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date: 21 November 2019

(p. 523) Index

(p. 523) Index

2 Samuel 11, Etc. (Greenspan), 516–517
4 Scenes in a Harsh Life (Athey), 364–365
10–20-30 theatre circuit, 159, 163–168
12–1-A (Yamauchi), 497
27 Wagons Full of Cotton (Williams), 347
50/50 in 2020 (feminist drama initiative), 425, 435
1600 Transylvania Avenue, 411
1931- (Sifton and Sifton), 286
Abbey Players, 239
Abbott, George, 184, 295
Abingdon Square (Fornés), 429–430
Abolition Day (July 5), 85
abolitionism
in antebellum American culture, 132–133
in antebellum American theatre, 6, 68, 79, 94, 121
About Face Theatre (Chicago), 461
abstract expressionism, 358
absurd, theatre of the, 261, 347, 351, 473–474
Abundance (Henley), 432–433
Accelerated Grimace (Valgemae), 272–273
Actors’ Equity Association, 345
Actresses’ Franchise League, 210–211
Adams, Abigail, 34
Adams, John Quincy, 100
Adamson, Eve, 353
The Adding Machine (Rice), 14, 271–273, 285, 442
Addison, Joseph, 19, 28, 33
Adonis, 193
Adrift: a Temperance Drama in Three Acts, 138
The Adulateur (Warren), 34–35
The Adventures of Ozzie and Harriet (television show), 477
Aeschylus, 181, 471
Afghanistan War, theatre in opposition to, 13, 420
African American drama. See also African American dramatic characters
African American identity formation and, 219, 227–232, 375, 378–381, 383, 386, 449
antebellum period and, 8, 218–228, 230
anti-lynching themes in, 309, 312, 412
ballad opera and, 226
at black colleges and universities (HCBUS), 11, 307, 309–310, 314–315, 318
black community theatres and, 389
blackface minstrelsy and, 8, 220, 223–224, 226, 228, 230, 307
Black Theatre Movement and, 380–383
on Broadway, 313–314, 377–379, 383, 385
civil rights movement and, 380, 412–413, 460
class and capitalism themes in, 377, 381
experimentalism in, 12, 219–220
family themes in, 12, 312, 375–381, 383–389, 487
Federal Theatre Project (FTP) and, 10, 302–305, 315–317, 376
feminist themes in, 383–384, 428–429, 432, 434–435, 438, 448–449
folk plays and, 310–312
Great Depression themes in, 376–377, 386
in Harlem, 308, 311–314, 319, 378, 380, 382–383, 413, 478
history and memory themes in, 381, 385–388
insurrection themes in, 220–222, 230–231, 315
integrationist politics and, 378–380
LGBT characters and themes in, 389, 460–461, 466–467
literary competitions and, 310–311
Little Negro Theatre Movement and, 10, 309, 312–314
(p. 524) masculinity themes and, 378–380, 383
melodrama and, 223, 227
moral mission of, 227
musical drama and, 224–226, 228–229
Native American characters and themes in, 221
“Native drama” and, 309–311
New Negro drama and, 282–283
Off Broadway and, 320, 382
“postblack” drama and, 12, 388–389
in post-World War II period, 375–389
protest drama and, 13, 382, 412–413
race or propaganda plays and, 310–312, 375
racial prejudice themes and discrimination in, 376–381, 385, 412, 487
segregation and, 10–11, 318
self-satire and, 12, 384–385
slavery and emancipation themes in, 222–224, 227–230, 312, 385, 387
whiteface actors and, 382
women’s contributions to, 307–309, 311–312, 316, 383–384
African American dramatic characters. See also African American drama; blackface minstrelsy
in American Revolutionary era, 39
in early republican era drama (1789–1820), 56, 61–62, 64
African Theatre (New York), 8, 308
Aftermath (Burrill), 312
“After the Ball,” 194
After the Fall (Miller), 329–330
Age of Arousal (Griffiths), 213–214
agit-prop (agitational-propaganda theatre), 287, 408, 413, 474, 477
Aguirre-Sacasa, Roberto, 466
Ah, Wilderness! (O’Neill), 255, 261
AIDS, dramatic responses to, 360, 419, 463–465, 473, 477
The AIDS Show, 419
Aiken, George L., Uncle Tom’s Cabin theatrical adaptation by, 79, 88–91, 130, 139–140, 223
Ain’t Misbehavin’, 201
Albee, Edward
absurdism and, 351
decline in popularity of, 352
experimentalism of, 347, 350
homosexuality of, 459
homosexuality themes and, 459
narrative technique and, 504
Alcott, Louisa May, 134, 146
Alexander, William (Lord Stirling), 38
Alfaro, Luis, 466
Aliens (Annie Baker), 509–511
Alladeen (Builder’s Association production), 452–453
Allegro, 201
Allen, Claudia, 465
Allen, Ethan, 39–40
All God’s Chillun Got Wings (O’Neill), 246, 253
Allison, Hughes, 304, 316
All My Sons (Miller)
and Born Yesterday, 324
capitalism themes in, 444
emphasis on common good and, 292–293
Joe Keller character in, 324, 326–327, 334, 337, 444
technology theme in, 444
All That Heaven Allows, 505
Altorf (Wright), 58
The American Claimant (Howells and Twain), 177
American Communist Party, 303, 475
The American Company
Douglass and, 4, 21, 24–30
early republican era productions of, 47, 56, 61
establishment of, 4, 24
positive reviews of, 26
Revolutionary Era politics and, 25, 28–30, 34, 45
touring by, 25
Warren and, 34–35
An American Daughter (Wasserstein), 437
An American Dilemma (Myrdal), 486
American Landscape (Irwin Shaw), 291
American Legion, 327
American Negro Theatre (ANT), 10, 305, 318–320, 428
American Revolutionary era (1765–1789)
African American dramatic characters in, 39
(p. 525) amateur theatricals during, 44–45
battles of, 37–42, 62, 104
British loyalism during, 36–38, 43–44
British theatrical influences during, 33–39, 45–47
comedic theatre during, 41–44
Committees of Safety during, 42–43
Congressional ban on plays during, 32
Continental Congress and, 28–30, 32, 43
“local color” in theatrical production during, 43
military theatre during, 44
national unity themes in, 45
Native American dramatic characters in, 39
propaganda plays during, 4, 32–36
republican dramatic themes during, 47
satirical dialogues and, 36–38
tragic theatre during, 38–41
university theatre during, 32–33, 41–42, 44
American Temperance Society (ATS), 135
American Temperance Union (ATU), 135–136
The America Play (Parks), 387
Amerindians. See Native Americans
Ames, A.D., 138
And Baby Makes Seven (Vogel), 465
Anderson, Garland, 313
Anderson, Ida, 308
Anderson, Lisa, 434
Anderson, Maxwell, 284, 289–290, 292
Anderson, Robert, 458
André (Dunlap), 55, 99
Andreach, Robert, 264
André Charlot’s Revue, 197
Andrews, Regina, 310, 312–313
And the Soul Shall Dance (Yamauchi), 496
Angela’s Mixtape (Elisa Davis), 438–439
Angelos, Moe, 436
Angels in America (Kushner), 14, 419, 452, 465–466, 477
Anita Bush Players, 308
Anna Christie (O’Neill), 185, 251–252, 261
Anna Lucasta (Yordan), 319
Annapolis (Maryland), 21, 24–26
Annie Get Your Gun, 201, 323
Annie Sprinkle, 12, 362–363
antebellum era drama (1820–1860). See also blackface minstrelsy
abolitionist themes in, 6, 68, 79, 94, 121
adaptation and, 133–134
African American characters in, 126
African American drama and, 8, 218–228, 230
classical antiquity elements in, 68, 71–76
comedy in, 126–127
economic challenges facing, 69, 77
ethnic characters and themes in, 6, 68–69, 97–98, 100–110
frontier themes and, 6, 149–153, 157
German (“Dutchman”) characters and themes in, 109
historical versus romantic dramatic settings in, 127–128
Irish characters and themes in, 5, 101, 105–106, 108, 166
Jewish characters and themes in, 5, 103–105, 111nn23
melodrama and, 5, 67–72, 75, 78–79, 115, 122–124, 130–131
music in, 3
Native American characters and themes in, 5–6, 68, 78, 101–103, 119, 126, 149–153, 157, 221, 230–232
patriotic themes in, 70–73, 104
reform themes in, 6, 130–134, 138–146
Second Party System and, 70, 77–79, 106–107
Shakespearean productions and, 76
slavery and, 73–76, 79, 120–121, 218, 471
temperance themes in, 6, 68–69, 78–79, 130–131, 138–146
theatre expansion and, 100, 115
tragedy and, 123–125
urban themes in, 6, 68, 133, 149, 153–157
women playwrights and, 5–6, 114–128
women’s powerlessness themes in, 6, 121–124
women’s power themes in, 124–127
Yankee characters and, 77–78, 94, 101, 107–108, 138–139, 142, 150
Antenna Theatre, 358
anti-Communism
Great Depression era and, 11, 295–298, 304–305, 318
McCarthy era and, 11, 318, 330, 344, 350
Antigone (Brecht/Holderlin), 409
(p. 526) The Anti-Slavery Harp: A Collection of Songs for Anti-Slavery Meetings, 223
anti-theatricality, 46
Antoine, André, 268–269
The Anxiety of Influence (Bloom), 181
Anything Goes (Porter), 199
Anzaldúa, Gloria, 495
Appearances (Garland Anderson), 313
Appiah, Kwame, 98
The Apple (Bensusan), 211
Approaching Simone (Terry), 418, 431
Apstein, Theodore, 486
Arau, Sergio, 381–382
Archbishop’s Ceiling (Miller)
Adrian character in, 334–335
American versus European contrast in, 334
Marcus character in, 331–336
Maya character in, 331–335
Sigmund character in, 331–336
surveillance themes and elements in, 328, 331–336
Archer, Osceola, 319
Archer, William, 174
Arch Street Theatre (Philadelphia), 102, 104, 119
The Arena (magazine), 177, 180
Arent, Arthur, 301–302
Aria da Capo (Millay), 9, 238, 242, 283–284
Ariadne’s Thread (J. Hillis Miller), 502
Aristocracy, A Musical Drama in Three Acts (Hopkins), 225
Armand; or, The Peer and the Peasant (Mowatt), 117, 126–127
The Armory Show, 275
Arnold, Benedict, 52
Arns, Inke, 422
Around the World in Eighty Days (musical), 191
Arrizón, Alicia, 495
Artaud, Antonin, 409
ARTEF (Yiddish Workers’ Theater), 284
“Art for Truth’s Sake” (slogan), 180
“Art for Truth’s Sake in the Drama” (Herne), 180–181
Arthur, T. S., 69, 79, 136, 141
Arthur, W. Bryan, 443–444
Artifact Piece (Luna), 422
The Art Theatre, 234, 235, 275
Asbridge, Elizabeth, 17
Ashbery, John, 512
Ashwell, Lena, 208–209
Asian American drama
Asian American theatre companies and, 489, 491
“chop suey circuit” and, 485
deconstructing stereotypes and, 493
ethnic identity themes in, 15, 370, 488–489, 493
experimental theatre and, 370–371
intra-ethnic critique and, 490
LGBT characters and themes in, 466
Asian American Theater Company, 489
As Is (Hoffman), 419, 464
Assassins (Sondheim and Weidman), 399
Astaire, Fred and Adele, 199
As Thousands Cheer, 199
Aston, Tony, 17
Astor Place Riot (New York, 1849), 70–71, 83
Athey, Ron, 12, 364–365
At Home Abroad (Dietz), 199
Atkinson, Brooks, 295, 345, 428
Atlanta University Summer Theatre, 315
Atlantic Monthly, 176–177
At the Foot of the Mountain, 418
Auden, W.H., 358
Augusta (Georgia), 78
Augusta, Howard, 318
August: Osage County (Letts), 506–507
Awake and Sing! (Odets), 176, 287, 297
Babes in Arms, 199–200
Babes in Toyland (Herbert), 194
“The Babies in Our Block,” 191
Bacon, Delia Salter, 120, 123–124, 127
Baez, Josefina, 495
Baitz, Jon Robin, 464
Baker, Annie, 507, 509–511, 518–519
Baker, Benjamin, 6, 110, 154–155
Baker, George Pierce, 184
Bakst, Léon, 241
ballad opera, 226
Ballets Russes, 275
Baltimore (Maryland), 26
The Baltimore Waltz (Vogel), 464–465
(p. 527) Bandido! (Valdez), 478
The Band Wagon (Kaufman & Dietz), 199–200
Bank, Rosemarie, 6
Bankhead, Tallulah, 295
The Bank Monster; or, Specie and Shinplaster, 77
Bannon, Ann, 467
Baraka, Amiri
Black Arts Movement and, 477–478
Black Arts Repertory Theatre School (BARTS) and, 382, 413, 478
black nationalism and, 413
Black Revolutionary Theatre Movement and, 380–381
class themes and, 381
ghost characters and, 477–478
homosexual romance themes and, 460
Barker, James Nelson, 59
Barnes, Djuna, 238, 243
Barnes Conner, Charlotte, 115–116, 123–124
Barnett, Charles Zachary, 104–105
Barnum, P.T.
The Drunkard and, 130–132, 146
promotion of theatre by, 130–132, 134, 144, 146
Uncle Tom’s Cabin dramas and, 88
Barnum’s American Museum (New York City), 88, 118, 130–131, 146
Barroga, Jeannie, 495
Barry, Philip, 184, 284, 286
Barry, S., 109
Barstow, Susan Torrey, 205
Barzun, Jacques, 175–176
The Basic Training of Pavlo Hummel (Rabe), 416, 476–477
Bateman, Sidney Cowell, 116, 125, 155
Battle Hymn (Blankfort and Gold), 299
Battle of Angels (Williams), 341, 352
Battle of Breed’s (Bunker) Hill, 37–40, 42, 62
Battle of Brooklyn, 38
The Battle of Bunkers-Hill (Brackenridge), 40
Battle of Concord, 37, 39, 62, 104
Battle of Lexington, 37, 39, 62, 104
Battle of Long Island, 38
Battle of Quebec, 39–41
The Battle of the Eutaw Springs (Ioor), 63
Baym, Nina, 125
Beane, Douglas Carter, 464, 467
Beauty and the Beast (musical), 189, 401
Bechtel, Roger, 13–14
Beck, Julian, 357–358, 409–410
Beckett, Samuel, 261, 473, 481
The Beebo Brinker Chronicles (Chapman and Ryan), 467
Beete, John, 62–63
Before Sunrise (Hauptmann), 174
The Beggar’s Opera (Gay), 27, 37
Behan, Brendan, 459
Behrman, S.N., 184, 292, 297
Bein, Albert, 288
Belafonte, Harry, 319, 378
Belasco, David, 166, 168–170, 178, 184, 236
Belle Reprieve (Weaver and Shaw), 436, 462
Bellini, Vincenzo, 83
The Benevolent Lawyers (Clarke), 122
Benn Michaels, Walter, 268
Bensusan, Inez, 211
Bent (Sherman), 419, 463
Bentley, Eric, 163
Bergman, S. Bear, 181, 467
Berlin, Irving, 196, 199, 396
Berlin, Normand, 253–255, 261
Bernfield, Susan, 439
Berrigan, Daniel, 416
Bérubé, Allan, 457
Best Foot Forward, 200
The Better Sort; or, The Girl of Spirit (William Hill Brown), 53
Beyond the Gibson Girl (Patterson), 212
Beyond the Horizon (O’Neill), 251–252
Bial, Henry, 103–104
Bidwell, Barnabas, 46
Big Boy, 198
“Big Brother,” 200
Bigsby, Christopher, 325–326, 351
Big White Fog (Theodore Ward), 10, 12, 303, 317, 376–377, 379
Billington, Michael, 470
Billionaires for Bush (or Gore), 421–423
Bingo: Scenes of Money and Death (Bond), 472–473
Bird, Robert Montgomery, 68, 70, 73–75, 116, 125
Bishop, Andrew, 308
(p. 528) Black, Stephen, 249, 256
“Black Art” (Baraka), 478
Black Arts Movement, 460, 476, 478
Black Arts Repertory Theatre School (BARTS), 382, 413, 478
Black Arts/West Theater (San Francisco), 380
black colleges and universities (HCBUS), 11, 307, 309–310, 314–315, 318
The Black Crook (musical), 7, 190, 192–193, 196
The Blacker the Berry (Thurman), 314
blackface minstrelsy
abolitionism and, 85, 93–94, 223–224
African American drama and, 8, 220, 223–224, 226, 228, 230, 307
African American performers and, 81–82, 223–224
audiences of, 81
burlesque and, 82–83
caricature and parody in, 84, 86–87, 90–91, 93
criticisms of, 81
in Cuba, 83–84
“Ethiopian delineation” and, 81–83, 88
in Great Britain, 83, 85–86
impact on other art forms by, 5, 86–87, 89–94
Irish immigrants and, 82, 225
Jewish immigrants and, 82
Jim Crow character and, 81, 85–86, 89–90, 92, 224
masculinity and, 82, 223
in New York City, 81
origins of, 2, 81–82
racial meanings in, 5, 82–85, 223
realism and, 83–84, 87, 90
slavery and, 84–86
Uncle Tom’s Cabin shows and, 87–91, 223, 307
Black Hawk (Makataimeshekiakiah), 152
Black Ice (Patterson), 413
Black Mass (Baraka), 413, 478
Black Pit (Maltz), 287–288
Black Revolutionary Theatre Movement, 380, 413, 478
Black Souls, 308
Black Theatre (magazine), 380
Black Theatre Issue, 382–383
Blair, Tony, 480–481
Blankfort, Michael, 299
Blitzstein, Mark, 288–289, 293
The Blockheads (ballad opera), 44
The Blockheads; or, Fortunate Contractor, 43
The Blockheads; or, The Affrighted Officers, 4, 37–38, 41
Bloolips, 436, 462
Bloom, Harold, 181–182
Bloom, Steven, 9
Bloomer Girl, 200
Blossom, Henry, 194–195, 197
Blossom Time, 197
Bluebeard (Ludlum), 460
The Blue Paradise (Romberg), 195
The Blue Sphere (Dreiser), 273–274
Blume, Kathryn, 421
Bodenheim, Maxwell, 243
Body Indian (Geiogamah), 415, 490–491
body mutilation, 12, 364–365
Bogard, Travis, 251
Bogosian, Eric, 449–450
Boker, George H., 6
Bolton, Guy, 195
The Bomb (International WOW Company), 420
Bombo, 198
Bond, Edward, 471–473
Bond, Justin Vivian, 467
Bonner, Marita, 312
book musical. See under musical drama
Book of Grace (Parks), 12, 389
Boone, Daniel, 150
Booth, Edwin, 119
Bornstein, Kate, 467
Born Yesterday (Kanin), 323–324
The Boss (Sheldon), 185
Boston (Massachusetts)
African American theatre in, 224–225, 317, 376
American Revolutionary era in, 35–39, 42–44
antebellum era theatre in, 130, 134
Boston Tea Party in, 36
colonial era theatre in, 18, 28
dramatic realism productions in, 178–179
(p. 529) Federal Theatre Project in, 317
Little Theatre Movement in, 234
Uncle Tom’s Cabin adaptation performances in, 88–89
Both Your Houses (Anderson), 289
Bottoms, Stephen, 11
Boublil, Alain, 400–401
Boucicault, Dion, 79, 94, 155, 165–166, 471
Bound East for Cardiff (O’Neill), 238, 248, 250
Bourdet, Edouard, 456
Bower, Sharron, 421
Bowers, Elizabeth Crocker, 6, 117–118
“The Bowery” (song), 194
The Bowery (New York City)
compared to Broadway, 161
melodrama and, 162–165, 169–170
Bowery B’hoy (Mose) character, 110, 150, 154–155, 157
Bowery G’hal (Lize) character, 154–155, 157
Bowery Theatre (New York)
Forrest and, 70
“Indian Plays” at, 102, 152
women playwrights’ productions at, 116–118
Bowles, Jane, 428
box set, 356
A Boy and His Soul (Domingo), 466
Boyce, Neith, 234, 237, 239–241
Boyd, Andrew, 421–422
The Boys From Syracuse, 199–200
The Boys in the Band (Crowley), 461–462, 464, 466
Brace Up! (Wooster Group), 372–373
Brackenridge, Hugh Henry, 32, 40–41, 52
Bradford, Joseph, 219, 224–229
Bradley, Sculley, 160, 170
Braham, David, 191
Branch, William, 378, 380
The Branded Hand (Robbins Little), 121, 127
Brave Smiles?.?.?.?Another Lesbian Tragedy (The Five Lesbian Brothers), 436
Bread and Circuses (Whitman), 296
Bread and Puppet Theatre, 357, 409, 411–412
Breath Boom (Corthron), 434
Brecht, Bertolt
on “culinary theatre,” 183
defamiliarization techniques and, 452
epic theatre and, 472–473
experimental theatre and, 358, 409
influence on later generations by, 434, 436, 479, 481–482
political drama and, 471–473
protest drama and, 409
Brecht, Stefan, 460
Brice, Fanny, 196
The Bride of Fort Edward (Bacon), 120, 123–124, 126–127
The Brig (Kenneth Brown), 409
Brigadoon (Lerner), 201
Briggs-Hall, Austin, 318
Broadway (New York City)
African Americans and, 283, 309, 313–314, 318–319, 377–379, 383, 385, 432
color barriers on, 305
compared to The Bowery, 161
feminist drama and, 430–433
as hallmark of American theatre, 196
LGBT identity and representation on, 456, 458–459, 462–463
musical drama and, 12–13, 189–201, 392–405, 452
political drama and, 282, 287
Raids of 1927, 456
theatres’ relocation to Times Square and, 196
women’s presence on, 425–426
Broadway Theatre (New York), 117, 119
Broderick, Helen, 199
The Broker of Bogota (Bird), 70
The Brook, 192–193
Brooks, Daphne, 219, 227
Brooks, Peter, 67, 115, 136, 163, 472, 503
Brother Mose (Frank Wilson), 316
Brother/Sister Plays (McCraney), 514–516, 518–520
The Brothers Size (McCraney), 389, 518–519
Brougham, John, 59, 103, 108–109
Broun, Heyward, 297
Brower, Frank, 88
Brown, John, 299
Brown, Kenneth, 409
Brown, Sterling, 315
Brown, T. Allston, 17, 108
Brown, William, 8, 218–222, 225, 227, 230–232
(p. 530) Brown, William Wells, 8, 89, 92–94, 219, 222–225, 227–230
Browne, Maurice, 234, 236
Browne, Porter Emerson, 162–164
Browne, Theodore, 10, 305, 316, 319
Browning, Edna, 165
“Brown October Ale,” 193–194
Brown v. Board of Education, 379, 485
Broyles-González, Yolanda, 479, 495
Bryant, Louise, 237, 241
Bryer, Jackson, 395–396, 400
“Buffalo Gals,” 92
Bug (Letts), 446
Builders Association, 358
The Builder’s Association, 452–453
Bullins, Ed, 380, 382–383, 413, 460–461, 478
Bulrusher (Eisa Davis), 389
Bunker-Hill; or, The Death of General Warren (Burk), 62
Buntline, Ned, 70, 109
Burgoyne, John, 37–38
Burk, John Daly, 62
Burke, Edmund, 16
burlesque, 193, 467
Burrill, Mary, 11, 311–312
Burroughs, Baldwin, 315
Bury the Dead (Irwin Shaw), 291, 293
Busch, Charles, 460
Bush, Anita, 308
Bush, George W., 421, 480–481
Butcher, James, 315
The Butchers, 268
Butler, Judith, 455
Butler, Samuel, 36
By Way of Obit (O’Neill), 259–260
Cabaret, 398, 436
The Cabinet of Dr. Caligari (Wiene), 275
Cabin in the Sky, 200
Café La Mama, 349
Caffe Cino, 347–349, 459–460, 462
Cage, John, 503
Caird, Mona, 212
Caius Marius (Richard Penn Smith), 71–73, 75
Caldwell, Ben, 413
Caldwell’s Theatre (New Orleans), 119
Callender’s Georgia Minstrels, 225–226
Calm Down Mother (Terry), 430–431
Camille (Keene), 117
Camille (Ludlum), 460
Camillus; or, The Self-Exiled Patriot (Phillips), 104
Camino Real (Williams), 349
Campbell, Dick, 313
Canadian Council for the Arts, 360
The Candidates (Munford), 42
Candles to the Sun (Williams), 277
Canning, Charlotte, 430
Cantor, Eddie, 198
Can You Hear Their Voices?, 300
Cape Carnival (South Africa), 83
capitalism themes in American drama
African American drama and, 377, 381
ethnic theatre companies and, 494, 496
Federal Theatre Project (FTP) and, 297–298, 304
feminist drama and, 430, 434, 436–438
O’Neill and, 252–253, 256, 281, 285–286
political drama and, 280–281, 284–286, 288–289, 297–298, 304, 475
protest drama and, 13, 421–422
technology themes and, 442–447, 449
The Captive, 456
Carabasset (Deering), 60
Caribs (indigenous population), 221, 231–232
Carlson, Marvin, 265, 268, 420–421
Carmen Jones, 200
Carousel (Rodgers & Hammerstein), 200, 323, 394, 397, 403
Carr, Mary, 63–64
Carr Clarke, Mary, 118, 122, 127, 134
Carroll, Earl, 196
Carter, Huntley, 275
Case, Sue-Ellen, 436
The Case of Clyde Griffiths (Piscator), 286
The Cat and the Fiddle, 199
Cato (Addison), 19, 28, 33
Cat on a Hot Tin Roof (Williams)
Brick Pollitt character and, 350–351, 457–458
Broadway conventions and, 349–350
homosexuality theme in, 11, 14, 350–351, 457–458
stage direction for, 351
(p. 531) Cats (Webber), 393, 401
Celebration Theatre (Los Angeles), 461
censorship
of LGBT characters and themes, 456–457, 461, 467
NEA and, 360
protest drama and, 410
Chaikin, Joe, 416, 430
Chalk Dust (Clarke and Nurnberg), 298–299
Chambers, Jane, 462
Chambers, Jonathan, 276
Chambers, Whittaker, 300
Chanfrau, Frank, 110, 118, 154. See also Bowery B’hoy; Mose
Chansky, Dorothy, 13
Chapman, Linda, 467
Charleston (South Carolina), 18, 22, 24–26, 28
Chase, Samuel, 30
Chatoyer, Chief Joseph (King Shotaway), 230–232
Chavez, Cesar, 366, 488
Chayefsky, Paddy, 486
Chekhov, Anton, 173–174, 372, 517
Chelsea Street Theatre (New York), 383
Cheney, Dick, 480–481
Cheney, Sheldon, 170, 275
Cherokees, 151
Chicago (Illinois)
African American drama and theatre in, 308, 317–318, 376–377, 379
Federal Theatre Project (FTP) and, 10, 303–304, 316–318, 376
Little Theatre Movement in, 234–236
World’s Fair of 1934 and, 445
Chicago (musical), 398, 463
Chicago Little Theatre, 234–236
Chicago Pekin Players, 308
Chicano/Chicana drama
agit-prop and, 413
on Anglo culture, 368–369
Aztec figures and themes in, 368, 370, 415
on Broadway, 492
experimental theatre and, 366–370
feminist theatrical critiques of, 435, 479
hybrid identity and, 478–479
immigration and ethnicity themes in, 366–368, 410, 415, 478, 488, 495–496
labor themes in, 413–414, 478, 488
LGBT characters and themes in, 466, 495
Mayan themes in, 415
protest drama and, 413–415
on relationship between history and representation, 496
The Children’s Hour (Hellman), 436, 456, 458, 462
Childress, Alice, 319–320, 378, 428
Childress, Alvin, 319
Chin, Frank, 489–490
Chin-Chin, 195
The Chip Women’s Fortune (Richardson), 309, 313
The Chocolate Soldier, 195
Choi, Hyaeweol, 213
Chong, Ping, 358, 370–371
choreopoem, 383, 432
A Chorus Line, 201, 398, 463
The Christian Slave (Stowe), 89–91
Christman in Camp (Mako and Magwili), 497
Christy, Edwin P., 87, 223
Christy and Woods Minstrel Hall (New York City), 87
Churchill, Caryl, 14, 462, 470–471, 480
Church of Stop Shopping, 422
Cino, Joe, 347–349, 459
Circle-in-the-Square Theater (Greenwich Village), 257, 345–346, 459
Circle Mirror Transformation (Annie Baker), 509–510
The City (Fitch), 7, 182–183
civil rights movement
African American drama and, 380, 412–413, 460
protest drama and, 13, 410, 412–413
Civil War, theatrical depictions of, 166–167
Clara’s Ole Man (Bullins), 460–461
Clarke, Corson, 139
Clarke, Harold, 298–299
Class of ‘29 (Lashin and Hastings), 10, 297–298
Clay, Henry, 69, 100
Cleage, Pearl, 434
Clotel (William Wells Brown), 92, 222
Cloud 9 (Churchill), 462
Cloud Tectonics (Rivera), 492
(p. 532) Clurman, Harold, 284, 408
Clybourne Park (Norris), 379
Coatlicue Theatre Company, 415
Cock-a-Doodle Dandy (O’Casey), 327–328
The Cockettes, 460
The Cocoanuts, 197
Cocteau, Jean, 348, 358
Cohan, George M., 194–195, 197, 404
Colbert, Stephen, 421, 423
Cole, Bob, 229
Coleman, Ralf, 317
Colleran, Jeanne, 482
Collins, Tracy, 213
colonial American theatre (1607–1765). See also The American Company
British identity and, 16–17
economic obstacles to, 19, 24, 26, 29
English performers and, 16–19, 25
indentured servants and, 18
military theatre and, 27–28
opposition to, 2, 17–18, 22, 24, 26–28
at universities, 27–28
“Colored Men and Women on the Stage” (Overton Walker), 307–308
The Colored Museum (Wolfe), 3, 12, 384, 467
Columbia and Britannia (Peck), 52
Combs, Sean “P. Diddy,” 379
Come Back to the 5 & Dime, Jimmy Dean, Jimmy Dean (Graczyk), 463
Come Down Burning (Corthron), 434
Comintern, 325
commedia dell’arte, 189, 243
Committee on Negro Arts (CNA), 378
Committees of Safety (American Revolutionary War), 42–43
Communist Party USA, 325
Company (Sondheim), 398–399
Compromise of 1850, 82
Comte, Auguste, 265
Conduct of Life (Fornés), 430
Congress of Industrial Organizations (CIO), 287, 297
Conjunto (Mayer), 497
Conkle, E.P., 299–300
Connecticut, colonial era theatre in, 27–28
A Connecticut Yankee, 197
The Connection (Gelber), 409
Connelly, Marc, 310
Conner, E.S., 116
Conrad, Robert T., 76
Constancy (Boyce), 236
The Constant State of Desire (Finley), 362, 418
Constitution of the United States, 47, 360
Continental Congress, 28–30, 32, 43
The Contrast (Tyler)
The American Company production of, 47
“ethnic spectacle” and, 99
Native American characters in, 59
protestations of European influence in, 175
staging dynamics of, 7
success of, 54
Yankee character in, 64, 101
Conversation among the Ruins (painting by di Chirico), 342
Conway, H.J., 88–91
Cook, George Cram, 234, 236–238, 243, 248
Cook, William Marion, 229
Cooke Reid, Anne, 315
Cooper, James Fenimore, 153
Corbin, John, 184
Corpus Christi (McNally), 466
Corthron, Kia, 434
Corwin, Jane Hudson, 120
Coss, Clare, 431
Couch, William, 380
Coughlin, Father Charles, 299
counter-public spheres, 220
The Count of Monte Cristo, 249, 251
Covent Garden Theatre (London)., 220
Coward, Noel, 348
The Cradle Will Rock (Blitzstein), 288–289, 293
Craig, E. Quita, 304
Crandell, William, 416
Crane, Stephen, 164
Creahan, John, 117
Crimes of the Heart (Henley), 432
Crisis magazine, 309–310
Crockett, Davy, 150–151
Crothers, Rachel
commercial success of, 431
New Woman drama and, 8, 205–209, 282
realism and, 7, 174, 185–187, 205, 208, 239
Crouse, Russel, 323–324
(p. 533) Crowley, Mart, 461–462, 464, 466
Crows in the Cornfield (van Gogh), 371
The Crucible (Miller)
Danforth character in, 329, 337
John Proctor character in, 329, 333–334, 337–338, 475
McCarthy Era parallels and, 11, 329, 333, 350, 458, 475
oppression themes in, 328
Wooster Group production and, 353
Cruikshank, George, 138
Cruz, Migdalia, 495
Cruz, Nilo, 465, 495
Cuba, 83–84, 495
cultural feminism. See under feminist drama
A Cure for the Spleen (Sewall), 37
Curry, S.S., 275
Curtin, Kaier, 456
Cushing, Eliza Lanesford, 120
Cushman, Charlotte, 204
Custis, George Washington Parke, 151
The Custom of the County (Wharton), 212
Czechoslovakia, occupation of, 334
Dafoe, Willem, 373
Dale, Allen, 165
Daly, Augustin, 166
Damn Yankees, 189, 394
“Dandy Jim,” 92, 228
Darby’s Return (Dunlap), 55
Darwin, Charles, 265
Daughter Courage (Bread and Puppet Theatre), 411
The Daughters Cycle (Women’s Experimental Theatre), 418, 431
Daughters of Bilitis, 459
d’Aulnoy, Marie-Catherine, 511–513
Davidson, Gordon, 492
Davies, Mary Caroline, 243
Davis, Angela, 439
Davis, Eisa, 389, 439
Davis, Ossie, 305, 319
Davis, Owen, 159–160, 162, 164–165
Davis, Rebecca Harding, 142
Davis, Ronnie, 410
Davis, Tracy, 204
Davison, Richard, 395–396, 400
Davy, Babs, 436, 462
A Day of Absence (Turner Ward), 381–382, 487
Day of the Swallows (Porto-Trambley), 496
Days to Come (Hellman), 288
A Day without Mexicans (Arau), 381–382
Dead End (Kingsley), 302
Dead Mother (Greenspan), 517
Dean, Julia, 117
Dearest Enemy, 197
“Dearest Mae,” 92–93
Death of a Salesman (Miller)
appearance versus substance theme in, 337
Broadway premiere of, 323
Howard Wagner character in, 441–442
technology themes in, 441–442, 444
Willy Loman character in, 334, 336–337, 340, 441–442, 444, 471
The Death of General Montgomery, In Storming the City of Quebec (Brackenridge), 40–42
Death of the Last Black Man in the Whole Entire World (Parks), 387
Deathtrap (Levin), 463
Debates at the Robin-Hood Society, 36–37
Declaration of Independence, 33–34
Dee, Ruby, 305, 319, 379
Deep River, 308
Deering, Nathaniel, 60
Deeter, Jasper, 300
The Defeat (Warren), 35
De Koven, Reginald, 193–194
Delaney, Shelagh, 459
Delano, Alonzo, 152
De Lara; or, The Moorish Bride (Hentz), 119, 123
DeLillo, Don, 450–452
Dell, Floyd, 234–238
Demastes, William, 143, 264, 352
Democracy in America (Tocqueville). See Tocqueville, Alexis de
Democratic Party, antebellum theatre and, 70
Demos, John, 520n1
Demuth, Charles, 235, 241
Denning, Michael, 297
Derby, Doris, 412
Desert Song, 197
Deshima (Chong), 371
(p. 534) Desire Under the Elms (O’Neill), 253–254, 256
Detective Story, 323
Detsi-Diamanti, Zoë, 125
“deviant” sexual orientations, 360, 455, 458
Diaghilev, Sergei, 241, 275
A Dialogue, Between a Southern Delegate, and His Spouse, on His Return from the Grand Continental Congress (“Mary V.V.”), 36
A Dialogue Between Mrs. Native and Mrs. Foreigner on Literary Subjects (Corwin), 120, 126
Diana of Dobson’s (Hamilton), 208–209
Dibbell, Dominique, 436
Di Chirico, Giorigo, 342–343
Dickens, Charles, 87
Die Mommie Die! (Busch), 460
Dies, Martin, 295, 304
Dietz, Howard, 199
Dionysus, 189
Diversionary Theatre (San Diego), 461
The Divine Sister (Busch), 460
Dixey, Henry E., 193
Dixon, George Washington, 154, 420
Dodge, Mabel, 235
Dodson, Owen, 305, 315, 319
Dolan, Jill, 13, 433, 435–438, 462
A Doll’s House (Ibsen), 174, 182, 238
Domestic Resurrection Circus (Bread and Puppet Theatre), 411
Domingo, Coleman, 466
Dominican playwrights and theatre, 495
Don’t You Want to be Free? (Langston Hughes), 314
The Double Conspiracy, 46
Double Edge Theatre, 358
Douglass, David
American Company and, 4, 21, 24–30
Caribbean theatre performances and, 23, 29
political connections of, 24–25, 30
as printer, 29
theatre construction by, 24, 28
Douglass, Frederick, 89, 222, 224
Dowling, Eddie, 341
Downer, Alan, 160–161
The Drag (West), 456, 467
drag performance, 419, 456, 460, 463, 467
The Drama of King Shotaway (William Brown), 8, 218–221, 230
Dramatic Technique (Baker), 184
Dramatists Guild, 327
Dreiser, Theodore
expressionism and, 274
naturalism and, 9, 266, 270, 273–274
Provincetown Players and, 238
Dress Suits to Hire (Split Britches), 462
Drifting Apart (Herne and Belasco), 178
The Drunkard, or, the Fallen Saved (W.H. Smith)
at Barnum’s Museum, 130–132, 134–135, 146
culture of sentiment and, 142
delirium tremens in, 139
plot elements of, 79, 127
regenerative themes in, 132, 138–140
temperance movement and, 144
Drury Lane Theatre (London), 117, 220
DuBarry Was a Lady, 199
Duberman, Martin, 412
Du Bois, W.E.B., 309–311, 313, 318, 389, 412, 461–462
Dudden, Faye, 117
Duffy, Susan, 281
Dumas, Alexandre fils, 265
Dunbar, 305
Dunbar-Nelson, Alice, 312
Duncan, Thelma, 311
Dunlap, William, 22–23, 32, 54–56, 62, 99
Dunmore, Lord (John Murray), 39
Dunmore’s regiment, 39
Durang, Christopher, 464
Dutchman (Baraka), 381–382, 384, 412–413, 477–478
“Dutchman” Plays of antebellum era, 109
Dvoskin, Michelle, 12
Dyer, Charles, 459
The Dying Gaul (Craig Lucas), 464
Dymkowski, Christine, 208
Dynamo (O’Neill), 253
Dyskolos (Meander), 181
early republican era drama (1789–1820)
African American characters in, 56, 61–62, 64
(p. 535) British influences on, 53–55, 60, 64, 70
economic obstacles to, 54
ethnicity themes in, 99–100
interest in “exotic” in, 56–60
Irish characters in, 61–62, 99
Native American characters and themes in, 58–60
republican themes in, 50–58, 60–64, 99
War of 1812 and, 63–64, 100
women characters in, 51, 57, 59
Yankee characters in, 64
East Lynne, 189
Eastman, Max, 234–236
East West Players (EWP), 15, 488–490, 492, 496
Eccentricities of a Nightingale (Williams)
Alma Winemiller character in, 345
John Buchanan character in, 345
Edmonds, Randolph, 309, 315
Edna, the Pretty Typewriter (Owen Davis), 164–165
Edwards, Justin, 135
Ehrenreich, Barbara, 438
Eight American Ethnic Plays (1974 compilation), 486–487
Einstein on the Beach (Glass), 505
Elam Jr., Harry, 12
El Capitan (Sousa), 194
election of 1840, 106–107
Elevator Repair Service (theatre company), 15, 505–506
Eliot, George, 87
Ellet, Elizabeth, 118–120, 123
Elliott, Maxine, 208
Ellis, Evelyn, 308
El Teatro Campesino (ETC)
anti-war plays of, 415
feminist theatrical critiques of, 435, 479
immigration and ethnicity themes of, 366–370, 415
interactive elements and, 369–370
museum-style presentations by, 367–369
Obie Award and, 414
United Farm Workers and, 413–414, 478, 488
El Teatro Nacional de Aztlán (TENAZ), 414
E=MC2 (Flanagan), 300
Emma (Little Flags production), 418
Emmet, Joseph K., 190–191, 303
“Emmet’s Lullaby,” 190
The Emperor Jones (O’Neill)
commercial success of, 238, 246
experimentalism of, 251–252
expressionism and, 272–273
modernism and, 244–245
Provincetown Players and, 8, 238, 244, 246
racial themes in, 252, 309–310
Wooster Group production of, 452
End of Summer (Behrman), 297
The End of the World (Kopit), 14, 448
An Enemy of the People (Ibsen), 174, 182
The Enemy: Time (Williams), 347
England
blackface minstrelsy in, 83, 85–86
colonial-era actors from, 2, 16–19, 25
influence on American Revolutionary era theatre from, 33–39, 45–47
influence on early republic era drama by, 53–55, 60, 64, 70
New Woman in, 204–210, 212, 215
Eno, Will, 507–509, 518
Ensler, Eve, 419, 426
Ernest Maltravers (Medina), 116, 123–125
The Escape, or A Leap for Freedom (William Wells Brown), 8, 92–94, 219, 222–225, 227–229
The Eternal Quadrangle (Reed), 237
Ethiopia (Federal Theatre Project production), 301, 310
Ethiopian Delineation. See under blackface minstrelsy
ethnicity, definitions of, 486
ethnicity themes in American drama. See also specific ethnic groups
in antebellum era drama (1820–1860), 5–6, 68–69, 97–98, 100–110
anthologies and, 497
assimilation and, 103–104, 489–490
class and, 98
early republican era and (1789–1820), 99–100
early republican era drama (1789–1820) and, 99–100
electoral politics and, 106–107
(p. 536) experimental theatre and, 12, 366–371
historiography of, 496
hybridity and mutability, 98, 493, 497–498
impact of changing demographics on, 485–486, 494–495
internment and, 496–497
intra-ethnic critique and, 490–491
multiculturalism and, 492–494
protest drama and, 3, 410–411
religion and, 109
systemic racism and, 490
transcending stereotypes and, 489, 493–494
Evangeline (musical), 191–192
Evans, Rowland, 362
The Eve of St. Mark (Maxwell Anderson), 292
Everett, William, 400–401
Exorcism (O’Neill), 262n2
Experimental Death Unit #3 (Baraka), 478
experimental theatre
aesthetic distance and, 361
anarchist and pacifist influence on, 357–358
Asian American drama and, 370–371
body mutilation and, 12, 364–365
breaking illusion emphasis of, 356, 362, 365–366, 373
Chicano/Chicana drama and, 366–370
collective management and, 358
contrasted with conventional theatre and expression, 356, 365–366
counterculture’s impact on, 357–358
creation of new forms and, 356–358
Federal Theatre Project (FTP) and, 299–300
homosexuality themes and, 360
immigration and ethnicity themes in, 12, 366–371
“indecency” debates and, 359–360, 437
nakedness in performance and, 360–363, 365
National Endowment for the Arts (NEA) and, 359–362, 420
Native American characters and themes in, 357, 367–369
origins of realism in drama and, 175
outdoor performance and, 358
performance artists and, 360, 437
political opponents of, 364–365
post-porn satire and, 12, 362–363
sex and sexuality themes in, 12, 360, 362–363
socially marginalized groups and, 366–371
solo performances and, 359, 361–364, 367
technology use in, 372–373
Experimental Theatre, Inc. (ETI), 246
expressionism
abstract expressionism and, 358
abstraction and, 272
antiheroes and, 276
bourgeois aesthetics and, 276
criticisms of, 275–276
cultural fears of technology and, 274–275
Delsartean aesthetics and, 275
German practitioners of, 244, 272–273, 275
modernity and, 274–275
O’Neill and, 244–245, 252, 272–273
primitivism and, 272
psychological and emotional forces in, 264, 271, 273, 276
radical aesthetics and, 276–277
realism and, 264
scenic detail and, 271–272
“schrei” style and, 272
stylization and, 264, 271
symbolism and, 271–272
Face the Music, 199
Factwino Meets the Moral Majority, 410
The Fair Americans (Carr), 63–64, 122
Fair Labor Standards Act, 326
The Fall of British Tyranny; or, American Liberty Triumphant (Leacock), 38–39
Falsettos (Finn), 464
Farnum, Hilda, 318
Farquhar, George, 42
Farrison, William Edward, 222–223, 227
Fashion (Mowatt), 6, 107, 115, 117, 125–127, 175
The Father (Strindberg), 174, 179–180
Faulkner, William, 506
Fay, Frank, 198
Fearnow, Mark, 7
Federal Theatre Project (FTP)
African American drama and, 10, 302–305, 315–317, 376
(p. 537) anti-capitalist themes and, 297–298, 304
anti-fascist dramas and, 290–291
charges of Communism against, 295–298, 304–305, 318
The Cradle Will Rock and, 288
educational goals of, 296, 298
Experimental Unit of, 299–300
Great Depression themes and, 297–298, 300–301
House Committee on Un-American Activities (HUAC) and, 318
labor-themed drama and, 288
Living Newspapers, 10, 296, 300–301, 478
loudspeaker technique and, 301–302
Negro Units of, 10, 316, 376
as “people’s theatre,” 296, 298, 302
political dramas and, 10, 295–302
Popular Front drama and, 297–300
propaganda questions regarding, 296
racial justice issues and, 303–304
Fefu and Her Friends (Fornés), 429–430, 462
The Female Enthusiast (Pogson), 57–58
The Feminine Mystique (Friedan), 427
feminist drama
“50/50 in 2020” initiative and, 425, 435
African American playwrights and themes in, 383–384, 428–429, 432, 434–435, 438, 448–449
baby boom generation and, 431–432
Broadway productions of, 430–433
challenges to gender status quo from, 427–428, 431–433, 435–437
class and capitalism themes in, 430, 434, 436–438
comedy and, 436–437
commercial successes of, 431
consciousness-raising and, 430
cultural feminism and, 436, 439
female family relations and, 428, 430–431, 433
female objectification and, 418–419, 425–426
feminist theatre companies and, 430
gynocentric emphasis in, 430
increasing presence of women in theatre and, 425–426
Latina playwrights and themes in, 429–430, 435, 479
lesbian playwrights and themes in, 435–437, 462
liberal feminism and, 13, 435–436, 438
materialist feminism and, 436
Native American playwrights and themes in, 431, 438
Obie awards for, 428–429, 431, 433, 436
Off and Off-Off-Broadway productions of, 428–429, 431
“personal is political” and, 430
political drama genre and, 282, 479, 481–482
protest drama and, 408, 410, 417–419
Pulitzer Prizes for, 432–433, 479, 482
racial themes in, 425–426, 428–429, 432, 434
radical feminism and, 13, 436
realism and, 427, 432, 435–438, 479
Second Wave of Feminism and, 427, 436, 437
self-critique and, 13, 435, 437
Third Wave of feminism and, 437–438
Tony Awards for, 433
violence themes in, 425, 430, 433–434, 436, 438, 481–482
The Feminist Spectator as Critic (Dolan), 435
Fences (August Wilson), 385–386
Ferber, Edna, 238
Fiddler on the Roof, 392
Fierstein, Harvey, 419, 463, 467
Fifteen years of a drunkard’s life: A melodrama in three acts (Jerrold), 138
Fin del Mundo, 415
Finian’s Rainbow, 201
Finley, Karen
critical praise for, 436
family history of, 361–362
NEA funding controversy and, 360, 420, 465
performance style of, 361–362, 418, 437
visual arts background of, 359, 437
Finn, William, 464
Firefall (Jesurun), 453–454
The Firefly (Friml), 195
Fiske, Harrison Grey, 239
Fitch, Clyde, 7, 174, 182–183
Fitzgerald, Eleanor, 246
(p. 538) Fitzgerald, F. Scott, 506
The Five Lesbian Brothers, 436, 462
Flanagan, Hallie, 295–301, 303–305, 316, 318, 376
Fleck, John, 360, 420, 465
Fletcher, Anne, 275
Flight Courier Service (Maxwell), 451
Flight to America, 94n1
Florence (Childress), 428
Flower, Benjamin O., 177–180
Flying Colors, 199
Flying High, 199
Flyin’ West (Cleage), 434
Focus (Miller), 325
Fog (O’Neill), 261–262
Foghorn (Geiogamah), 489
Follies of 1907 (Ziegfeld), 196
Follow the Girls, 200
The Fool (Bond), 472
Foote, Stephanie, 267
for colored girls who have considered suicide when the rainbow is enuf (Shange), 383–384, 417
Ford Foundation, 382, 488, 492
Foreman, Richard, 288, 358, 387
The Forest Princess (Barnes Conner), 116, 124–127
The Forest Rose (Woodworth), 64, 101
Fornes, Maria Irene, 428–429, 437, 462, 492, 496
Forrest, Edwin
Bowery Theatre and, 70
British tour of, 70
melodrama and, 69
as Metamora, 69, 72, 78, 102, 151
patriotic themes and, 70–72
playwriting contests of, 5, 60, 69–71, 102
as Spartacus, 69, 73–75
The Fortune Teller (Herbert), 194
Forty-Five Minutes from Broadway, 194
Foster, Stephen, 226, 229
The Fountain (O’Neill), 246, 253
Fox, G. L., 190
Fraden, Rena, 303
France, Richard, 497
Francesca da Rimini (Boker), 6
Frankenstein (Living Theatre production), 409–410
Freedom (Reed), 237
Freeman, Carlotta, 308
Free Southern Theatre, 412
Free Speech Movement (Berkeley), 13, 410
French Revolution, 57–58, 67
Freneau, Philip, 40
Freshwater (Woolf), 438
Freud, Sigmund, 419, 476
Frick, John, 131, 138
Friedan, Betty, 427
Frijoles or Beans to You, 410
Friml, Rudolf, 194–195, 197–198
Fritz, Our Cousin German, 190–192
From Morn to Midnight (Kaiser), 244
frontier dramas, 6, 149–153
Front Street Theatre (Baltimore), 152
Frozen Wages, 410
Fuchs, Elinor, 505, 520n4
Fugitive Slave Law, 86
Funny Face, 197
Funnyhouse of a Negro (Kennedy), 381, 429
A Funny Thing Happened on the Way to the Forum, 192
Furman, Roger, 319
Furness, R.S., 272
Gage, Thomas, 35
Gale, Zona, 282
The Game (Bryant), 237, 241–242
GAN-e-meed Theatre Project, 439
Garden of Time (Dodson), 305
Garden Party (Williams), 459
Gardiner, Thomas, 40–41
Gardley, Marcus, 389
Gardner, Eric, 93
Garland, Hamlin, 177–178, 239, 313
Garrick, David, 42, 53
The Garrick Gaieties, 197
Garrison, William Lloyd, 75
Garson, Barbara, 416
Garvey, Marcus, 304, 317, 376
Gassner, John, 255, 265, 271, 273
Gates Jr. Henry Louis, 149
Gatz (Elevator Repair Service production), 505–506
(p. 539) Gaunt, Percy, 194
Gay, John, 27, 37
Gay and Lesbian Alliance Against Defamation (GLAAD), 466
Gay Divorce, 199
gay liberation drama, 419–420, 461–464. See also LGBT drama
Geiogamah, Hanay, 415, 489–491
Gelb, Barbara and Arthur, 252, 257–259, 261
Gelber, Jack, 409
Gemini (Innaurato), 463
Gem of the Ocean (August Wilson), 387
Generall Historie of Virginia (John Smith), 151
The Gentle Furniture Shop (Bodenheim), 243
Gentlemen Prefer Blondes, 201
The Gentle People (Irwin Shaw), 291
Gentlewoman (Lawson), 286
George Barnwell, or the London Merchant, 22
Georgia, Indian removal policy in, 78
The Georgia Spec (Tyler), 54
German Expressionism, 244, 272–273, 275
German immigrants in antebellum era, 107, 109
German (“Dutch”) plays in the antebellum era, 109
Germon, G.C., 89
Gershwin, George, 195–196, 283, 289
Gershwin, Ira, 195, 289
Gerstenberg, Alice, 273–274, 276
Gest, Morris, 275
The Ghost of Yankee Doodle (Sidney Howard), 291
Ghosts (Ibsen), 174, 179–180, 182, 205, 238
A Giant’s Strength (Sinclair), 447
Gide, Andre, 348, 459
Gilbert and Sullivan, 192–193, 317
Gillette, William Hooker, 7, 161, 166–170
Gilman, Charlotte Perkins, 210
Gilmore, Paul, 92, 223–224
Gilpin, Charles, 308, 313
Gilpin Players, 313
Girl Crazy, 199
The Girl From Utah, 195
The Girl in the Coffin (Dreiser), 270, 273
The Girl of the Golden West (Belasco), 168–169
Gissing, George, 213
Giving Up the Ghost (Moraga), 417, 479
GLAAD (Gay and Lesbian Alliance Against Defamation), 466
The Gladiator (Bird), 5, 68, 70, 73–76, 125
A Glance at New York (Benjamin Baker), 6, 110, 154–155
Glaspell, Susan
antiwar themes and, 283–284
feminism and, 245–246
modernism and, 244–245
naturalism and, 266, 270
New Woman drama and, 205, 282
on Paterson Strike Pageant, 236
Provincetown Players and, 8–9, 234, 238–241, 243, 245–246, 248, 282–284
realism and, 240–241, 245
Washington Square Players and, 237
Glass, Phillip, 505
The Glass Menagerie (Williams)
Amanda character in, 441–442
Broadway production of, 341
commercial success of, 11, 457
poetic imagination and, 340
reviews of, 342
technology themes in, 14, 441–443, 451
Tom character in, 441–442
The Glines, 463
The Glory Box (Tim Miller), 420
The Glory of Columbia, Her Yeomanry! (Dunlap), 55–56, 62, 99
Go Back to Where You Are (Greenspan), 516–517
Godey’s Magazine and Lady’s Book (magazine), 118
Go Down Moses (Theodore Browne), 305
Gods of the Lightning (Maxwell Anderson), 290
Gold, Mike (Itzok Isaac Granich), 238, 299
Goldemberg, Rose Leiman, 418
Golden, Thelma, 388
“golden age” of musical theater, 8, 12, 189–190, 196–201, 392–398, 402–405
Golden Boy (Odets), 287
Goldman, Emma, 235, 418
The Gold Standard and the Logic of Naturalism (Benn Michaels), 268
Gomez, Marga, 466
(p. 540) Gómez-Peña, Guillermo
on cultural hybridity, 478–479
experimental style of, 367–370, 478–479
immigration and ethnicity themes of, 367–370, 422
Pocha Nostra group and, 358, 367
The Gondoliers (Gilbert and Sullivan), 192
Gonzalez S., Sylvia, 495
Goodbye, My Fancy (Kanin), 427–428
Goodman, Edward, 297
Good News!, 197
Goodwin, J. Cheever, 191, 193
Gordon, Joanne, 400
Gordon, Mel, 272, 277n2
Gordon, Roxy, 494
Gorelik, Mordecai, 275, 286
Gossett Jr., Louis, 378
Gotanda, Philip Kan, 466, 493–494
Gotham and the Gothamites (Judah), 104
Gottlieb, Lois, 206–207
Graczyk, Ed, 463
Graham, Shirley, 312, 317–318
Grand, Sarah, 203, 212
Grand Theatre (Chicago), 308
Grant, Mark, 392, 395–396, 401, 403
Grasses of a Thousand Colors (Shawn), 511–514
Gray, Spalding, 520n6
Great Depression
African American drama and, 376–377, 386
Federal Theatre Project’s dramatic representations of, 297–298, 300–301
Miller and, 324–326
The Great Disobedience (Miller), 325
The Great Gatsby (Fitzgerald), 505
The Great God Brown (O’Neill), 246, 253–254
The Great Moral Drama: Underground Railroad (Hopkins), 225–226
Great Society initiatives, 486
Green, Martin, 236
Green, Paul, 283, 286, 291, 377
The Green Bay Tree (Shairp), 456
Greenberg, Richard, 464, 466
Green Mountain Boys, 101
Green Pastures (Connelly), 310, 314–315
Greenspan, David, 464, 507, 514–518
Greenwich Village
Bohemian lifestyles in, 346, 460
Circle-in-the-Square Theater in, 257, 345–346, 459
drag performers in, 456
Little Renaissance and, 235–236, 245
Little Theatre Movement and, 234–235
Off- and Off-Off-Broadway productions in, 345–347, 459–460
Provincetown Players and, 234–237, 243
Gregory, Lady, 239
Gregory, Montgomery T., 239, 309, 311
Griffiths, Linda, 213–214
Grimké, Angela Weld, 10, 12, 210, 283, 309, 311–312
Grimsted, David, 77, 133, 154
Grose, Burl D., 150
The Group (Warren), 35–36
Group Theatre, 284, 322, 326, 408
Grove, William Hugh, 18
Grundy, Sidney, 209
Guare, John, 347, 507
Guys and Dolls, 394
Gypsy, 402–403
Hackett, James H., 77–78, 101, 150
Hairspray, 194, 403
The Hairy Ape (O’Neill)
African American characters and themes in, 245
class and capitalism themes in, 252, 281
commercial success of, 238, 246, 251
experimentalism of, 251–252
expressionism and, 272
modernism and, 244–245
Provincetown Players and, 238, 244, 246
realism in, 245
Yank character and, 10, 244–245, 252–253, 281
Hale, Sarah Josepha, 118, 125, 127
Halifax (Nova Scotia), 19
Hall, Louisa Jane Park, 120
Hall, Radclyffe, 214
Hallam, Nancy, 25
Hallam, Thomas, 19
Hallam, William, 19, 23
Hallam Company, 20–23, 26
Hallam Jr., Lewis, 19, 22–24, 28–30, 45–46
(p. 541) Halttunen, Karen, 127
Hamalian, Leo, 223, 227–230
Hamblin, Thomas, 116
Hamilton, Alexander, 30, 292
Hamilton, Ann, 500–502, 520n2
Hamilton, Cicely, 207–209, 408
Hamilton, Clayton, 162–163
Hammerstein II, Oscar, 197–199, 400. See also Rodgers and Hammerstein
Hansberry, Lorraine
African American family themes and, 12, 379–380, 387, 389, 487
nuclear technology themes and, 447
Hapgood, Hutchins, 234–237
Hapgood, Norman, 167–169
Happy Ending (Turner Ward), 382
Harburg, E.Y., 199
Hardman, Chris, 358
Hare, David, 480–481
Hare, Maude Cuney, 317
Harlem (New York City)
African American drama in, 308, 311–314, 319, 378, 380, 382–383, 413, 478
drag performers in, 456
Harlem Renaissance and, 203–204, 282, 303, 312–314, 412
riots (1964) in, 413
Harlem: A Melodrama of Harlem Life, 314
Harlem Experimental Theatre Company, 313–314
Harlem Suitcase Theatre, 313–314
Harper’s Ferry, 117, 299
Harper’s Magazine, 176–177, 239
Harrigan, Edward, 191–192
Harris, Charles K., 194
Harris, Helen, 309, 311, 318
Harrison, Richard, 315
Hart, Christopher, 14, 470–471
Hart, Lorenz, 195, 197, 199–200
Hart, Lynda, 479
Hart, Moss, 289
Hart, Tony, 191–192
Hart-Cellar Act, 485–486
Hartley, Marsden, 235
Harvey, 323
Hastings, Milo, 297
Hatch, James, 223, 227–230, 317
Hatton, Anne Kemble, 59
The Haunted Host (Patrick), 349
Hauptmann, Gerhart, 173–174, 176
Hay, Malcolm, 472–473
Hay, Samuel, 221, 230–231
Hayes, Helen, 295
Hayward, Dorothy and Dubose, 283, 309–310
Haywood, William “Big Bill,” 235
A Hazard of New Fortunes (Howells), 177
Heady, Thomas, 17
Healy, Peg, 436
He and She (Crothers), 185–186, 207, 282
The Heart of Maryland (Belasco), 166
Heath, James Ewell, 107
Hedda Gabler (Ibsen), 174, 183, 205
Hedgerow Theatre, 300
Hedwig and the Angry Inch (Mitchell), 467
The Heidi Chronicles (Wasserstein), 426, 433
Heilmann, Ann, 212
Hellman, Lillian, 173, 175, 288, 291, 431, 456, 474
Hello, Dolly!, 194
Hellzapoppin’, 199
Henderson, Helene, 197, 266, 268
Henley, Beth, 432, 434, 479
Henry, John, 27, 30, 45, 47
Henson, Josiah, 91
Hentz, Caroline Lee Whiting, 119, 123, 125–126
Herbert, Victor, 193–195, 197–198
Herene, Katharine Corcocan, 178
Herman, Jerry, 419, 463
Her Naked Skin (Lenkiewicz), 214
Herne, James A., 7, 165, 174, 176–178, 180–181, 184, 238
Heroes and Saints (Moraga), 466, 479
Heron, Matilda, 117, 119
Herr, Christopher, 9–10
Hewitt, Barnard, 149
Hewlett, James, 222
Hidden: A Gender (Bornstein), 467
High Button Shoes, 323
The Highest Tree (Schary), 447–448
Highways Performance Space (Los Angeles), 465
Hill, Abram, 302–303, 305, 318–320
Hill, Errol, 231–232
(p. 542) Hill, George Handel, 77, 101
Hischak, Thomas, 7–8, 396
historically black colleges and universities (HBCUs). See black colleges and universities
Hit the Deck!, 197
H. M. S. Pinafore (Gilbert and Sullivan), 192
Hodin, Mark, 7
Hoffman, Abbie, 416
Hoffman, William, 460, 464
Hogarth, William, 37
Hohman, Valleri, 275
Hoiby, Lee, 349
Holden, Joan, 410, 438
Hold Everything!, 197
Holiday (Barry), 286
Holt, Henry, 17–18
Holt, Michael, 100, 106–107
Homebody/Kabul (Kushner), 420
The HOME Show Pieces (Greenspan), 516
homosexuality. See also lesbian drama; LGBT drama; sexuality themes in American drama
Caffe Cino theatre and, 348–349
cultural antagonism toward, 344, 350, 352, 360–361, 365, 419–420, 455–459, 466–468
Williams’ dramatic treatment of, 11, 14, 348, 350–351, 353, 457–459
Honors at Dawn (Miller), 325
The Hook (Miller), 327
Hooks, Robert, 382
“The Hope of the Negro Drama” (Richardson), 309
Hopkins, Pauline, 8, 219, 224–230
Hopkins Colored Troubadours (Boston), 225
Hopkinson, Francis, 44–45
Hopper, DeWolf, 193
Horizons: Theatre from a Woman’s Perspective, 417
Horovitz, Israel, 480
The Hostage (Behan), 459
Hot Peaches, 460
House Committee on Un-American Activities (HUAC)
anti-Communist aims of, 330, 332–333, 475
Federal Theatre Project and, 318
Kazan and, 332–333
Miller and, 322, 327, 330–333, 471, 474–475
targeting of homosexuals by, 458
Houseman, John, 288, 316, 377
Houston, Velina Hasu, 495–496
Howard, Bronson, 166
Howard, Cordelia, 140–141
Howard, Sidney, 184, 291
Howard Players, 311
Howard Theatre (Washington, DC), 308
Howard University, 315. See also black colleges and universities
Howe, Julia Ward, 119–120, 123–124, 127–128
Howe, Leanne, 494
Howe, Tina, 433–434
Howe, William, 28, 37–38, 41
Howells, William Dean
plays of, 176–177
realism and, 7, 161–162, 167, 175–178, 180, 239, 266
How I Learned to Drive (Vogel), 433, 465
How The Vote Was Won, 408
How to Turn Distress into Success: A Parable of War and Its Making (Bread and Puppet Theatre), 411
Hoyt, Charles H., 194
Hudibras (Butler), 36
Hudson, Rock, 505
Huerta, Jorge, 495, 497
Hughes, Holly, 360, 420, 436–437, 462, 465
Hughes, Langston, 283, 290, 314, 377, 474–475
Hughie (O’Neill), 256, 259–261
Humphreys, David, 56–57, 64
Humpty Dumpty (musical), 190–191, 194, 196
The Hungry Woman: A Mexican Medea (Moraga), 435, 466
Hurston, Zora Neale, 11, 311–312, 314, 316
Hutchinson, Chisa, 466–467
Hutchinson, Thomas, 34–35, 37
Hwang, David Henry, 466, 493
Hyers, Anna Madah and Emma Louise, 8, 219, 224–226, 229
(p. 543) Hyman, Earle, 319
Hynes, Garry, 426
Hyppolytus (Howe), 119–120
I Am My Own Wife (Doug Wright), 467
Ibsen, Henrik
Bloom on, 181
early translations and productions of, 174–175
female characters of, 204–206, 211
realism and, 7–9, 173–176, 179–183, 185, 238
The Iceman Cometh (O’Neill)
alcoholism in, 257
camraderie theme in, 258–259, 261
criticisms of, 257
human condition themes in, 9, 257–258
narrative technique in, 504
Off-Broadway production of, 346
“pipe dream” and illusions theme in, 257–258
repetition in, 257
Idiot’s Delight (Sherwood), 290–291
I Don’t Have to Show You No Stinking Badges! (Valdez), 478, 494
I’d Rather be Right, 289
I Married an Angel, 199
Immigration Reform and Control Act (1986), 494
The Immoralist (Gide), 459
In Abraham’s Bosom (Green), 283, 308, 377
Incident at Vichy (Miller), 328, 330–331
“indecency” debates, 359–361, 437, 465
Independence (Ioor), 63
The Independence of Eddie Rose (Yellow Robe), 415
The Independent Female, Or A Man Has His Pride, 410
The Indian Princess (Barker), 59, 101, 105
The Indian Prophecy (Custis), 151
Indian Radio Days (Howe and Gordon), 494
Indian Removal Policy. See under Native Americans
Indians. See Native Americans
Inge, William, 348, 352, 459
Ingomar the Barbarian (Lovell), 117, 125–127
Ingraham, J.H., 116
Inheritors (Glaspell), 283–284
Inherit the Wind (Lawrence and Lee), 475–476
Injunction Granted, 288
Innaurato, Albert, 463
INTAR Theatre (New York), 429, 491–492
integrated musicals. See under musical drama
The Intellectual Regale (magazine), 118
The Intellectual Regale, or, Lady’s Tea Tray, 358
Interior Scroll (Schneeman), 418
The International (Lawson), 285
International Association for Theatrical Stage Employees (IATSE), 318
International Ladies Garment Workers Union (ILGWU), 288
International WOW Company, 420
In the Bar of a Tokyo Hotel (Williams), 352
In the Blood (Parks), 387, 434–435
In the Red and Brown Water (McCraney), 518–519
In the Summer House (Bowles), 428
In the Wake (Kron), 463
Intimate Apparel (Nottage), 214, 434
In White America (Duberman), 412
Ionesco, Eugène, 473, 477
Ioor, William, 63
Ira Aldridge Players, 313
Iraq War
Iraq Veterans Against the War, 421
theatre in opposition to, 13, 411, 420–422, 473, 480–481
Ireland, Joseph, 118
Irene, 197
Irish characters and themes in antebellum era drama, 5, 101, 105–106, 108, 166
Irish immigrants
in American theatre, 103, 105–106, 108–109
blackface minstrelsy and, 82, 225
Irish Famine and, 98
O’Neill on, 256
urban concentrations of, 107
violence against, 108–109
The Irish Shield (newspaper), 105
Irving, Washington, 109
Isham, John W., 229
Isn’t It Romantic? (Wasserstein), 433
Israeli-Palestinian conflict, theatrical representations of, 411, 470–471, 480
(p. 544) It Can’t Happen Here (Lewis), 290–291
It’s All Right to Be Woman Theatre, 430
Ivanhoe (Scott), 103, 111n3
Ives, Alice, 210
Jack (Greenspan), 516–517
Jack, Sam T., 229
Jack Cade, or, The Captain of the Commons, 77
Jackson, Andrew
Black Hawk War and, 152
Indian Removal policies of, 102
melodramatic style and, 69
populist campaigning style of, 100–101
Jamaica
colonial era theatre in, 2, 23, 27, 29–30
Slave Revolt of 1831 in, 121
James, Henry, 175–178, 266, 500
Jameson, Fredric, 446–447
Jamestown (Virginia), 2, 59
Janis, Elise, 198
Jarry, Alfred, 358
Jean Cocteau Repertory Company, 353
Jefferson, Thomas, 25–26, 30, 292
Jeffrey (Rudnick), 464
Jenkins, Linda Walsh, 417
Jerrold, Douglass, 138, 160
Jesurun, John, 14, 453–454
Jewish characters in antebellum drama, 5, 103–105, 111nn23
Jewish immigrants
in American theatre, 100, 103–104, 110
anti-Semitism and, 103
blackface minstrelsy and, 82
Jim Crow character (blackface minstrelsy), 81, 85–86, 89–90, 92, 154, 224
Joanna of Naples (Hall), 120, 127
Johnny Comes Marching Home (Bread and Puppet Theatre), 411
Johnny Johnson (Green), 199, 286, 291
Johnson, Charles (author of The Middle Passage), 385
Johnson, Charles S. (National Urban League), 310
Johnson, Georgia Douglas, 11, 309, 311–313, 316
Johnson, Lyndon B., 486
Johnson, Odai, 3–4
Johnson, Samuel M., qq
Jolson, Al, 197–198
Jonas (Greenspan), 517
Jonathan in England, 82, 101
Jones, Cherry, 465
Jones, Hugh, 18
Jones, James Early, 383
Jones, John Bush, 396–397, 401, 404
Jones, J(oseph). S(tevens)., 153, 154
Jones, J.S., 153–154
Jones, LeRoi. See Baraka, Amiri
Jones, Margo, 341
Jones, Robert Edmond, 235–236, 246
José, Can You See? (Sandoval-Sánchez), 493
journeyman (house) playwrights, 153–154, 156
Jubilee, 199
Judah, Samuel B.H., 104
The Judge; or, A Drama of American Life (Hale), 118, 125, 127
Judgment Day (Elmer Rice), 291
Judson, E. Z. C., 70, 109
Jullien, Jean, 268
Jumbo, 199
Jusová, Iveta, 212
Kahn, Otto, 275
Kairisah; or, The Warrior or Wanachtithi (Medina), 102
Kaiser, Georg, 244
Kanin, Fay, 427–428
Kanin, Garson, 324
Kate Valk (Brace Up! character), 372–373
Kauffmann, Stanley, 352
Kaufman, George S., 289
Kaufman, Moisés, 419, 466
Kazan, Elia, 332–333, 341
Kean, Thomas, 19–21
Keene, Laura, 116–117, 204
Kelly, Gene, 200
Kelly, Katherine, 8
Kennedy, Adrienne, 381, 384, 428–429, 448–449
Kent, Assunta, 429
Kenton, Edna, 237, 244, 246
Kermode, Frank, 503, 508
Kern, Jerome, 195, 197–199, 392, 396
Kerr, Walter, 351
Keteltas, Caroline, 120
Key Largo (Maxwell Anderson), 292
(p. 545) Kicking A Dead Horse (Shepard), 480–481
The Killing of Sister George (Marcus), 459
Kimball, Moses, 130, 144
King, Woodie, 380, 383, 432
The King and I (Rodgers and Hammerstein), 189, 193–194, 403
King Hedley II (August Wilson), 386
King Lear (Shakespeare), 76
Kingsley, Sidney, 286, 292, 302
Kinky Boots (Fierstein and Lauper), 467
Kinsey, Alfred, 458
Kipnis, Laura, 427
Kirle, Bruce, 397–399, 404
Kislan, Richard, 394, 399
Kiss Me, Kate, 201, 323, 397
Klein, Charles, 165
Klein, Stacy, 358
Knapp, Raymond, 393, 395, 402
Kneass, Nelson, 87
Knot Holes (Bodenheim), 243
Know Nothing Party, 107–109, 114
Kolin, Philip C., 352
Kopit, Arthur, 14, 448
Kornfeld, Paul, 273
Kramer, Larry, 419, 464, 477
Krapp’s Last Tape (Beckett), 481
Kreitzer, Carson, 438
Kreymborg, Alfred, 242–243
Krigwa Players, 311, 313–314
Kritzer, Amelia, 5–6, 63
Kron, Lisa, 436, 462–463
Krutch, Joseph Wood, 160
Kuhns, David, 272
Ku Klux Klan, 412
Kurahashi, Yuko, 490
Kushner, Tony
Afghanistan themes and, 420
LGBT and AIDS themes of, 419, 465–466, 477
on O’Neill, 261–262
on political drama, 470
labor movement, violence against, 287, 289. See also political drama, labor movement themes in
La Cage aux Folles (Fierstein and Herman), 419, 463
La Carpa de los Rasquachis (El Teatro Campesino), 368, 415
Ladies of Castile (Warren), 51
Lady, Be Good!, 197
The Lady Dick (Holly Hughes), 462
Lady in the Dark, 200
The Lady of Larkspur Lotion (Williams), 347
Lafayette Players, 10, 308, 314
La Fitte; or, The Pirate of the Gulf (Barnes Conner), 116
LaMaMa Experimental Theatre Club, 460, 463, 489
L’Amant Militaire (Holden), 410
Lamorah; or, The Western Wild (Hentz), 119, 125–127
Lane, Jill, 83–84
Lane, Nathan, 464
Langner, Lawrence, 236–237, 258
A Language of Their Own (Yew), 466
L’aprés-midi d’un faune (Diaghilev), 241
The Laramie Project (Kaufman), 419–420, 466
Larson, Jonathan, 419, 464
Lashin, Orrie, 297
La Sonnambula (Bellini), 83
The Last Days of Pompeii (Medina), 116, 125
The Last of the Plantaganets (Ketltas), 120
Last Summer at Bluefish Cove (Chambers), 462
Laughing Gas (Dreiser), 273–274
Laurents, Arthur, 402
“Laurey Makes Up Her Mind,” 200
Lavender Cellar (theatre company), 462
Lavery, Emmet, 303–304
Lawrence, Jerome, 475–476
Lawson, John Howard
anti-capitalist themes of, 284–287
expressionism and, 272–273, 276
labor movement themes and, 286–287
leftist politics of, 10, 286
radical aesthetics and, 276, 474
screenwriting career of, 276
Lazarus Laughed (O’Neill), 253–254
Lea, Marion, 205
Leacock, John, 38–40, 52
League of Professional Theatre Women, 439
League of Resident Theatres (LORT), 492
(p. 546) Leave It to Jane, 195
Leave It to Me!, 199
LeCompte, Elizabeth, 353, 358, 372–373
lectern readings, 89, 91, 511–514
Lecture on Heads (Stevens), 27
Lee, Canada, 305, 319, 377
Lee, Charles, 40
Lee, Esther Kim, 497
Lee, Gypsy Rose, 402–403
Lee, Josephine, 493
Lee, Robert E., 475–476
Legacy of Cain (Living Theatre production), 410
Legally Blonde (musical), 403
Lehmann, Hans-Thies, 452, 520n4
Leisler’s Revolt, 123
Lemierre, Antoine-Marin, 56
Lenkiewicz, Rebecca, 214
Leonora or The World’s Own (Howe), 119, 123–124, 127
Lepore, Jill, 102
Lerner, Gerda, 121
lesbian drama. See also LGBT theatre; sexuality themes in American drama
comedy and, 436–437, 462–463
critiques of, 462
feminist drama and, 435–437, 462
heterosexual parodies and, 419, 436, 462
lesbian theatre companies and, 462
Off- and Off-Off-Broadway productions of, 465
Lesbians Who Kill (Split Britches), 462
Les Misérables (Boublil and Schönberg), 401
The Lesson (Ionesco), 477
Let Freedom Ring (Bein), 288
Let’s Face It!, 200
Letters Home (Goldemberg), 418
Letts, Tracy, 446, 506–507
Levin, Ira, 463
Levine, Lawrence, 76
Levingston, William, 17–18
Levy, Carolyn, 418
Lewis, Eliza Gabriella, 120, 125
Lewis, Sinclair, 290–291
Leyba, Claire, 318
LGBT drama. See also homosexuality; lesbian drama
African American playwrights and themes in, 460–461, 466–467
AIDS themes and, 463–464
assimilation versus queer identity in, 455–456
Black Arts movement and, 460
camp genre and, 460, 463
censorship against, 456–457, 461, 467
Chicano/Chicana themes and characters in, 466, 495
commercial viability of, 461–463
drag performance and, 419, 456, 460, 463, 467
gay liberation themes and, 461–464
mainstreaming of, 464–468
Off- and Off-Off-Broadway productions of, 459–461, 464–466
racial and ethnic minority characters in, 466–467
realism and, 465–466
Stonewall riots and, 14, 461
transgender characters and themes, 467
transsexual characters and themes in, 368, 463
Lhamon, Jr., W.T., 82–85, 154
Liberal Club (Greenwich Village), 234–236
Liberty Deferred (Silvera and Hill), 303–304
The Liberty Tree or Boston Boys, 101
Libin, Paul, 345
Licensing Act of 1737 (England), 19, 219–220
The Life and Opinions of Tristram Shandy (Sterne), 520n2
Life Begins at 8:40, 199
Life in America (Rede), 5, 85–86
Life in the Iron Mills (Davis), 142
Life with Father, 323
Light, James, 243, 246
Ligon, Glenn, 385
Lilith, 430
Lima Beans (Kreymborg), 242–243
Lin, Maya, 495
Lincoln, Abraham, 110, 299–300, 387–388
Lincoln Players, 314
Lincoln Theatre (New York), 377
Lindsay, Howard, 323–324
Linonian Society, 27–28
The Lion and Mouse (Klein), 165
(p. 547) The Lion King (musical), 401, 426
The Lion of the West; or, The Kentuckian (Paulding), 150–152
The Lisbon Traviata (McNally), 464
Little, Sophia Robbins, 121, 127
Little, Stuart, 345–346
Little Eyolf (Ibsen), 180
Little Flags, 418
Little Johnny Jones, 194
Little Katy, The Hot Corn Girl, 154
Little Negro Theatre Movement, 10, 309, 312–314
Little Nellie Kelly, 197
Little Renaissance, 235–236, 245
The Little Show, 197
Little Theatre Movement, 178, 234–236, 282
A Live Woman in the Mines (Delano), 152
Living Newspapers. See under Federal Theatre Project (FTP)
Living Out (Loomer), 438
Livingston, Myrtle Smith, 311
Living Theatre, 12–13, 357–358, 361, 409–410
local color
in American Revolutionary Era productions, 43
frontier drama and, 150
naturalism and, 184, 267, 276–277
Locke, Alain, 282, 309, 311
Loman, Willy. See under Death of a Salesman (Miller)
The London Merchant (Lillo), 46
Long, Huey, 299
The Long Christmas Ride Home (Vogel), 465
Long Day’s Journey Into Night (O’Neill)
addiction themes in, 258–259
autobiographical aspects of, 249–250, 258
Broadway debut of, 346
hopelessness and victimhood themes in, 258–259
modern drama versus melodrama arguments regarding, 161
O’Neill’s wishes regarding production of, 262n1
Tyrone family characters in, 258–259
Long Voyage Home (O’Neill), 250–251
Loomer, Lisa, 438
Loot (Orton), 459
Lorca, Federico Garcia, 358, 514
Los Dos Caras del Patroncito (El Teatro Campesino), 414
Lost!, or, The Fruits of the Glass: A Temperance Drama in Three Acts, 138
Lost in the Stars, 201
Los Vendidos (Valdez), 415, 489
Lott, Eric, 82
Loud Speaker (Lawson), 285
Louisiana Purchase, 200
Love and Friendship or Yankee Notions, 101
Love Life, 201
Lovell, Maria, 117
Love! Valour! Compassion! (McNally), 464, 466
Low, Samuel, 53
Loy, Mina, 242
Lucas, Craig, 464
Lucas, Sam, 219, 224–226, 229
“Lucy Neal,” 83
Ludlam, Charles, 460
Ludlow, Noah, 101
Ludlum, Charles, 419
Lukács, Georg, 271
Luna, James, 422
“Lynchotopia” (Liberty Deferred scene), 303–304
Lysistrata (Aristophanes), 305, 421
Mabou Mines, 358
Macaulay, Catherine, 44
Macbeth (Shakespeare), 316
Macbeth, Robert, 382
MacBird! (Garson), 416
Macgowan, Kenneth, 246, 275
Machado, Eduardo, 495
Machinal (Treadwell), 14, 273, 285, 442
Machiz, Herbert, 346
Mackaye, Percy, 236
MacKinnon, Pam, 426
Mackintosh, Cameron, 400
Macklin, Charles, 19
Macready, William Charles, 70–71
Madame Sherry, 195
The Madness of Lady Bright (Lanford Wilson), 349, 460
Maedchen in Uniform, 436
(p. 548) Maggie: A Girl of the Streets (Crane), 164
“Maggie Murphy’s Home,” 191
Magic Theatre (Omaha), 431
Magwili, Dom, 497
Mahar, William, 83–84
Mailer, Norman, 346
Maine Law (1851), 79
Major Jack Downing (antebellum character), 77–78
Mako, 497
Malina, Judith, 357–358, 409–410
Malone, Patrick, 22–23
Malthus, Thomas, 265
Maltz, Albert, 287–288, 291
Mamet, David
new realism and, 352
technology themes and, 14, 445–446
Mamma Mia! (musical), 402–403
The Mammy Project (Matlock), 438
Manhattan Theatre Club, 464
Mann, Ted, 345
The Man of the Times; or, A Scarcity of Cash (Beete), 62–63
A Man Says Goodbye to his Mother (Bread and Puppet Theatre), 411
A Man’s World (Crothers), 7–8, 186–187, 282
Manzor, Lillian, 495
Ma Rainey’s Black Bottom (August Wilson), 385, 466
Marans, Jon, 467
Marble, Danforth, 77, 101
Marching Song (Lawson), 285–287
Marco Millions (O’Neill), 253, 256, 285–286
Marcus, Frank, 459
Marcus; Or the Secret of Sweet (McCraney), 514–515, 519–520
Margaret Fleming (Herne)
commercial failure of, 177–178
realism and, 7, 178–179, 181, 238
Margolin, Deb, 436, 462
Marin, John, 235
Markoe, Peter, 46
Marrero, Maria Teresa, 495
Marriott, Sarah, 61
Martin, Helen, 319
Martin, Scott, 5, 144–145
Martin, Ted, 313
Martinez, Rogelio, 495
Marx, Karl, 265
Marx Brothers, 254
Marxism, 236, 286, 326, 334
Maryland
colonial era theatre in, 21, 24–26
Revolutionary era theatre in, 45
masculinity
African American drama and, 378–380, 383
blackface minstrelsy and, 82, 223
racial identity and, 98
in temperance dramas, 6, 132, 144–146
Vietnam War dramas and, 476
Mason, Jeffrey, 11, 141–142
Masonic Hall (New York), 152
Massachusetts
colonial era theatre in, 2, 18, 28
Revolutionary era theatre in, 41–43
The Massachusetts Spy (newspaper), 34
The Masses (newspaper), 234–236, 286
Mast, Gerald, 393, 396, 400
The Master Builder (Ibsen), 182
Matlock, Michelle, 438
Mattachine Society, 458–459, 467
Maxwell, Richard, 451
May-Day in Town (Tyler), 54
Mayer, Oliver, 497
Mayo, Lisa, 431
M. Butterfly (Hwang), 466, 493
McAllister, Marvin, 8
McCarran-Walter Act, 485–486
McCarthy, Mary, 257
McCarthyism, 344, 350
McClendon, Rose, 308, 313–314, 316
McConachie, Bruce A., 140, 165–166
McCord, Louisa, 121
McCraney, Tarell Alvin, 389, 466, 507, 514–516, 518–520
McGinley, Paige, 505, 520n4
McIver, Raphael, 315
McLuhan, Marshall, 453
McMillin, Scott, 395
McNally, Terrence, 464–466, 477
McNeil, Claudia, 379
A Medal for Willie (Branch), 12, 378
(p. 549) Meek Mose (Frank Wilson), 313, 316
Meer, Sarah, 5
melodrama
“10–20-30” theatre circuit and, 159, 163–168
in the antebellum period, 5, 67–72, 75, 78–79, 115, 122–124, 130–131
“Bowery excess” and, 162–165, 169–170
“Broadway reserve” and, 162, 165–170
criticisms of, 132, 143, 159–160, 162–164
culture of sentiment and, 132, 141–143, 145
detached spectatorship and, 164
in England, 220
escapist themes in, 80, 165
family relationship themes in, 127
middle-class identity formation and, 165–166
naturalism and, 163
New Woman theatre and, 211, 213
patriotic themes and, 71–73
performance techniques and, 167–170
popularity of, 143
realism and, 7, 144, 161, 163, 166–168, 170, 175–176, 180, 182–183, 185
rhetoric of, 159–162
self-control themes in, 140
social reform themes and, 6, 80
temperance themes and, 78–79, 136, 138–141, 144–146
threats to bodily integrity in, 139
urban themes and, 127, 133, 162–166
virtues of, 162
women’s powerlessness motif in, 122–124, 133
as worldview and mode of cultural discourse, 69, 131–132, 136–137, 141
Yankee characters in, 138–139, 142
Memoirs (Williams), 353
Menander, 181
Mendéz v. Westminster, 485
Men in White (Kingsley), 286
The Mercenary Match (Bidwell), 46
mercy (Monk and Hamilton), 500–502
Merrick, David, 402
The Merry Widow, 193, 195
Meserve, Walter J., 150, 154, 156
Metamora; or, The Last of the Wampanoags (John Augustus Stone)
commercial success of, 102
Forrest and, 5, 60, 69–70, 72, 102, 151
negative audience reaction to, 78
The Method Gun (Rude Mechanicals), 505
Mexican Hayride, 200
Mexicans. See Chicano drama
The Mexterminator (Gómez-Peña), 368–369
M’Henry, Dr., 102–103
Mickery Workshop (Netherlands), 371
Middletown (Eno), 508
Mielziner, Jo, 341
Miesel, Martin, 473
Miguel, Gloria, 431
Miguel, Muriel, 13, 431, 438
The Mikado (Gilbert and Sullivan), 192–193, 201, 305, 317
Millay, Edna St. Vincent, 9, 238, 242–243, 283
Miller, Arthur. See also specific works
Broadway and, 322–324, 327
class and capitalism themes of, 325–327, 444, 471
“common good” themes of, 292–293
criticisms of, 471
on evil, 337
Federal Theatre Project (FTP) and, 11, 338n2
government in plays of, 327, 331–333, 335–336
Great Depression and, 324–326
guilt in plays of, 329–331
homosexuality themes and, 458
HUAC and, 322, 330–333, 471, 474–475
individuality themes in plays of, 11, 328, 329–330, 336–337
leftist politics and, 11, 322, 325–326, 328, 330–334
moral questions in plays of, 325, 328–329, 337
oppression themes in plays of, 327–328
poetic realism and, 341
political drama and, 14, 322, 324–325, 336–337, 470–471, 481
on stock market crash of 1929, 325
subjective realism and, 264
technology themes and, 441–442, 444
(p. 550) on Tennessee Williams, 340–341
at University of Michigan, 325–326
World War II and, 325–326, 328
Miller, J. Hillis, 502
Miller, May, 309, 311–313
Miller, Scott, 393, 404
Miller, Tice L., 102
Miller, Tim, 360, 420, 465
Milligan, Andy, 348–349
Mills, Mister, 27
Milner, Ron, 383, 478
Mine Eyes Have Seen (Dunbar-Nelson), 312
The Minstrel Show, or Civil Rights in a Cracker Barrel, 410
minstrelsy. See blackface minstrelsy
Mississippi Rainbow, 317
Miss Julie (Strindberg), 238
Miss Lulu Bett (Gale), 282, 310
Miss Saigon, 452
Mister Roberts, 323
Mitchell, Abbie, 315
Mitchell, John Cameron, 467
Mlle. Modiste (Herbert and Blossom), 194–195
modernism
naturalism and, 265, 276
Provincetown Players and, 8, 235, 241–246
realism and, 242
sexuality and, 242–243
World War I and, 243
modernity
expressionism and, 274–275
realism and, 174–175
“The Modern Theatre Is The Epic Theatre” (Brecht), 472
Moffitt, John C., 290
Mohica, Monique, 415
Moise, Nina, 238
Molière, 181
Monk, Meredith, 500–502, 505, 510
Monroe, James, 151
Monterrey, Carlotta, 262n1
Montgomery, David, 194–195
Montgomery, Richard, 39–42
Moody, Jane, 220
Moody, John, 23
A Moon for the Misbegotten (O’Neill), 9, 249, 259–261, 504
The Moon of the Caribbees (O’Neill), 238, 251
Moos, Herman M., 105
Moraga, Cherrie, 417, 434–435, 466, 479, 495
Mordden, Ethan, 398
More Stately Mansions (O’Neill), 262n3
Morgan, Frank, 199
Morrison, Toni, 385
Morrissey, Paul, 353
Morse, Wolson, 193
Mortara; or, The Pope and His Inquisitors (Moos), 105
Morton, Carlos, 118, 478
Mose (“Bowery B’hoy”), 6, 110, 118, 154–155
Moses, Gilbert, 412
Moses, Montrose, 161–163, 168
Most, Andrea, 396, 401–402
Mother Courage (Brecht), 434, 481–482
The Motion of History (Baraka), 413
The Motley Assembly, 43–44
Mourning Becomes Electra (O’Neill), 253–255
A Movie Star Has to Star in Black and White (Kennedy), 429, 448–449
Mowatt, Anna Cora, 6, 107, 115, 117, 125–127
Moy, James, 493
Moynihan Report, 379
Mr. Smith Goes to Obscuristan, 411
Mrs. Warren’s Profession (Shaw), 175, 238
Mud (Fornés), 429–430
Mulatto (Langston Hughes), 283, 308, 314
Mule Bone (Huston and Hughes), 314
Mullen, Mark, 6, 69
Mulligan, John, 88
Mulligan Guard Musicals, 191–192
The Mulligan Guard’s Picnic, 191
The Mummified Deer (Valdez), 415
Münch-Bellinghausen, Baron von, 117
Munford, Robert, 32, 42–44
Murder in the Cathedral, 298
Murdock, John, 61–62, 218
Murphy, Brenda, 8–9, 176–177, 266
Murray, John (Lord Dunmore), 39
Murray, Judith Sargent, 51, 61, 121
Murray, Walter, 19–21
Murray-Kean Company, 19–21
Muse, Clarence, 308
(p. 551) musical drama
African American characters and themes in, 200, 224–226, 228–229
anxiety regarding viability of, 392–393, 404
audiences for, 191, 201
ballad opera and, 226
book musicals and, 12, 198, 394–398, 402
Broadway and, 12–13, 189–201, 392–405, 452
comedy and, 194–195, 197
commercial success and, 392, 402–403
concept musicals and, 201, 398–400
earliest forms of, 190–191
“golden age” of, 8, 12, 189–190, 196–201, 392–398, 402–405
importance of female characters in, 397
integrated musicals and, 8, 12, 394–396, 398–399, 402, 412
jukebox musicals and, 402–403
mass culture and, 394
megamusicals and, 400–402, 405
movicals and, 402–403
musical plays and, 198
musical revues and, 196–199
narrative structure in, 397
Off-Broadway productions and, 399
opera and, 402
operettas and, 192–195, 200
post-World War II period and, 392–405
realism in, 396–398
socially conscious plots in, 397, 399
spectacle and, 191, 194, 398, 401–402, 452
stage directions and, 398
use of technology in, 401, 452
vaudeville and, 191–192
Music Box Revues, 198
Music in the Air, 199
MuSoLit (Washington, DC), 313
My Name Is Rachel Corrie, 480
The Myopia (Greenspan), 515–516
Myrdal, Gunner, 486
Myself Bettina (Crothers), 208
Mysteries and Smaller Pieces (Living Theatre), 358
The Mystery of Irma Vep (Ludlum), 460
NAACP (National Association for the Advancement of Colored People), 283, 303, 309–310
Nachtrieb, Peter Sinn, 467
nakedness in performance, 360–363, 365, 418
The Nance (Beane), 467
Narration (Stein), 503
The Narrative of William W. Brown, 222
Nathan, George Jean, 344
Nathans, Heather, 3
Nation, Carrie, 131, 145–146
National Black Theatre, 382
National Endowment for the Arts (NEA)
budget battles regarding, 360, 364–365, 465
censorship and, 360
ethnic theatre groups and, 491
experimental theatre and, 359–362, 420
“NEA Four” and, 360–361, 420, 437, 465
Nixon’s funding for, 491
Supreme Court case regarding, 360
National Era (magazine), 86
National Negro Congress, 303
National Service Bureau, 303
National Theatre (Boston), 153
National Theatre (New York), 88, 116, 140
National Theatre (Washington), 151
National Urban League, 310, 378
Native American drama. See also Native American dramatic characters
feminist drama and, 431, 438
intra-ethic critique and, 490–491
Native American epistemology and, 490–491
Native American theatre companies and, 489
protest drama and, 13, 415, 422
Native American dramatic characters. See also Native American drama
in American Revolutionary era, 39
in antebellum era drama, 5–6, 68, 78, 101–103, 119, 126, 149–153, 157, 221, 230–232
as “doomed savages,” 59
in early republican era drama, 58–60
in experimental theatre, 357, 367–369
experimental theatre’s depiction of, 357, 367–369
as “noble savages,” 59, 78, 102
(p. 552) Native Americans
antebellum performances by, 151–152
Indian Removal Policy and, 5–6, 78, 102, 151–153
Native American Theater Ensemble (NATE), 15, 489–490
native dramatic art, 248
Native Son (novel by Richard Wright), 377
Native Son (play based on Richard Wright novel), 283, 305, 377, 379
Nat Turner (Edmonds), 315
naturalism
antiheroes and, 266, 269–270, 276
bourgeois aesthetics and, 269, 276
cultural turn in, 268
Darwinian thought and, 269
destabilization of, 351–352
double representation function and, 267–268
Dreiser and, 9, 266, 270, 273–274
European origins of, 265–266
expressionism and, 9, 271
local color and, 184, 267, 276–277
melodrama and, 163
modernism and, 265, 276
the novel and, 266, 268
O’Neill and, 7, 9, 250, 256, 268
radical aesthetics and, 271, 277
realism and, 9, 264–270
rejection of Enlightenment thought and, 265, 267
scenic detail and, 264–265, 267–270
“slice of life” and, 268, 270, 276
sociological forces’ impact on human agency and, 264–266, 269–271, 273–274, 276
working-class characters and, 9, 267, 270
Naturalism in the Theatre (Zola), 265
Natural Man (Theodore Browne), 10, 305
Nature Theater of Oklahoma, 15, 506
Naughty Marietta (Herbert), 195
“NEA Four,” 360–361, 420, 437, 465
Neal, John, 77–78
Neal, Larry, 478
Negro Art Theatre, 313–314
Negro Ensemble Company (NEC), 319, 380, 382–383
Negro History in Thirteen Plays, 309
Negro Intercollegiate Dramatic Association, 315
Negro Playwrights Theatre (New York), 377
Negro Units. See under Federal Theatre Project (FTP)
Neighbor Jackwood (Trowbridge), 94, 108
New American Company, 27
“The New Aspect of the Woman Question” (Grand), 203
New Georges (theatre company), 420, 438–439
New Hampshire, colonial era theatre in, 27
New Lafayette Theatre (Harlem), 380, 382
New London (Connecticut), 249
The New Moon, 197
New Negro drama (interwar period), 282–283
New Negro Man, 204
New Negro Woman. See under New Woman drama
Newport (Rhode Island), 25
new realism. See under realism
New Woman
afterlife and legacy of, 213–214
“American Girl” and, 203
in China, 213
class identity issues and, 203–204
as dramatic author, 206–208
dramatic depictions of, 204–208, 211, 214, 282
and Empire, 212
in England, 204–210, 212, 215
feminism and, 207, 212–215
“Gibson Girl” and, 203
Ibsenite version of, 204–206, 211
independent-minded characters and, 8, 206
in Korea, 213
“marriage trade” and, 207–209, 211
melodrama and, 211, 213
New Negro Woman and, 204, 210, 212, 214
notions of women’s service and, 203, 211
Punch magazine illustrations and, 213
realist drama and, 205, 208
recent scholarly approaches to, 212–213
sexuality and, 212–213, 215
stage parody and, 209
(p. 553) as suffragist/suffragette, 203, 209–211, 213–215
as theatre producer and director, 205, 208–209
as theatre spectator, 204–205, 209
versus “Victorian True Woman,” 203, 212
women’s appearance and, 203
The New Woman (Grundy), 209
The New Woman and the Empire (Jusová), 212
New Woman Strategies (Heilmann), 212
The New World (Read), 118, 123
New York City. See also The Bowery; Broadway; Greenwich Village; Harlem
Astor Place Riot (1849) in, 70–71, 83
colonial era theatre in, 17–20, 22, 24–26, 28–29
Federal Theatre Project (FTP) in, 316
revolutionary era theatre in, 45, 47
The New Yorkers, 199
Nichols, Harold J., 149
Nickel and Dimed (Holden), 438
Nick of the Woods; or, Telie, the Renegade’s Daughter (Medina), 116, 125, 152
Nietzsche, Friedrich, 245, 265
The Nigger (Sheldon), 185, 310
‘night, Mother (Norman), 433
Night of the Auk (Oboler), 447
Nixon, Richard, 491
No, No, Nanette, 197, 201
Noah, Mordecai, 100–101, 104
No Dice (Nature Theater of Oklahoma), 506
No Exit (Sartre), 459
No Go the Bogeyman (Marina Warner), 501
NoPassport Press, 497
Nordfeldt, Brör, 235, 237–238, 241
Nordfeldt, Margaret, 237–238
Norford, George, 316
The Normal Heart (Kramer), 419, 464, 477
Norman, Marsha, 13, 352, 433–434, 479
Norris, Bruce, 379
Norris, Frank, 266
Norris-La Guardia Act, 338n9
North Carolina, colonial era theatre in, 27
No Time for Comedy (Behrman), 292
Not in My Name (Living Theatre), 410
Not in Our Name, 420
Nottage, Lynn, 14, 214, 425–426, 434, 465, 481–482
Novak, Robert, 362
No Villain (Miller), 325
Nuñez, Alejandra, 415
Nurnberg, Maxwell, 298–299
Nuyorican playwrights, 495
Oakland Gardens (Boston), 225
Obama, Barack, 375, 389
Obi, 85
Oboler, Arch, 447
O’Brien, Joe, 235
O’Casey, Seán, 327–328, 481
Octavia Bragaldi (Barnes Conner), 116, 123, 125, 127
The Octoroon; or, Life in Louisiana (Boucicault)
blackface minstrelsy elements in, 94
pro- and anti-slavery readings of, 79, 471
Yankee character in, 108
The Odd Women (Gissing), 213
Odell, George C.D., 117–119, 150, 152
Odets, Clifford
agitational-propaganda dramatic elements and, 287, 474
anti-capitalism themes of, 297
Communist Party and, 286
labor themes of, 11, 287, 293, 326–327, 408, 474–475
on political drama, 280
realism and, 173, 175–176
Oedipus at Palm Springs (WOW), 462
Off- and Off-Off-Broadway theatre
African American drama and, 320, 382
anti-war mobilization and, 420–421
feminist drama and, 428–429, 431
in Greenwich Village, 345–347, 459–460
of LGBT drama, 459–461, 464–466
musical drama and, 201
O’Neill and, 346–347
Theatre of the Absurd and, 347
Williams and, 11, 341, 345, 347–349, 353, 459
Offenbach, Jacques, 191–192
Of Thee I Sing (George & Ira Gershwin), 193, 199–200
(p. 554) Oh, Boy!, 195
Oh, Kay!, 197
Oh, Lady! Lady!!, 195
Oh, the Humanity and other good intentions (Eno), 508
“Oh, Promise Me,” 194
O’Hara, John, 200
Oh Hush! or, The Virginny Cupids!, 84
O’Keefe, John, 55
Oklahoma! (Rodgers and Hammerstein)
commercial success of, 323, 402
seminal influence of, 198, 200–201, 392, 394–397
The Old American Company. See The American Company
“Old Kentucky Home,” 226, 229
Old New York; or, Democracy in 1689 (Elizabeth Oakes Smith), 119, 123–125
Oliver, Peter, 35
Oliver Winemiller (Williams character in “One Arm”), 347–350
O’Neal, Frederick, 305, 318–319
O’Neal, John, 412
“One Arm” (Williams), 348–350, 353
O’Neill, Eugene. See also specific works
African American characters and themes of, 245, 309
alcoholism themes and, 9, 256–257
“A Tale of Possessors Self-Dispossessed” (play cycle), 256
autobiographically oriented dramas of, 249–250, 255–256, 258
Baker and, 184
Broadway productions of, 346
capitalism and class themes of, 252–253, 256, 281, 285–286
commercial success of, 9, 238, 246, 251–252
destiny themes and, 251–252
drama of souls and, 253
European realists and, 173, 238–239, 261
experimentalism of, 9, 251–254, 259
Experimental Theatre, Inc. (ETI) and, 246
expressionism and, 244–245, 252, 272–273
family themes and, 250–251, 253, 255–256, 258–261
Freudian unconscious and, 254
Greek tragedy and, 253–254
“hopeless hope” and, 248–249, 255, 258
on human condition, 252–253, 256–258
humor and comedy of, 255, 260
imaginative theatre and, 253
Irish themes and, 256
ironic fate and, 250–251, 260
Kushner on, 261–262
“life lie” theme and, 257–258
masks and, 253–254
narrative technique and, 504
naturalism and, 7, 9, 250, 256, 268
Nobel Prize and, 255
Off-Broadway productions of, 346–347
one-act plays of, 250–251
Provincetown Players and, 8–9, 237–238, 244, 246, 248
Pulitzer Prizes and, 249, 252, 254
racial themes and, 252–253, 283
realism versus melodrama debates regarding, 161–162
suicide attempt of, 249–250
Tao House and, 255–257
Theatre of the Absurd and, 261
tuberculosis and, 9, 173, 249–250
O’Neill, James, 251, 256
O’Neill, Jamie, 260
One-Third of a Nation, 297, 300–302, 304
One Touch of Venus, 200
On Striver’s Row (Abram Hill), 305, 319
On The Town, 200
Ontological-Hysteric Theatre, 358
On Whitman Avenue, 305
On Your Toes, 199–200
Open Theatre, 357, 416, 430
opera, 402, 492
“Operation First Casualty” (Iraq Veterans against the War), 421
Operation Rapid American Withdrawal (Vietnam Veterans Against War), 416–417
Opportunity magazine, 310–311
Ordway’s Aeolians (Boston), 88
The Oresteia (Aeschylus), 181, 254
Original Georgia Minstrels, 225
Ormond Grosvenor (Hale), 118
(p. 555) Ortiz, Fernando, 493
Orton, Joe, 459
Osborne, John, 459
Ossawatomie Brown; or, The Insurrection at Harper’s Ferry (Swayze), 117, 127
Othello (Shakespeare), 46, 82
Others (magazine), 242
The Other Side of Silence (TOSOS), 461
Otis, James Jr., 34–35
Otis, James Sr., 34
Ourselves (Crothers), 209
Our Town (Wilder), 276, 353
The Outlaw (Eliza Gabriella Lewis), 120, 125
Out of Bondage (Bradford), 8, 219, 224–227, 229
Overtones (Gerstenberg), 273–274, 276
The Owl Answers (Kennedy), 429
The Oxcart (Marqués), 487
Paca, William, 30
The Padlock, 82
Page, Geraldine, 346
Paine, Thomas, 41
Painting Churches (Howe), 433
Pal Joey (O’Hara, Rodgers, and Hart), 200
Panama Hattie, 200
Pan Asian Repertory Theater, 489, 491
Panyared (Allison), 304
Pao, Angela, 497
Papp, Joe, 383, 432
Parade, 288
Paradise Lost (Odets), 287
Paradise Now (Living Theatre), 409
Parke, John, 45
Parks, Suzan-Lori
African American family themes and, 12, 387–388
feminist drama and, 13, 434–435, 439
Kennedy’s influence on, 381
medical discourse themes and, 426, 443
“post-black drama” and, 389
Park Theatre (New York), 117, 119
The Passing Show, 192–193, 196
The Past Is Past (Wesley), 383
Paterson Strike Pageant, 235–236, 408
Patrick, Robert, 347–349, 460, 462
The Patriot, 101
Patriot Chief (Markoe), 46
A Patriot for Me (Osborne), 459
The Patriots (Kingsley), 292
The Patriots (Munford), 42–43
Patterson, Charles, 413, 478
Patterson, Martha, 212
Patterson, Michael, 271–273
Paulding, James Kirke, 150–151
Paulus, Diane, 426
Payne, John Howard, qq
Peace on Earth (Sklar and Maltz), 291
Peale, Charles Wilson, 25, 30
Peale’s Museum (New York), 152
Peck, Jabez, 52
Peculiar Sam; or the Underground Railroad (Pauline Hopkins), 8, 219, 225, 227–230
Pederson, Jay, 266, 268
Pelby, William, 119
Pencak, William, 103
Pennsylvania, colonial era theatre in, 18, 22, 24–26, 28
The People’s Lawyer, or Solon Shingle (Jones), 101, 153–154
Pepper, George, 105–106
A Perfect Relationship (Doric Wilson), 462
Perkins, Kathy, 10–11, 496
The Persians (Aeschylus), 471
Peters, Julie Stone, 520n3
Peters, Paul, 283, 288, 338n8
“Peter’s Journey,” 200
Peterson, Louis, 378
Petrified Forest (Sherwood), 290
Phantom of the Opera (Webber), 190, 201, 401
Philadelphia (Pennsylvania)
colonial era theatre in, 18, 22, 24–26, 28
early Republic era theatre in, 57
Revolutionary era theatre in, 44–45
Phillips, Jonas B., 104
The Piano Lesson (August Wilson), 12, 385–387
Pilgrimage (Sakamoto), 497
Piñero, Miguel, 490
Ping Chong & Company, 358, 370–371
The Pink Lady, 195
Pins and Needles, 199, 288
Pinter, Harold, 420
(p. 556) The Pirates of Penzance (Gilbert and Sullivan), 192
Piscator, Erwin, 286, 409, 452
Pitt, William the Elder, 39
Pizarro (Sheridan), 230
Pizer, Donald, 266, 268
Playhouse of the Ridiculous, 419
“Plays” (Gertrude Stein lecture), 502–503
Plays and Pageants from the Life of the Negro, 309
Plays of Negro Life, 309
Plays of the Natural and the Supernatural (Dreiser), 273
Pocahontas, dramatic depictions of, 59, 116, 126, 151–152
Pocahontas; or, The Settlers of Virginia (Custis), 101, 151–152, 415
Pocha Nostra, 358, 367
Poe, Edgar Allen, 117
Pogson, Sarah, 57–58, 121
Poitier, Sidney, 305, 319, 378–379
political drama. See also protest drama
absurdism and, 473–474, 481
African Americans and, 282–283, 290
agit-prop and, 408, 413, 474, 477
American international intervention themes in, 281, 283–284, 292
American political system themes and, 289
anticapitalist themes in, 280–281,