 3, 70, 72
Tudor, David, 400
Turim, Maureen, 364
Turner, Bryan, 443
20th Century Fox, 69, 191, 203
Twenty-Four Eyes (1954), 349
Twenty-Four Eyes (1987), 315
“Twilight Samurai” (Fujisawa), 315
U.S. State Department, 191
Uchida Tomu, 139
Udine Far East Film Festival, 250, 259
Uemura, Sumisaburo, 275
Uemura, Taiji, 275
UFA (Universum Film AG), 378
Ugetsu (1953), 310, 311, 323, 376
Ultimate Weapon, (Saishu), 453
Umigwan Theater, 175, 179, 180, 184
Underworld (1927), 112
Underworld (ankokugai) series of films, 112
UNIJAPAN (Japanese Association for International Promotion of the Moving Image), 254
Union Station (1950), 195
United Artists, 203
United Artists Toho, 69
United Kingdom, celluloid manufacturing in, 269t
United States
African-Americans and cinema, 173
Americanization in Japan, 125
anti-Japanese sentiment in, 155
Asia Press and the, 231
avant-garde art, 404
Berlin International Film Festival and the, 231, 242n32
CMPE and the, 229
criticism standards in the, 65
ECAFE and the, 232
foreign policy, 155–56
geopolitical imbalance with Japan, 111–13
image of Japanese women in, 160, 160f, 162
Japanese cinema’s position in relation to, 176–77
Japanese sound technology and, 107
Japan’s efforts at equal status with, 161
Japan’s power and the, 83
market share in Japan, 214
Nickelodeon pianists, 297
policy toward Asia, 232–33
raw films production in the, 265, 269
realism in film, 42
sexploitation films, 39
silent movie sound in, 289
university courses on cinema, 236
Yamagata International Documentary Film Festival and the, 254
United States Information Services (USIS), 404
University of California, 236
University of Chicago, 198
University of Southern California, 236
Universum Film AG (UFA), 378
Uno Tsunehiro, 453
The Untouchables (1987), 203
urbanism/urban populations
desire for a preurbanized world, 214
Dickens and, 151n75
ethnically segregated urban space, 179, 185
fascism and, 145
interwar cultural production and consumption and, 125
modernism/modernity and, 125, 127, 129, 145, 151n75, 155
Paramount and, 195, 199, 200
politics and, 64
(p. 481) Pure Film Movement and, 64
silent film era and, 294–95
technical changes in urban space, 383–84, 385, 391, 392, 395, 396, 398, 399
urban culture of Tokyo, 129
Uryu Tadao, 67
Ushihara Kiyohiko, 105
Utada Hikaru, 325
Utter Confusion (Tenyawanya, 1950), 337
VanDerBeek, Stan, 400, 401
van der Keuken, Johan, 251
Van Sant, Gus, 29
Venice Biennale, 445
Venice International Film Festival, 229, 239, 245, 259, 364, 376, 379
Verbinski, Gore, 416, 417, 418, 423, 434, 435
VHS, 256
VHS-C, 253
VHS video recorder, 420–21
Victor Japan, 129, 130, 131
The Victory of Women (Josei no shori, 1946), 329, 330
Videodrome (1983), 422
Vidor, King, 131
Vietnam, 238
Villarreal, Luis, 433
violence in films, 29
The Virginian (1946), 191
Visions of Japanese Modernity (Gerow), 110, 111
VistaVision, 197–98, 202
Vital (2004), 28
Vitrine (1952), 386–87, 386f, 408
Voice of Things (Le parti pris des choses, Ponge), 387
Voices of a Distant Star (2002), 453
Voltaire, 445
Wada-Marciano, Mitsuyo, xii, 8, 110, 111, 363–82
Wagner, Robert, 198
Waiting for the Sun (Nogami), 310
Wakai Makiko, 255
Walk Cheerfully (Hogaraki ni ayume, 1930), 114
Wan Chi-Wai, Terence, 215
wandering outlaw series, 116
Wang, Joey, 214
Wang Ain-ling, 250
Wang Bing, 258
War and Peace (1956), 189
Ward, E. E., 232
Waseda bungaku, 87
Watanabe, Ken, 311
Watanabe Daisuke, 453
Watanabe Takayoshi, 209
The Weaving Town, Nishijin (Orimono no machi, 1961), 380
Weerasethakul, Apichatpong, 29
Weimar Americanism, 113
Weimar Germany, 134
Weltner, George, 192, 198
western movie genre, 116–17, 195, 199, 203, 307
West/Western film
criticism standards and Japanese cinema, 65–66, 70
dance music, 294
East vs. West, 127, 439
end credits, 324
film festivals and, 230, 246–51, 248f, 261nn5, 7
Japanese cinema and, 43–47, 44
Japanese power vs. Western power, 213
Japan’s recommended films, 90
Korean film and, 176–77, 178
market share in Japan, 214
modernism/modernity, 8, 126, 364–65
sound in silent film, 289, 290, 292, 295, 296, 297–98, 299, 303
What Made Her Do What She Did? (Nani ga kanojo o so saseta ka, 1930), 139
White Christmas (1954), 189, 197
Whiteman, Paul, 199
white noise, 402, 405, 407, 408
wigs and makeup, 319–20
Wilder, Billy, 131
Willat, Irvin, 166
“Winter Music” (1958), 400
Winters, Shelly, 196
Wiseman, Frederick, 255f, 256, 257
Withered Grass (Karesusuki, 1924), 300
Woese, Carl, 433–34
Wolf Howling in the Blizzard (Fubuki ni sakebu ookami, 1931), 112
Woman of Tokyo (Tokyo no onna, 1933), 114
woman’s body as represented in postwar Japanese cinema
(p. 482) Kinoshita’s Carmen, 336–50, 338f, 339f, 340–41f, 342f, 343–44f, 345f, 346f, 347f, 348f, 349f, 361nn3536, 39–40, 362n41
overview, 7–8, 327–33, 331f, 356–57, 356f, 358nn57, 359nn810, 12–14, 18, 362n51
sexualized image of women, 333–36, 360nn25, 27–29, 361nn32, 34
Siejun Suzuki’s Carmen, 350–56, 351f, 352f, 353f, 354f, 362nn42, 48
See also female stars
Women of the Mito Domain (Yamakawa), 317
Women of the Night (1948), 336, 337
Wong, Anna May, 152
Wong, Cindy Hing-Yuk, 228
Wong, Faye, 215
Wong, Michael, 215
Wong Ain-ling, 250
Woo, John, 221
Woods, Frank E., 64
“Work of Art in Its Age of Technological Reproducibility, The” (Benjamin), 127–28
World War II
education during, 380
films during, 146, 211
raw film industry and the, 280–84, 280t, 281t, 282t, 283t, 285t
Worthington, William, 158
The Wrath of the Gods (aka The Destruction of Sakurajima, 1914), 156–58, 161
Wu Jeong-Sik, 179
Wu Wenguang, 255f, 256, 257, 257f
Wu Yii-feng, 256
Yagi Wigs, 320
Yahoo!, 308
yakuza, 19–21, 20f, 24, 221
Yam, Simon, 215
Yamada Kazuo, 67
Yamada Koichi, 73
Yamagata International Documentary Film Festival, 245, 246, 248, 251–58, 252f, 255f, 257f, 260, 262n8
Yamaguchi, Sayoko, 356, 357
Yamaguchi Katsuhiro, 8, 386–87, 386f, 393, 408
Yamaguchi Yoshiko/Shirley (aka Ri Koran Li Xianglan), 116, 152, 209–10, 211, 212, 223nn8, 10
Yamakawa Kikue, 317
Yamamoto Ichiro, xii, 7, 306–26
Yamamoto Kajiro, 115, 330
Yamamoto Kikuo, 102, 105, 111, 112, 113
Yamanaka Sadao, 45
Yamane Mikihito, 86–87
Yamane Sadao, 69–72, 73
Yanagi Soetsu, 374, 375
Yanagita Kunio, 84, 375
Yang, Edward, 254
Yang, Evan (Yi Wen), 212
Yasui Yoshio, 254
Yasuko, Tomita, 215
Yellow Earth (Huang tudi, 1984), 250
The Yellow Handkerchief of Happiness (Shiawase no kiiroi hankachi, 1977), 308, 315
Yeoseongza, 185
Yi Gu-Yeong, 183
Yi Han-Gyeong, 179
Yi Pil-Wu, 180
Ynang Bayan: To Be a Woman Is to Live in a Time of War (1991), 253
Yodogawa Nagaharu, 43, 65, 69
Yokihi/Princess Yang Kwei-fei (1955), 212
Yokomitsu Riichi, 138
Yomiuri shinbun, 197, 198
Yomota, Inuhiko, 350
Yoshida, Detective, 183
Yoshida Kiju, 71, 309
Yoshihara Junpei, 379
Yoshimi Shunya, 233
Yoshimoto Banana, 215
Yoshimura, Kozaburo, 337
Yoshino Sakuzo, 85
Yoshiyama Kyokko, 62, 63
Yoshiyuki Eisuke, 126, 333
You Only Live Twice (1967), 313
YouTube, 446
Yoyogi National Olympic Gymnasium, 398, 399, 399f, 404, 405f
Yuasa Joji, 391, 398, 405, 406–7, 408
Yuen, Anita, 209, 214, 219
Yuki Ichiro, 105
Yukimura Izumi, 116
Yukio, Hayakawa, 152
Yuko Kikuchi, 374
Yun Chi-Ho, 183
Yushima Shinhana-cho, 142
Yutaka, Abe (Jack), 112
Zahlten, Alexander, xii, 9, 438–56
zaibatsu (Japanese financial clique), 233
Zamecnik, John Stepan, 296
(p. 483) Zanjin zangaken (sword that chops people and horses, 1929), 139
Zarul Albakri, 252, 252f
Zatoichi series (1962–1989), 310
Zen and film style, 40–41, 42, 47
zero, 23, 25
Zhang Yuan, 257
Zhang Ziyi, 152
Zhu Shilin, 212
Zigeunerweisen (Twigoineruwaizen, 1980), 350
Zigomar (1911), 86
Zigomar films of 1912, 103
Zoo (1993), 256–57
Zukor, Adolph, 190
Zwick, Edward, 314